Business English

Курс ділової англійської мови

В.О. Лапочка



В.О.Лапочка. Курс ділової англійської мови: Навчально-методичний посібник для практичних занять та самостійної роботи студентів. Полтава, 2010. - 72 c.


Кононенко В.В., канд. істор. наук, доцент кафедри романо-германської філології ПНПУ

Сирота О.В., канд. філолог. наук, доцент кафедри перекладу ПІЕП.

Навчально-методичний посібник містить матеріали практичних занять з курсу Ділова англійська мова та короткий конспективний виклад матеріалу, який студенти повинні засвоїти як мінімум з вказаного курсу, а також завдання, що виконуються під час практичних занять та самостійної роботи студентів. Матеріал викладено у відповідності до програми цього предмету. Посібник є другим, доповненим і переробленим, варіантом, в якому зокрема було розширено теоритичну частину, замінено деякі тексти уроків, включено нові вправи і завдання та додатки.

Посібник розрахований на студентів спеціальності Філологія. Мова та література (англійська, німецька). Його мета - допомогти студентам самостійно підготуватися до практичних занять та семінарів, засвоїти зразки перекладу ділових паперів і використовувати набуті знання та навички у практичній діяльності.


Part 1. Business English and its Characteristic Features

Generals. Ukraine is located in the centre of the European continent and its geographical position has always been very favourable for foreign trade and policy. Our foreign trade had its ups and downs. However nowadays no country can exist isolated and Ukraine is no exception. The growing interest towards the development of foreign relations is only natural. In this connection we witness an ever increasing interest to business language, business communication. This interest is displayed on all levels: from an individual businessman to the Ministry of Higher and secondary Education: business language is now taught as a a logical result of those changes which have taken place in the country, the changes which oriented our economy towards foreign partners and markets. Business language exists not of its own but as a part (component) of the strategy of business. In many works on the problems of business negotiations language forms have been treated as an inseparable part of the general strategy of business negotiations process and general business quite understandable because we realize that business language like a language of any other special field of human activities - space exploration, medicine, physics, military science, etc. is absolutely specific, i.e. it has its logic and characteristic terminology, specific word-combinations and patterns as well as its own style. From the linguistic point of view genres or styles of speech coincide in all languages because they are defined according to similar or identical criteria. If we take, for example scientific style, we can see that its vocabulary consists of 90% of terms and 10% or even less of phraseological units. Within the course of lexicology we learned that there exist different styles or genres of speech and different scientists define those styles in different ways, but they coinside in different languages. And the task of the translator is to render the style of the document adequately.a cursory glance at business documents shows that we have to deal in this case with a combination of styles. A certain merging of styles takes place and business language may serve an example of that phenomenon.Official or business language embraces documents, commercial correspondence, acts and laws, materials of conferences and negotiations, specifications, equipment manuals and everyday speech situations, in other words, we will find here legal, scientific, technical and everyday speech characteristics.

Another general peculiarity is that business language is explicit, concise and exact. This is expressed in the syntactical and lexical units used in business language: the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle, the Passive Voice (67% against 2% in literary writings), nouns are used as attributes in pre-position in 62% against 37% of literary writings, etc. Translators/ interpreters dealing with this kind of materials should bear in mind that their translation must be absolutely exact because it is often used as the basis for some very important decisions; it ensures the authenticity of the texts of treaties, agreements, contracts, etc. This fact naturally dictates the choice of methods and means of translation. Here we can see the tendency to render not only the meaning and general style but even the wording of the original text, some places of which may seem unimportant, purely formal at first glance.another general characteristic feature of official and business language is that it is void of emotional or expressive colouring. Business English has its own peculiar emotional colouring but it cannot be transferred mechanically into the Ukrainan/Russian languages. Translators/ interpreters must remember it at all times and even more so because the Ukrainian or Russian business languages are more impersonal and official. In other words we have to neutralize the English units in the process of translation.mother company bore a daughter in the Far East, granted her a dowry of 2,000,000 pounds sterling and christened her…sentence can be translated only as: Ця компанія організувала на Далекому Сході дочерню компанію і виділила їй капітал у 2 млн. фунтів стерлінгів; нова компанія була названа... author did not aim to introduce any emotional colouring into the text. We find this figurativeness of speech in many English terms and terminological word-combinations: hot atom радіоактивний атом, to label мітити радіоактивним ізотопом, breathing jet engine повітряно-реактивний двигун, 3900-5500m abyss, зона мовчання dead space, запобіжна деталь fool-proof part, рятувальний жилет Mae West, літак, планер flying coffin. Sometimes we can even find idiomatic word-combinations in English business writings:.Germany`s Siemens AG, a heavyweight in medical electronics… new bipolar approach can become a real Cinderella in the production… impressive is the mushrooming influence of these devices on designs of microchips.designers are up to their old tricks again.are cooking up a new generation of large-scale-integrated devices.idioms are also rendered with the help of neutral Ukrainian/Russian units.are the most general peculiarities of Business English while specific lexical peculiarities are: terms and terminological word-combination/words and words of general vocabulary with new meanings (neologisms), abbreviations, borrowings, traditional patterns or cliches, systems of weights and measures, etc.

Terms or terminological word-combinations. The most obvious peculiarity of Business English is a wide usage of terms or terminological word-combinations. Terms are words or word-combinations usually defined as monosemantic which have strictly specified meaning in this or that field of human activities. They can designate or describe notions, processes and names of things found there. To correctly understand the meaning of a particular term the translator must know the field of human activities to which the term belongs. Any term must be analysed as a word with a fixed technical meaning which however can change its content in the context of a particular field of human activities. Morphologically terms can be divided into:

. simple - circuit ланцюг, feeder фідер, invoice рахунок-фактура;

. compound - flywheel маховик, clock-work часовий механізм, deadline останній строк;

. terminological word-combinations - load governor регулятор потужності, earth fault замикання на землю, to delay delivery затримати поставку, competitive company конкурентноспроможна компанія.

Scientific and technical terms include:

. Many words of the general vocabulary that acquire the meanings specific for a certain field of science or technology. In this case the meaning of the term becomes one of the meanings of the word: shoe туфля has several technical meanings - кулісний камень, ползун, кінцева муфта кабеля, ріжучий башмак опускної крепі, грохот; arm рука is used in a specific meaning ричаг, кронштейн, стріла, спина, коса розпорка, рукав; pin болт, чека, палець, штирь, нагель, шпілька, булавка, штіфт, цапфа, шкворень, ось, шійка, пята, шплінт. Other examples of this process are: flywheel маховик; monkey баба (для забівки свай); horse рама; pig болванка, чушка; frog хрестовина; bush втулка, stiff leg жорстка опора, deadline останній строк.

. General terms used in several fields of science and technology: power amplifier cервопідсилювач підсилювач потужності; rectifier ректифікатор, очисник; детектор; бурав для запальних шнурів; e-mail електронна пошта.

. Special terms that are used only in one field of science or technology: transformer трансформатор, diesel locomotive тепловоз, impedance імпеданс, interlocker централізаційний апарат, availability of goods наявність товарів.

. Terms used in different fields of science or technology that have two or more meanings: current density плотність потоку, плотність току; level рівень, нивелір, підйом. / interpreters must remember that today with the increased specialization of all sectors of human life due to technical and scientific progress, the problem of understanding and rendering terminology has to be addressed in somewhat new dimension for terms may have several meanings in different sectors or subject fields of human activities: valve клапан (machine building), електронна лампа (radio); power потужність, енергія (physics), ступінь (mathematics); yield доход від цінних паперів (finance), врожайність, врожай (agriculture), продуктивність (industry), видобуток (extraction of natural resources), вихід (processing industry), осідання (mining), потужність, тротиловий еквівалент вибухівки (military), пружинити (engineering). All the meanings of table are even hard to count.

Abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviations are widely used in Business English and they can be of the following types:

) letter abbreviations: E. = east; R. = railway; e. m. f. = electromotive force; LOC = letter of commitment; h. a. = hoc anno; CD =compact disc; EU = European Union; GDP = gross domestic product; f. o. b. = free on board; ac = account current; MP = Member of Parliament (MEP);

) syllable abbreviations: maxcap = maximum capacity, radsta = radio station, intercom = intercommunication, biopic = biographical picture;

) mixed: N-bomb = nitrogen bomb, H-bomb = hydrogen bomb, CP-1=Chicago Pile#1, A-pole;

) contractions: inv = invoice, ref. = reference, tox. = toxic, mag. = magazine, Pool = Liverpool, Sac = Sacramento, Chi. = Chicago, camp. = campaign, ciggy = cigar, deli = delicatessen, limo = limousine, teeny = teenager, in. = inch, sub = subject, subeditor, sublimation, submarine, subscription.can be roughly grouped into: 1) аbbreviations of terms and terminological word-combinations; 2) geographical names; 3) names of companies and organizations.

Geographical names can be names of countries, their administrative divisions respectively, or localities: UK United Kingdom, G.B. Great Britain, USA United States of America, Ua Ukraine, Col. Colorado, Mo Missouri, PA Pensylvania, Ont. Ontario, Beds. Bedfordshire, Glos. Gloustershire, Ches. Cheshire, W. Wales, R.I. Rhode Island, C.I. Channel Islands, DC District of Columbia.the abbreviations of geographical names we often find the abbreviations of names of organizations, companies, etc: UPI United Press International, UNO United Nations Organization, ECM European Common Market, EU European Union, IMF International Monetary Fund, ВПК військово промисловий комплекс,NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consulting Organization, ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization, InterCom 2007; BBC British Broadcasting Corporation, BEA British Air Ways, ICI Imperial Chemical Industries, GM General Motors, Nabisco National Biscuit Corporation, CAT Caterpillar, Свема Светочувствительные материалы, BrStd British Standard. the process of translation we should remember that these abbreviations, most of them at least, have traditional or official equivalents in our language which must be used in the translation text: GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - ГАТТ Генеральна угода про тарифи та торгівлю, IMF International Monetary Fund - Світовий Валютний Фонд.

In those cases when the names of the organizations, companies have no traditional or official equivalents in our language the translator/interpreter can give the full translation of the name according to the rules of translation of equivalent-lacking units.must also remember that most abbreviations can have several meanings:

a has up to 30 meanings: acceleration, absolute, accomodation, administration, aircraft, ampere, amplitude, angstrom, anode, area, atom, automobile, etc.; am above mentioned, ante meridian; av according to value(по вартості), acid value( кислотне число), actual velocity(дійсна швидкість), atomic volume(атомна ємність); ASA American Standards Association, Acoustical Society of America, Atomic Scientists Association (UK), Advertising Standards Authority (UK); RTC Railway Transport Corps, Recruit Training Centre, Reserve Training Corps, Royal Tanks Corps. every particular case we must be absolutely sure what meaning is used and only the context gives the answer and helps to choose it adequately.

Borrowings. Borrowings are a characteristic feature of the English language in general and of special writings in particular. So it is natural for scientific, technical and business writings to have a great number of borrowings from Latin, French, German and other languages in their original form. Generally speaking translators should preserve the part of the original text given in a foreign language unchanged in the translation text but that holds true only for literary translation. In the Ukrainian business language these patterns are rarely used and will not be understood by the receptors. That is why they are translated more often than not. There exists only a small group of such word-combinations which are traditionally known and used in this country: status quo, quorum, persona grata (non grata), terra incognita, tabula rasa, honoris causa, homo sapiens, de facto, de jure.we compare English and Ukrainian original texts, we will notice a great number of Latin and French words and word-combinations in English documents such as: fait accompli факт, що стався, condition sine qua non обов`язкова умова, mutatis mutandis з відповідними змінами, error facti фактична помилка, par excellence за перевагою, modus vivendi тимчасове рішення, modus operandi спосіб дій, ad hoc специальный, bona fide чистосердно/дійсно, per capita на душу населення, versus проти, ultima ratio головна підстава.meanings of these units can be found in special dictionaries and reference literature.

Traditional patterns. It became generally accepted practice to use traditional patterns in scientific, technical and business writings. Some of these traditional patterns have been created for many years and that is why they have sometimes somewhat archaic colouring: aforesaid, above-mentioned, hereby, hereinafter named, herein, henceforth. As a result we have many word-combinations and patterns (literally translated) which would be absolutely unacceptable in the process of translation of other styles and genres.They happen especially often in different international documents: treaties, agreements, contracts, letters, etc. and the translator / interpreter must know and use them in his translations to bar the possibility of misreading or misinterpretation of the document.patterns are simply functional but also used very widely: in terms of за рахунок / використовуючи, in order to з метою, in question / at issue яке розглядається, in the course of time з часом, on the part з чієгось боку, due to завдяки, provided that за умови, що, in centers між центрами, to turn as far as it will go повернути до упору.

Grammar peculiarities. Among these we should bear in mind a wide usage of non-finite forms of verbs (the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle) and structures with them, of the Passive Voice structures, very long and complicated sentence structures, nouns used as attributes in pre-position in word-combinations, omission of some grammatical elements(articles, auxiliary verbs) in certain documents.

2. Business documents

of business

Business is the word that is commonly used in different languages. But exactly what does it mean? Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today one of the possible definitions of business is production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for profit. To examine this definition, we will look at its various parts.

First, production is creation of services or changing of materials into products. One example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next, these products need to be moved from the factory to the market place. This is known as distribution.

Third is sale of goods and services. Sale is exchange of products or services for money. Goods are products that people either need or want; for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities that people or groups perform for other people or organizations. For example, an auto mechanic performs services when he repairs a car., then, is а combination of аll these activities: production, distribution, and sale. However, there is one more important factor. This factor is creation of profit or economic surplus. А major goal in functioning of а business is making profit.Profit is а difference between the price charged for an item and the cost of the item to the seller: profit = price -, profit is most frequently considered in terms of net or retained profit. This is the amount of money left over at the end of the financial year when аll the expenses are paid: net profit = revenue - total sometimes referred to as а turnover, sales, or income. It refers to the total sales over а period of time (often а month or а year). It can be expressed as: revenue = price x quantity. So, the price charged multiplied by the number of units sold over а period of time is the total sales value, or revenue., contrary to а popular belief, is rarely used to line the pockets of the owners of а business. It is used instead for reinvestments, buying of new machinery, and improving of the future prospects of the an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. Originally the word career meant road or path; today it means a progress through life or a job path. There are four broad fields, or areas, of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, and finance. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing one can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distributing. The table below shows general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business.

Fields and Careers:

Management general manager production manager personnel managerMarketing researcher advertiser distributorAccounting bookkeeper private accountant public accountantFinance banker financial analyst stockbrokerin businesses and offices range from administration to general clerical work.These jobs exist in both small and large companies. Some typical occupations are cashier, purchasing agent, typist, and complaint clerk. This cluster includes word processing, accounting and financial detail, management, personnel, and materials and product handling. Although most jobs are done indoors, mail carriers and material handlers often work outside. A lot of occupations - managers, accountants, analysts - require higher education, others like secretaries and clerks - at least secondary school.choosing a business career, there are several questions one may want to ask. Firstly, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as salary, a chance for advancement, and demand for the job? Answers to these questions and careful planning will help you to choose a successful career in business.

Learn the following words and word-combinations

surplus - (неразподілений) прибуток;

to charge а price - призначати ціну;

retained profit - неразподілений прибуток;

revenue - валовий прибуток, річний прибуток;

total costs - загальні витрати;

turnover - оберт, оборачиваемость (капиталу);

total sales - загальний обсяг продажу;

to line the pockets - привласнити.

Answer the questions on the text

1. What is the traditional definition of business?

. What is one of the modern definitions of business?

. What areas and activities does business embrace?

. What does production involve? Give examples: а) from the text; b) of your own.

. What does sale mean?

. Can we consider services as goods?

. What is the most important factor in business?

. What is profit?

. How can companies dispose of their profits?

. What are the principal fields of business?

Substitute the following definitions with the words listed below

Business, revenue, goods, distribution, services, marketplace, net profit, production, price, a business.

1) money charged for an item of goods;

2) commercial company;

) producing, buying, and selling of goods and services for profit;

) manufacturing of raw materials into finished products;

) money left over when all expenses are paid;

) products that people either need or want to purchase;

) movement of finished products from the factory to the marketplace;

) public place where people buy and sell goods;

) activities that people or groups perform for other people or organizations;

) income received during a particular period.

Classify the following items either as goods or services. Compare your results with other students. Motivate your point of view

advertising agency; letter delivery; personal banking; insurance; office computer system; airline ticket; software; TV commercial; dictionary; coffee maker; customs clearance; sports club shipment; french fries; home security system.

Classification of organization cultures

(After Prof С.Handy)

1.Power Cultures (силовий тип відносин).

In these cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self development provides the basis of relations. Managers success is related to his / her charisma and influence, rather than to his / her knowledge andexperience. The style of the chief executive is the model for оthег managers. In organizations of this type managers shall be tough-minded and aggressive.

2.Role Cultures (ролєвий тип).

In these cultures managers role is completely related to his / herplace within а cenralized system. His / her success depends on how well this manager adheres to rules, procedures, and precedents.and aggression are not valued in these cultures. Employees in these organizations should not get out of the limits of their roles.

3.Task Cultures (тип відносин, спрямований на виконання завдань).

In organizations of this type they value everything that makes it possible to get the work done. The main concern in these organizations is with successful fulfilment оf their projects. Managers success is related to his / her knowledge and experience required to achieve tasks, rather than to meet the requirements of his / her role.

4.Individual Cultures (відносини індивідуальностей).

In organizations of this type the most possible freedom of expression is valued. Effectiveness of any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the activity satisfies the staff, rather than by how well it conforms to business plans. Independence, creativity, and experiment are also valued in these organizations.

Look at the business card and answer the following questions

CONTINENTAL EQUIPMENT John G.Smith Financial Director 9 North Road, Brighton, ВNI 5JF, England Phone: (0273) 543359 Fax: (0273) 559364

Whose card is this?is he?company is he from?city is he from?is his telephone number?is the address of his company?

Make up your own business card.

Complete the dialogue between the Managing Director (MD) and the Personnel Manager (PM), choosing from the list of words below

sales, MBA, how to take decisions, accounting for managers, communications, distribution, specialized management-training courses, results, new technology, cost & price decisions, manage, promotion & marketing, learn about management structures, read the balance sheet, computer systems: John, we must think about (1) ________ for our junior managers. : Yes, our promising younger people need to (2) ________.

MD: They need to know (3) ________ and the (4) ________ of these decisions.: And, of course, (5) _________ is essential.they must know how to (6) _______.: Without it, they will never (7) _______ successfully, and they won`t know anything about stock control, costing, pricing... you name it. : Yes, (8) _______ depend on knowing this. : Of course, that's not the only thing they need to know. (9) _______ means that they need to know about things like (10) _______.

PM: What else?: (11) _______, for example.: Yes, and I think that the (12) _______ departments need managers with this background, as well as the (13) _______ department.: Even the (14) _______ managers could benefit, too.: Perhaps we should only appoint managers with a Harvard (15) _______!

Watch BBC Business Course, unit Meeting a Partner, make up your own dialogues.hunt. Advice for job seekers

(By Robert M. Hochheiser)

Whether you are out of work or just looking for a better-paying opportunity, there is no such thing as a foolproof way to get hired. You can, however, boost your chances іf you are willing to work hard at aggressively promoting yourself. Here are some quantity. Oil people know that to get a gusher they have to drill a lot of holes. As a job-seeker, you must operate the same way. To get an offer for a good job, you must be prepared to apply (one at a time) to an army of potential employers. If you are sending fewer than several dozen applications every week, you're not trying hard enough. For if you dont make the contacts, someone else will. Aside from going after every advertised job appropriate to your field, make yourself known to recruiters and employment agencies.your sales pitch to the reader. With the exception of companies looking for a trainee or a corporate president, few employers will be interested in a well-rounded jack-of-all-trades. Usually, prospective bosses will be impressed only if your skills, achievements, educational background and experience are first rate and directly applicable to the specific job they want to be done as well as to their specific business. They don't care about anything else. When you include in a resume or letter information that is not pertinent, you waste space that you could otherwise use to focus on job-related strengths. You also waste the readers time, an accomplishment that never makes a good impression.t promise to deliver more than the employer requires. If employers want more, theyll ask for it. Should you offer too much or your claims be too extravagant, you may be viewed as either a dreamer or someone who pursues unrealistic goals. Similarly, if you look too good on paper, the reader may erroneously conclude that your salary requirements are too high or that you would not be satisfied with the job for long.

They may be right. Perhaps the job is not a good one for you. But why prejudge? Dont oversell, get your foot in the door and decide for yourself.

Learn the following words and word-combinations:

foolproof - простий;

to boost - різко збільшувати, підвищувати;

gusher - нафтовий фонтан;

pitch - рівень;

jack-of-all-trades - майстер на всі руки;

specific - конкретний;

pertinent - відповідний, по суті;

strengths - позитивні якості;

claim - вимога;

to pursue - мати на меті;

erroneously - помилково;

requirement - вимога, умова;

Interpret the following phrases; give their adequate translation.

1. Apply in quantity.

2. Tailor your sales pitch to the reader.

3. Dont oversеll, get your foot in the door and decide for yourself.

Match the synonyms:

1) character traitsа) friendly2) talentb) dynamic3) trainedc) resourceful4) reliabled) flexible5) experte) tolerant6) energeticf) personality7) diplomaticg). responsible8) well-wishingh) self-evaluationRead the passage and study the job abbreviations below refer to them in the next task:Abbreviations(ads) for employment appear in all the media including radio, television, and Internet. However, newspapers and magazines are usually the main source for vacancies. Most ads use abbreviated forms to announce conditions of employment, especially in the small ad section for appointments, e.g.: Wntd sec. full-time for smll mnfg co. Gd slry. 5-day week, hrs 9-5 usl bnfts (Wanted secretary for full-time employment for small manufacturing company. Good salary, five days a week, hours of work 09.00 to 17.00, and the usual benefits in terms of conditions and holidays.)abbreviations that might appear include clk (clerk), accnts (accounts), mngr (manager), asst (assistant), DOE (depends on experience), dr. lic. (driving licence), EOE (Equal opportunity employer), Nego (negotiable), PA (Personal Assistant), PC (personal computer), PR (public relations), Refs (references), w.p.m. (words per minute) and vacs (vacations). Terms like M/m (male) and F/f (female), are no longer permitted by law in the UK.

Complete the letter from Jane, a young secretary, to her friend Susan. Choose from the words listed below:

shorthand, minutes, memos, petty cash, diary, notebook, post book, proof reading, audio typing, typing, screen, word processor, letters, typewriter.Susan,, Ive got the job! And I seem to need most of the things I learned in College.wanted to know my (l) ______ and (2) ______ speeds, and what kind of a (3) ______ I was used to, and whether I could use a (4) ______ as well. Because my boss, Mr. Sutherland, is away from the office a lot he often dictates on to a cassette tape, so they wanted to know if I could manage (5) ______.But they also gave me a shorthand (6) ______. They explained that I will often be making appointments for Mr. Sutherland, so I must keep his (7) ______. Ill also be typing his correspondence and when he is away I may have to sign some of his (8) ______ Ill also be responsible for circulating (9) ______ to other members of the staff, and when I go to meetings Ill be taking the (10) ______. Because Ill be buying the stamps and coffee and so on, Ill deal with the (11) ______ and keep the (12) ______. They also want me to (13) ______ callers to the office, so that Mr. Sutherland doesnt get disturbed when hes busy. And Ill have to do some (14) ______ (of catalogues, press releases, and things like that). So I think Ill keep busy!all sounds fascinating, and Im terribly excited!,.

Read the ads or mini-resumes. Choose the most appropriate for you. Use it as a pattern for your own mini-resume.

Without work experience: Office manager/administrator Lady, 27, linguistic education, English, French, German, PC, responsible, able to learn, is looking for a job in a foreign company assistant to executive bodies. as a manager, secretary, personal Tel. 513-24-76.With work experience: Office manager/administrator F, 23, higher education, English, PC skills, work experience as office manager, hard-working, ability to learn fast, seeks an employment as a secretary, office-manager. Tel.: 442-0621, ask Olga.Secretary/receptionist F, University degree, PC, ftuent English, good German, Russian, Looking for the position of receptionist, secretary. Ability to learn, Call Tatyana. Tel. 228-4415Secretary/receptionist Lady, 22, University degree in foreign languages and management, good English, German, PC skills. Experience as secretary / translator. Tel. 417-65-27

Application Letter

The application letter (sometimes called a cover letter because it is sent with a C.V. in the same envelope) is aimed at getting a job interview.are two types of application letters. A solicited application letter is sent to a definite, or announced, job opening. An unsolicited or prospecting letter is one sent to а company that has not announced an opening. The objectives of an application letter are:

- to get attention;

- to introduce qualifications;

- to present evidence;

- to encourage action., your application letter will represent you to the employer. If several applicants have the same qualifications, опlу those writing impressive letters will be interviewed.

Sample of a Cover Letter

Mark Diamond

Pine Street, #K-13 , PA 19143 . I-(215)-748-3037. Marinichenko, President, AEROSVIT

Gogol Street, 111234, Kyiv, Ukraine2, 1992Mr. Marinichenko,am a first-year student In the M.B.A, program at the Wharton Business School in Philadelphia.understand that you are heading an independent Ukrainian airline. I have heard from my friend Mr. Bill Eastmann, a student at Duke Universitys Fuqua School of Business that you might wish to have an American M.B.A. student work with your airline this summer as an intern. I am very interested in the possibility of such an internship during the summer of 1992.professional experience has given me an in-depth knowledge of the air transportation industry. I have, in particular, worked for Americam Airlines, the Federal Aviation Administration, and Kurth & Company, Inc., an aviation consulting firm where I was Manager of Airline Analysis. My responsibilities included the study of schedules, fares, equipment selection, and financial results. Notably, I prepared numerous feasibility studies for both jet and turboprop routes, including passenger and pure cargo service, for proposed transatlantic and transpacific services.wish to place this experience at the disposal of your airline. I believe strongly that my knowledge of the deregulated air transportation industry in the United States could be quite beneficial to your carrier,have enclosed a copy of my resume. If my background and qualifications are of interest to you, please telephone me at (215) 748-3037. I would be interested in meeting with you in mid-April in New York to discuss further the possibility of such a summer position, and your requirements.,Diamond. Resume 2pp.


Resume is a summary of education, work experience, and qualifications. There are two terms which exist in parallel: C.V. (Br.), or a curriculum vitae, which comes from Latin and means autobiography, and resume (Am.) which is borrowed from French and means a summary.There is no much difference between them except that a resume is usually shorter (one page long) and written by those applicants who have little work experience.resume is very important in job searching. It is a calling card which is purposed to attract the interest of the prospective employer. The resume should describe an applicants personality and demonstrate his energy, ambition, and ability to work in teams. It should give the employer a sense that this candidate would be a good investment for the company.effective resume must make a good first impression. Of course, appearance is important but content is even more crucial. The information in a resume needs to be well-organized, easy to read, and result-oriented. It usually includes personal information, professional and volunteer experience, special skills, education, accomplishments, and references.effective resume should address the employer's needs. Its aim is to show the prospective employers how an applicant's skills, accomplishments and abilities match their needs and organization goals. The best way to achieve this is to include only the work experience that is relevant to the job you are applying employers sort through piles of resumes and typically devote 30 seconds or less to each one. Employers won't read any more than two pages, anyway. If you can fit your resume onto one page, that's fine! Employers are looking for, among other qualities, strong organizational and communication skills.

Sample of a Resume

Jared Scott Schnader

Louella Dr., IL 61073

(815) 623-6244@mailcity.comSummary_________________________________________

·Experienced in the organization of multi-functional projects involving fund-raising, resource organization, marketing and advertising.

·Conversational in the Russian Language._____________________________________________________of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabamain Financial Investments, Minor in Economics: 1999-2003

·Member of American Marketing Association and elected board member of the Independent Voters Association

·Active member in the Big Brothers / Big Sisters Program and Habitat for HumanityExperience____________________________________________Corps Volunteer in Ukraine: Institute of Economics and Law / Pedagogical University / Cooperative University / Technical University, Poltava, Ukraineof Marketing and Management: February 2004 - Present

·Created the first Marketing and Management curriculums in English for the Institute of Economics and Law

·Established a community service organization name Ray of Hope with 20 active members

·Developed the first Ukrainian Angel Tree Project getting 105 orphans presents for New Years of 2005

·Coordinated and organized two oblast-wide conferences at the Institute of Economics and Law serving over 150 secondary and university school students with guest speakers teaching in areas: creative thinking, critical thinking, study abroad, leadership, etc.

·Active member and speaker in the first Poltava Business Club held by the NGO Polbi Business CenterCoordinator: Firemans Fund Insurance Chicago, Illinois:2003 - February 2004 (Interned May 2001 - August 2001)

·Coordinated with agents in updating their licenses

·Updated company records for over 500 agents

·Helped develop the department mission statementConsultant: Cingular Wireless , Alabama: October 2001- June 2003

·Won company wide sales events for most items sold over specified periods of time

·Managed and facilitated problems, questions and concerns from an average of 20 customers daily

·Trained in sales technique seminars once a month

·Developed advertising scheme for the region.

Make up your own Cover Letter and Resume. the sentences by choosing from the words below each sentence to fill in the gaps. The first has been done for you.

1. The employees responsible for carrying out general office duties, filling forms and keeping statistics are …

a) clerks; b) accountants; c) supervisors.

2. The employees who sell companys products are the sales representatives, usually known as...

a) vendors; b) renters; c) reps.

3. The employees who decide what to purchase, and who make the purchases of finished goods or components to be made into goods, are the...

a) choosers; b) procurers; c) buyers.

4. The employees who are responsible for seeing that the finished goods are well made are the...

a) packers; b) quality controllers; c) financial staff.

5. The clerical workers who use typewriters or word processors and who produce letters, memos or other documents, are...) secretaries; b) editors; c) copywriters.

6. The employees who check a companys financial affairs are the...) statisticians; b) accountants; c) counters.

7. The employees who are responsible for preparing checks, pay packets and payslips are the ...

a) wages clerks; b) filing clerks; c) paying clerks.

8. The workers who process data, under the control of managers and supervisors, are the computer...) hackers; b) operators; c) screeners.

9. The person who greets a visitor and tells him or her how to get to the right office is the...) manager; b) president; c) receptionist.

10. The employees who deal with a company's telephone calls are the) PC operators; b) telex operators; c) switchboard operators.

Listen to the interviews of two people applying for jobs, analyze them, point out mistakes, if any, they made in the process of their interviews.letters

Letter writing is an essential part of business communication. A letter should always accompany a cheque, a contract or any other business paper sent by mail. The letter says what is being sent, so that the recipient should know exactly what you intended to send. There exist traditional structures of business letters generally accepted and used throughout the world. A well-composed letter will make a better impression on the reader. Thus good letters make good business partners.letters may be subdivided into such groups as: enquiries, offers, orders, refusals, acknoledgements, quotations, letters of complaint/claim, etc. firms, as a rule, have forms for the letters printed on good paper. The form should have the name of the firm, its address, and also the character of the business of the firm.

Five Cs for Business Letter Writing

* Clearness: Avoid business jargon, use simple, direct language.

* Completeness: Include all necessary information within the letter. Assume that the readers do not know all the facts. Make it easy for the readers to understand your situation.

* Conciseness: Be specific. Say what you mean clearly. Dont be vague or confusing.

* Correctness: Always proofread and edit your letters.

* Courteousness: Use proper salutations, avoid phrases that scold or annoy, end on a friendly note.

Business Letter Layout

Letterhead: Name of the company/Field of activities/Logos address: No. of building, Street, City, State, post/zip code, Country/Fax/E-mail s name/Job title/Company name and address

(For the attention of …)ref:ref:: (Dear Mr/Ms Hill):of the letter:

. Opening paragraph

. Main part

. Closing paragraph

(For/p.p. Senders name)

Senders position

(JP/rs). (Enclosure).c. (Copies)

Answer the questions on the text:

1. What is the purpose of a business letter today?

. Is there any difference between the layout of an application letter and a business letter?

. What does the letterhead of a business letter consist of?

. Why is the month in the date not recommended to write in figures?

. What salutation is the most frequent in business letters at present?

. What is the purpose of using Re in business letters?

. What information is enclosed in the body of a business letter?

. Whose initials are written at the bottom of the letter?

. What does the abbreviation c.c. mean in business letter writing: a) carbon copy; b) current cost; c) copies to?

What types of business letters do the following abstracts belong to?

1. I am, today, sending you some of our brochures, in a separate package. With these, I have included details of our new pocket portable telephone, which you may be interested in.

. Further to our telephone discussion on Thursday, I am delighted to tell you that we are now able to reduce the price of our computers by 10%.

. Unfortunately, we have not received the filing cabinets which were a part of the order. We would be grateful if you could deliver these as soon as possible or refund our money.

. We would like to book 25 places on Sun Express Holiday No.5210, depart 14th July. business english payment job

. Payment on the above order is now overdue. We would be grateful if you could send us your check without delay.

. Our company is considering leasing 12 automobiles rather than buying them outright. Because it is important for us to present a favorable (and prosperous) image to our clients, we are interested in luxury cars only.

State where the following word-combinations are used: at the beginning of a letter (B), end (E) or both (BE).

a) feel free to contacti) this is to inform youb) please don't hesitatej) as you may recallc) in response tok) as soon as possibled) once again1) in accordance withe) get in touchm) further tof) at your earliest conveniencen) thank you forg) effective June 15o) would be appreciatedh) may be able to help youp) I enclose

Choosing from the words in the box, label the parts of the letter. The first has been done for you:

date; main paragraph; letterhead; references; salutation; introductory paragraph; concluding paragraph; recipients address; (senders) address; (typed) signature; complimentary ending; enclosures (abbreviation); position/title; signature.


) 6 Pine Estate, Westhornet, Bedfordshire, UB1822BC9017 23456 Telex X238 WID Fax 9017 67893

) Michael Scott, Sales Manager, Smith and Brown plc,House, North Molton Street, Renton, Oxbridge OB84 9TD.

) Your ref.MS/WID/15/88 ref. ST/MN/10/88

) 31 January 20…

) Dear Mr Scott,

) Thank you for your letter of 20 January, explaining that the super widgets, catalogue reference X-3908, are no longer available but that ST-1432, made to the same specifications but using a slightly different alloy, are now available instead. Before I place a firm order I should like to see samples of the new super widgets. If the replacement is as good as you say it is, I shall certainly wish to reinstate the original order, but placing an order for the new items.

) Apart from anything else, I should prefer to continue to deal with Smith and Brown, whose service has always been satisfactory in the past. But you will understand that I must safeguard Widgetry's interests and make sure that the quality is good.

) I would, therefore, be grateful if you could let me have a sample as soon as possible.

) Yours sincerely,


) Simon Thomas

) Production Manager

) Enc.

The internet, fax, e-mail, memo

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United Slates in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet swithing. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-swithing network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.of the internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United Slates, while the rest are located in more than 100 olher countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly' accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide.most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are avail- able on the (Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher. many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who accually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: an user pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

The fax or facsimile means the exact copy or reproduction. Faxing is a means of telecommunication that has developed very quickly over the recent time. It is connected to a telephone socket and works as a system similar to the telephone. Charges are measured in telephone units and therefore vary according to the time and distance.

The advantage of fax is an instant reception of many documents, the disadvantage is that it can't transmit original documents, but only their photocopies.structure and presentation of a faxed letter is much the same as that of an ordinary letter.

Sample of a Fax Message

11-Sep-97 11:48MESSAGE FROM


TEL.No. +44(0) 1702 5522 11No. 44(0) 1702 556200

TO _______________ Poltava Amalgamation PlcATTENTION___Ms BOGATYREVA/VICTORNo. ___________ 00 380 S3 22 31405_____________A.Reynolds___________Electric Furnace______________ 11/09/97.of PAGES. ______ 1

Dear Sir/Madam, are pleased to hear that the situation on the furnace has begun to stabilize - does this mean that the quality is improving? If possible, please could you provide more data on the operational condition of the furnace and the percentage of reject tube on both lines?

We will be interested to hear the results of samples taken from the furnace bottom drain. Some poor quality glass is normal from this position when first draining - but it should clear very quickly. When there are concerns regarding glass quality it is good practice to drain from this position for about 5 minutes each day - to remove any possible contamination or dirt from the bottom of the melting chamber.

Please can you confirm that you received our fax of 07/09/97 from Mr.Andrew Reynolds, and if so, advise us on the points/questions raised therein regarding the electric furnace.would be grateful also, if you can confirm that payment has been arranged as promised in your last fax and as per the final Protocol. Further delays in this payment will cause us severe difficulties. If possible, please fax to us reference details of the appropriate bank transfer so that we can follow it from the UK side.regards,PENELECTRO LIMITED.C.ReynoldsDirector.

The electronic mail (e-mail) was started in the late 60s by the U.S. military that were searching for a way of communication in the event of a large-scale nuclear war. They needed a system that would be decentralized, reliable, and fast in case the central institutions were destroyed. They came up with e-mail.

In the early 70s, e-mail was limited to the U.S. military, defence contractors, and universities doing defence research. By the 70s it had begun to spread more broadly within university communities. By the 80s, academies in a number of fields were using e-mail for professional collaboration. The 90s saw an explosion of the use of e-mail and other computing networking. It is estimated that more than 25 million people throughout the world were using it in the mid-90s.

E-mail is a way of sending a message from one computer to one or more other computers around the world. A subscriber to e-mail needs a terminal, such as a PC, a telephone line, and a modem, which is a device of converting signals into text. E-mail users must also have access to a mailbox, which they can call from anywhere in the world to retrieve messages. They receive a mailbox number and a password for confidentiality. E-mail is fast, cheap, and relatively reliable. It permits to send large amounts of information to different addressees and allows people to retrieve messages at any time.

A typical e-mail address is: (the e-mail address of the A.S.K. Publishers House). The part to the left of the @ sign, called userid has been chosen as a personal handle. The part to the right is called the domain and represents the particular computer that receives and delivers the message.

E-mail message usually comes in two parts: the heading and the body. The heading includes: the date, the writer's name, the addressee's name, who is to receive a copy (c.c.), if any, and the subject. The body of the message bears an ordinary content of a letter but a bit shorter.

The golden rule for writing e-mail messages is KISS (keep it short and simple). Use short phrases instead of long, active voice instead of passive avoid foreign words, metaphors, and scientific terms.

There's no bold in e-mall, so use capitals or asterisks. Among the abbreviations used in e-mail there are: BTW - by the way; IMHO - in my humble opinion; CONT - container; SHPT - shipment; RQST - request; BUZ - business; ESS - message. memo or memorandum (which came from the Latin memorare - to remember) is a written inner document which is produced by senior or middle management in order to inform the staff about the companys policy or procedures, to give instructions, to make announcements or to summarize the data of the latestmeeting or negotiations. A memo may be displayed on a notice board or sent to the employees according to the distribution list.

A typical memo has the following layout: the title, the date, to whom it is produced, from whom it is issued, the subject, the body (usually with numbered paragraphs), the signature, name, and position of the writer.

Sample of a Memo

To: all the staffDate: 22/10/2004

From: Personnel Manager : Business English classes

  1. Since November 1 free English classes will be held for all personnel in the Training Center (room #3) twice a week - on Mondays and Thursdays. All teaching materials will be provided; the size of each class will be limited to 12 trainees.
  2. The deadline of applications is 6p.m. 30/10/2004. Applicants will be tested for the level of proficiency in English to form 2 groups of pre-intermediate and intermediate levels.


Ann McCline

Use the following data to compose your own memo:

1. To: Department Managers; from: Managing Director; subject: reducing costs of production.

. To: all employees; from: Director; subject: recognaziation of the company.

. To: all staff; from: trade-union representative; subject: the annual meeting.

. To: all shareholders; from: the President; subject: general annual meeting.

Complete the letter choosing from the words listed below:

travel agents, previous correspondence, system, responsibility, index, personal assistant, travel arrangements, directory enquiries, circulation, references, job, international telephone operator. Susan,, Ive been working for a week, and I must say Im still bewildered. I hope it all sorts itself out.Sutherland is going away on a business trip - isnt it exciting? Hes going to Spain, Portugal and Italy.first thing I had to do was to make his (1) _______ so I had to talk to the (2) _______ the Company uses and get them to book all the trains, planes and hotels, and I also had to organise his car hire, make the appointments and fix up his meetings. Ive used the telephone a lot. The (3) ______ has got quite used to my voice, and the lady who deals with (4) ______ must be quite tired of me! I also had to look up the (5) ______ hes had with the people hell be seeing, and sort out the letters hell need to take with him.organised the (6) ______ list for memos. (Hell be sending tapes back to me.) While hes away, Ive promised to reorganise his filing (7) ______ and make up an (8) ______ to the files, so that he can find things quickly. Ive also got to learn which (9) ______ books to use when I need to find something! By the time I've done all this, Ill be really pleased with my (10) ______! Im really going to be a real secretary, not just a shorthand typist; in fact Im nearly a (11) ______ - P.A. for short - as I do take complete (12) ______ for some areas of the soon!.

Listen to the stories of two people, who lost their jobs, prepare memoes on them for the personnel manager of your company.

3. Social responsibility of business

is the purpose of a business? Is it just to make as much profit as possible for its shareholders? Or does a business have a wider responsibility to help solve societys problems? This is the controversial topic we shall now examine.or so years ago, discussions of social responsibility were of three types. Firstly, there was a lot of talk about how business people should behave in their work. Should they have the same ethical standards - the same principles - as they had in their private life? A question which was often discussed was: should an executive offer a bribe to secure a contract, when he knew that his competitors were likely to do so? Secondly, people discussed the social responsibility of business towards its employees. They were interested in how organisations could improve the working conditions of their employees. Finally, social responsibility included the idea that business people should contribute to cultural activities. They should support activities like music festivals and exhibitions. Executives were also expected to serve on educational committees, hospital boards, and so on. In other words, they had to take an active part in the life of their community., there is a new approach to social responsibility. Many people say that a business should try to meet the needs and interests of society. It has an obligation to help solve the problems of society. Because of this new concept, society expects more from its business organisations. For example, pressure is put on business to provide a safer environment. A chemical company, therefore, is not only expected to meet government standards regarding pollution. It must take steps to reduce pollution to as low a level as possible - even if this means reduced profits.days, businesses are expected to show social responsibility in all kinds of ways. They are urged to provide safer products; to protect and respect envi- ronment; to hire more people from minority groups; to offer work opportunities to unemployed youngsters; to oppose racial discrimination and at all times behave with integrity. The list is concept of social responsibility means that businesses and business people must have integrity. They must deal honestly with their employees, and with the outside world. As Sir John Clark of the Plessey company says, I attach more importance to integrity than to ability.companies are very sensitive if their integrity is attacked. They usually respond sharply. Some time ago, an English health inspector found fault with the standards of hygiene in a Trusthouse Forte hotel. Lord Forte was most upset by the inspectors accusations. Making no attempt to plead guilty and by so doing avoid publicity; the Trusthouse Forte Group fought the case in the courts. It also advertised in several national newspapers to give its side of the case.are, nevertheless, some famous people who are against the new approach. One of these is Milton Friedman, an American economist who won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1976. Milton Friedman believes that business has only one social responsibility. That is to use its resources and energy in activities designed to increase its profits as long as it stays within the rules of the game ... and engages in open and free competition, without deception and fraud. Fried-man says that a businesss social responsibility is to make as much money for its shareholders as possible. is certainly true that social actions cost money. And businesses have to bear that cost often by raising prices, lowering wages or having less profit. Someone has to pay for the social actions in the end - it may be the customer, the employee or the shareholder.spokesman for the Rank-Xerox company spoke recently of the wide range of social projects Rank-Xerox were engaged in: grants of equipment to universities; information technology projects and seminars; training programmes in universities and schools; career seminars; sponsorship of art competitions etc. The spokesman said that the social projects were an integral part of the companys business strategy. They were not some sort of charity work which would get a brief mention in the companys annual report. Being a large organization, Rank-Xerox had many contacts with government departments and other groups in society. And, since it was a knowledge-based company, it needed to hire highly skilled people. Its social programmes were critical to its success. There was no doubt that, in the long run, these activities were profitable to the organization.

Learn the following words and word-combintions:

social - of society or its organization, esp. of the relations of people or classes of people- authority; managerial freedom; duty, commitmentoffer a bribe - to offer money or services in one's favourreduce - to make smaller or lessbe urged - to be encouraged or entreated earnestly or persistently- moral excellence; honestyplead guilty - to declare oneself to be guilty or not guilty of a chargeput pressure (on) - to constrain influence, affliction or difficulty- criminal deception; dishonest trickbenefit - to receive advantage; profit, helpthe long run - ultimately, eventually

Fill in the gaps using the vocabulary listed above. Make any other changes in the following sentences if necessary.

1) Her present unpopularity is not going to help in the short run, of course, but ______ she may still be the best election hope for the Democrats.

) The number of staff was ______ from 60 to 45.

) The policeman was ______ of $10000 to keep his mouth shut.

) His new job is highly paid, but it also means taking on more ______ for the decision taken.

) While filling in the application forms to some of the companies you'll find the items concerning your ______ background.

) The people were ______ that there should be no violence during the demonstration.

) Doctors and lawyers are considered to be people of professional ______.

) They ______ on him to resign.

) The new tax laws are good for some people but middle-class families won`t….

) FBI has a special department organised for resisting a dramatic rise in computer ______ made by hackers.

Answer the following questions to the text:

1) Should business people have the same ethical standards in their work as they have in their private life?

) Why should a business try to meet the needs and interests of society? What are these needs and interests?

) In what ways are businesses expected to show social responsibility? Give your own examples.

) Why do successful companies respond sharply if their integrity is attacked?

) Social actions cost money. How do businesses bear that cost?

) How can the company benefit by showing social responsibility?

Comment on the following statements from the text:

1) Social responsibility is a controversial topic.

) A business has an obligation to help solve the problems of society.

) Businesses and business people must deal honestly with their employees, and with the outside world.

Role play

A. One group of business people supports the point of view that business should help to solve social problems even if their business did not create them; another group is of quite opposite opinion: a businesss first priority is to create wealth. Have a discussion on this problem.. A Ukrainian businessman is arguing with an American one about the principle of social responsibility in their countries.. A group of workers is discussing the problem of social responsibility concerning the working conditions with their employers.

Letter of inquiry

Business transactions usually start with inquiries. As a rule, the prospective buyer gets the name and address of the prospective seller either at an exhibition, from an advertisement in a newspaper, magazine or thanks to a television or radio commercial. All these channels of information and advertising are very important.can be sent by mail, by telex or by fax. Sometimes inquiries can be made orally, by telephone.

In the inquiries the prospective buyer states in what goods exactly he is interested and asks for details on the price and terms of sale, availability of goods, delivery dates, terms and discounts, method of transportation, insurance, catalogues and samples of goods.

Sample of an Inquiry

Sanders & Lowe Ltd.

Import and Export (London Office)House, Princes Street, London EC17DQ: 021 236161 Fax: 021 2368592 Telex: 341641Manager, Glaston Potteries Ltd. , Burntey BB10 1RQ, Englandref.:ref.: 180/MB: 7 June, 2004Sir or Madam,are writing to you on behalf of our principals in Canada who are interested in importing chinaware from England. We saw your products at the International Potteries Exhibition in London in May and were deeply impressed with them. you send us your latest catalogue and price-list, quoting your most competitive prices? We would also appreciate your sending samples of the products.principals are a large chain store in North America and they will probably place a substantial order if the quality and prices of your products are suitable. As you know the demand for potteries of all types in Canada and the USA is really great.look forward to hearing from you soon.faithfully,

L.W. Low

Write your own letter of inquiry. Use the words and еxpressions listed below:

We would like to represent your products in the Ukrainian marketsend us samples of ... (your catalogues, leaflets, etc.)

We read your advertisement in...regard to your advertisement in ... of ...we would ask you ...have heard of your products from ...have seen your current catalogue showing.are interested in buying (importing, etc.)inform us (let us know) as soon as possibleyou please inform us if it is possible to deliver...?let us know what quantities you are able to deliver till...would ask you to let us have a quotation. We read your advertisement in...regard to your advertisement in ... of ...we would ask you ...have heard of your products from ...have seen your current catalogue showing.are interested in buying (importing, etc.)inform us (let us know) as soon as possibleyou please inform us if it is possible to deliver...?let us know what quantities you are able to deliver till...would ask you to let us have a quotation for…you kindly quote your prices and terms of delivery (terms of payment, etc.) for ... would like to represent your products in the Ukrainian marketsend us samples of ... (your catalogues, leaflets, etc.)

Would you kindly quote your prices and terms of delivery (terms of payment, etc.) for ... would like to have further details about... are distributors (importers, retailers, etc.) of...would like to get in touch with manufacturers (suppliers, sellers, etc.) a large market here for yow products over ... years our company has imported from western countries was founded in...usually effect payment by letter of credit (cheque, bank transfer, etc.).your prices are competitive (the samples meet the standards, your equipment complies with our requirements, etc.) we may be able to let your have regular orders.look forward to your early reply.

Choose the correct word from listed below to complete the passage. The first one has boon done for you.

advertisements, exhibitions, trade, copy-writer, set up, Commerce, promotion, market, price sensitivity, copy, Marketing, controls, designer, media, budget, trade magazines.

(1) ______ & and (2) ______ involve letting potential customers know about a new product both before it is made and after it becomes available for sale. (3) ______ in the local and national press and (4) ______ in areas where there is likely to be a good market are among the ways in which this is done; the choice of (5) ______ -magazines, newspapers, radio and TV - for the advertisements and of locations for exhibitions is made as a result of thorough (6) ______ research, so that money (all marketing departments have tightly controlled (7) ______ is spent where it is most likely to produce results. The advertising (8) ______ usually provided by a specialist (9) ______ and set out by a (10) ______ to have the most impact, is probably the most common form of promotion, although the way in which stands are (11) ______ at exhibitions is also extremely important. News items leaked to (12) ______ are also important - and they are free! (13) ______ Associations and Chambers of (14) ______ can provide advice about the size of markets, their location, and also about such things as (l5) ______ and import (16) ______ in specific areas.

Watch BBC Business Course, unit Describing Your Companys Product and prepare your own dialogues.

4. Money and methods of payment

To function as money a commodity must be widely acceptable to the population of the region or country. There must be not only its voluntary acceptability, it must also be recognized by the government of the country and have legal acceptability, that is, payment with this commodity must be regarded as a legal means of settlement of debts. To acquire acceptability a commodity must have the following attributes:of exchange: people must be willing to give and receive the commodity in exchange for goods and services. More significantly a medium of exchange allows peoples to specialize in particular areas, so that they and the economy can become more efficient. They will receive money for their labour and in exchange will be able to purchase the fruits of other people's labour. With this specialization, the volume of trade increases, the range of services and goods expands and money assumes a greater and greater role in the economy. of value: Let us assume that cabbage is money and that we have it, say 1,000 pounds` worth. If we hold it for a long time it will go bad and deteriorate in value. But if we sell the total stock for 1,000 pounds we can hold the money in a bank without loss. This money can be used at any time for purchasing other goods. Of course, if we want to hold the money, we can invest it in an interest-bearing account and so obtain additional funds.of account: To act as a unit of account, money must be able to place a specific value on goods and services. Thus, it is able to act as a measure to value goods relative to other goods. It is a yardstick which enables people to compare the relative value of goods and services. In the UK we use the pound for valuing our income and household expenditure. At government level, the pound is used to calculate the national income, government expenditure, and so on.of deferred payment: We have mentioned that money acts as a medium of exchange and as a unit of accounting that its debts are stated in a currency and are settled in that currency. But in modern society contracts are made for settlement at some future date. For example, a national savings certificate, repayable in five years time, will have a future known value. Contracts made between one person and another, for completion at some future date, will have to show the amount to be paid or received on conclusion of that contract. Money must, therefore, act as a standard of deferred payment.order to fulfill the functions of money, a commodity must have the following properties: portability, durability, divisibility, stability, transferability, and recognizability.

Most of the terms referring to various kinds of money have been already introduced. In view of the large number of terms in use, some of which mean the same thing, it is worth pausing to recapitulate. Coins refer to all metallic money. Examples are the l0p and 50p coins in your pocket. Notes refer to paper money. Taken together, notes and coins are commonly referred to as cash or currency. Deposit money or bank money refers to deposits held at banks.

Legal tender is money that must be accepted if offered in payment for a purchase or settlement of a debt. In the UK, legal tender consists of coins (up to certain maximum amounts) and notes. Cheques drawn on bank deposits are not legal tender, although they are commonly used in purchases and in the settlement of said to be convertible if it can be converted into some other form of money that is legal tender. In the UK, bank deposits are convertible money since they are convertible into legal tender and they are so converted every time a customer withdraws currency from his bank account., all notes and coins in circulation are fiat money. Modern coins, unlike their predecessors, contain a value of metal that is characteristically only a minute-fraction of the face value of the coin. Nevertheless, they function satisfactorily as money. Since notes and coins are acceptable, they are medium of exchange; since their purchasing power remains relatively stable in normal times, they are a satisfactory store of value; and they also serve as a unit of account and a standard of deferred payments.terms are the agreed way in which a buyer pays the seller for goods. The commonest are: 1) cash with order or cash on delivery; 2) prompt cash (i.e. within 14 days of delivery); 3) cash in 30, 60, or 90 days from date of invoice; 4) letter of credit; 5) cash against documents.

Cash on delivery (COD) means the terms of trade in which a supplier will post goods to a customer, provided the customer pays the postman or delivery man the full invoice amount when they are delivered. It was extensively used in mail order (see mail-order house), but the use of telephone ordering using credit cards has reduced the amount of COD business.

Cash price is the price at which a seller is prepared to sell goods provided that he is paid immediately in cash, i.e. he does not have to give credit or give a commission to a credit-card company. This is invariably below the price that includes a hire-purchase agreement.

Cash against documents (CAD) means payment terms for exported goods in which the shipping documents are sent to a bank, agent, etc., in the country to which the goods are being shipped, and the buyer then obtains the documents by paying the invoice amount in cash to the bank, agent, etc.

Letter of credit is letter from one banker to another authorizing the payment of a specified sum to the person named in the letter on certain specified conditions. Commercially, letters of credit are widely used in the international import and export trade as a means of payment. In an export contract, the exporter may require the foreign importer to open a letter of credit at his local bank (the issuing bank) for the amount of the goods. This will state that it is to be negotiable at a bank (the negotiating bank) in the exporters country in favour of the exporter; often, the exporter (who is called the beneficiary of the credit) will give the name of the negotiating bank. On presentation of the shipping documents (which are listed in the letter of credit) the beneficiary will receive payment from the negotiating bank.foreign trips nowadays people use widely travellers cheques which can be acquired practically at any branch of a bank. For tourists they have at least two main advantages: they are much cheaper than credit cards, and are a safe and reliable way of keeping money. The most popular travellers cheques are those issued by Thomas Cook, VISA and American Express.

Learn the following words and word-combinations:

medium of exchange - засіб обміну;

store of value - міра вартості;

unit of account - одиниця розрахунку;

yardstick - мірило, критерій;

standard of deferred payment - засіб відкладеного платежу;

portability - nopтативність;

durability - довговічність;

divisibility - подільність;

monies - грошові суми;

to ascertain - визначати;

transferability - здатність обміну;

recognizability - пізнаваність;

counterfeit - фальшиві гроші;

to recapitulate - називати;

legal tender - легітимний засіб платежу;

to back - підтверджувати;

fіat moneyAm. - паперові гроші(не забезпечені золотом).

Answer the questions on the text:

1. What are the functions of money?

2. What are the properties of money?

. What kinds of money are coins and notes?

. What institutions are responsible for issuing money?

. What is legal tender?

. What is the peculiarity of convertible money?

. What does fiat money mean?

. What are payment terms?

. What is the difference between cash on delivery and cash against documents?

. What is a letter of credit?

. Why do tourists prefer to use travellers cheques instead of cash?

Substitute the following definitions with the words below:

deposit, puchasing power, deferred, outstanding, depreciation, counterfeit, legal tender, yardstick, to withdraw cash.

1. … - money placed in a bank account.

2. … - deduction in the value of a currency against other currencies.

3. … - money in notes and coins.

4. … - amount of goods that can be bought for a contain sum of money.

5. … - to take from the account.

6. … - issued for circulation.

7. … - form of money which must, by law, be accepted in payment of a debt.

8. … - put off to a later time.

9. … - standard of comparison.

10. … - made in imitation of another thing in order to deceive.

Letter of offer

After considering the enquiry for some time the prospective seller sends an offer in reply.offer usually quotes the price and stipulates terms of delivery, terms of payment and discounts, packing, transportation costs, time of delivery and some other necessary details.

When sellers quote prices in their offers they usually state on what terms at this price, they will deliver the goods. The supplier trying to attract the attention of potential clients or looking for new clients for special products or their range will speak about a firm offer which stipulates some specific conditions, such as a deadline and a system of discounts. The price will certainly depend on the terms of delivery.

The most popular terms of delivery in foreign business transactions are: Ex-mill, ex-works (from a plant or factory); fob (free on board); for (free on rail); cif (cost, insurance and freight); cip (cost, insurance and payed to…); c & f (cost and freight).the goods are offered on ex-mill terms the price will include the cost of the goods only.the goods are offered on fob terms the price will include the cost of the goods and transportation expenses to the port of shipment only. the goods are offered on for terms the price will include the cost of the goods and transportation expenses to the railway station only. These terms are similar to fob terms. The only difference is the mode of transportation. In case fob terms the goods are shipped on board ships or planes. In case of for terms the goods are transported by railway.the goods are offered on cif terms the price will cover the cost of the goods, insurance expenses and freight or transportation expenses, to the port of destination.the goods are offered on cip terms the price will include the cost of goods, insurance expences and freight to the place of destination.the goods are offered on c & f terms the price will cover the cost of the goods and freight to the port of destination.

*The price is USD 2,000.00 per ton fob NewYork.

*The quoted price is GBP 1,200.00 each cif Murmansk.

*We can offer the goods at the price of GBP 78.00 per metre c&f Liverpool.

*The goods are offered on for basis.

Offers usually state the terms on which the goods are to be paid, or terms of payment.

Terms of payment usually mean the currency, time of payment, mode of payment and many details.foreign trade transactions various modes of payment are practiced, among which the most popular are as follows:

by a bank transfer;a letter of credit;collection;

by drafts;an open account.

Sometimes mixed terms are practiced. That depends on the value of the goods, volume of the goods, time of delivery and many other factors.

  1. Ten percent of the total sum should be paid in advance by telegraphic bank transfer.
  2. Fifty percent of the total sum should be paid by telegraphic banker's transfer within 30 days after your bank receives shipping documents.
  3. Forty percent of the total sum should be paid by drafts at 90 days' sight.

Sample of an Offer


123 Park Lane, CRISPEN, NY, 11456. (215)-436 578 Fax. (215)-436-579. Fred North, Purchasing Manager, Broadway Autos

Oak St., Angel City, NY, 11435ref.ref. 56 NMB 9811, 1998Mr. North,you very much for your enquiry. We are of course very familiar with your range of vehicles and are pleased to inform you that we have a new line in batteries that fit your specifications exactly.most suitable of our products for your requirements is the Artemis 66A Plus. This product combines economy, high power output and quick charging time and is available now from stock,enclose a detailed quotation with prices, specifications and delivery terms. As you will see from this, our prices are very competitive. I have arranged for our agent Mr. Martin of Fillmore S.A. to deliver five of these batteries to you next week, so that you can carry out the laboratory tests. Our own laboratory reports, enclosed with this letter, show that our new Artemis 66A Plus performs as well as any of our competitor's product and, in some respects, outperforms would like further information, please telephone or telex me: my extension number is 776. Or you may prefer to contact Mr.John Martin of Fillmore S.A in Madison; his telephone number is 01 77 99 02.look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,StockMANAGER

Read the telephone conversation below and prepare a letter of inquiry from the director of the hotel and a letter of offer from the firm for 50 refrigerators.

- Sundel, Electrotech Sales Manager. Can I help you?

- Good afternoon, Mr. Sundel. This is Mr. Hart from Santina Hotel speaking. Have you got refrigerators IPD Model 245?

- Yes, we have, but we are heavy with the orders on this model.

- What is its price?

- Its retail price is $460 per unit.

- What is the discount for a lot of 100 units?

- Usually we give a 5 % discount.

- Is there a discount if I pay cash?

- I am not sure. I should consult our Financial Manager.

- What is the minimum term of delivery?

- A month.

Use for your letter the word-combinatiopns listed below:

We are pleased to learn your interest in… are most pleased that you want to buy… are glad to say that we can reserve you… is generous of you to take so much interest in our work… take pleasure to send you the desired samples and offer… to your inquiry of … we are informing you that… enclose our catalogue with the latest price-list. detailed price-list will convince you in diversity of our assortment.proposal is valid till … deliver our goods on CIF terms…price covers packing and transportation expenses…

We can give you a 5 per cent discount. you can see from our price-list, our prices are at least by 3% lover than market ones.

The words listed below have their letters in the wrong order. Choose from them to complete the sentences and fill in the words with the letters in the correct order.

sols raeled, rutrnoev, icysretu, aihnc, nidedmaml, utsciond, hsovadeer, wrlahesole, kocts tnloelcr, hacs dna cryra.

1. A l... l... is something sold very cheaply to encourage customers to come into a shop; once they are in, they may buy other things at profitable prices.

. The amount of money taken (without any deductions) or the amount of goods sold is the t... .

. Deciding how many items should be ordered, and when, is a matter of s… c… .

. A number of shops belonging to one company is a c... .

. Shops possess safes for s... .

. A retailer buys his goods at a d... and sells them at a retail price to produce a profit.

. A retailer buys his stock from a w... .

. The costs of running a retail operation caused by lighting, heating, rent, wages, etc., are its o... .

. The retailer is the m... between the manufacturer or wholesaler and the customer.

. The everyday name for a warehouse from which a retailer collects the goods himself or herself is a c... a... c... .

Watch BBC BusinessCourse, unit Money, discuss it, and make up your own dialogues.

Part 5. Stores and consumers

. Conventional stores are often more or less specialized in selling some specific kind of merchandise, for instance, all types of sportswear, play things for children, special kinds of foodstuffs, etc. All the luxury stores - the famous Tiffany (jewelry), Versacci (high fashion clothing), etc. or ordinary specialized stores - a variety of antique and collectible stores, as well as book stores or stores selling videos, CD's, cassettes, CD-ROM's, and accessories for computers. All of them are trading in goods destined only for some strata of the population (interested in such specific merchandise), but not for the general public. Even some food stores can be included into such category - such as specialty stores selling mainly national food or strong drinks.

Supermarkets sell food and basic everyday necessities. A supermarket is a large self-service store selling a great variety of food and household goods displayed on open shelves. A customer having easy access to all the shelves chooses himself the articles to be bought and pays for them at one of the checkouts at the exit. A customer takes a cart (Am.) or a trolley (Br.) on entering the supermarket which is the generally accepted code of supermarket behaviour. All the articles in self-service stores have special tags that activate the alarm sound if a customer attempts to leave the premises without paying. In most foreign supermarkets a conveyor belt starts about four or five metres from the check-out. A customer is supposed to put all his purchases out of the cart onto the belt. When the section of the belt with a customer's purchases approaches the cashier, she first enters the price of every article into the till, then packs the articles into plastic or paper bags and puts filled bags into the cart. Upon that a customer is expected to pay.

Malls are quite specific shopping centres where all kinds of manufactured consumer goods can be bought such as clothes, shoes, underwear, leather goods, kitchen utensils, cosmetics, perfumes, jewelry, cameras, cassette recorders, CDs etc. A mall is a collection of dozens of stores in one place, a kind of a trading city. The stores are relatively autonomous and may belong to different manufacturers, firms or trading companies. It is not only a place of trade but a place of entertainment as well. There are a lot of restaurants, bars, cafes, kiosks, stands and a lot of places to eat and to relax, such as performances, pop singers, comedians, and so on. The original meaning of the word mall is public walk. Malls are multi-storeyed structures with elevators and escalators leading from floor to floor and open galleries surrounding each of the upper floors. They are as a rule very beautifully decorated inside - with fountains and trees, different forms of applied arts. Though the greater part of all the malls are luxurious multi-storeyed buildings, one can meet more modest ones. They are usually constructed as a very long one-storeyed building in a form of rectangular with a roofed gallery and the open space in the centre of it.

Marts are small stores selling a variety of goods. They are self-service stores where a customer can buy food and drinks and all kinds of trifles (e.g., films for cameras, magazines and papers to read, sunglasses, etc.) Arts and crafts marts are engaged in selling objects of arts and folk crafts too.Marts, the full name is Wal-Mart Discount City, the first of them was opened in 1962 in Arkansas by Sam Walton. A Wal-Mart has everything a mall has - all kinds of stores selling all imaginable kinds of manufactured consumer goods and many opportunities for customers to relax and have a fun. It also has everything a supermarket has - selling all kinds of food and houseware collected under one roof. The idea of Wal-Marts is creating one-stop shopping environment. The result was the creation of a shopping centre of enormous size and proportions. It is a gigantic one-storeyed structure with dozens of entrances and exits. It is really a trading city, that's why Wal-Marts are built beyond the town limits. And it is really a discount trading city because no other kinds of stores can afford such discounts.

Consumer Rights. In their role as consumers, ordinary EU citizens are key players in the Union's new frontier-free single market. The Union has in fact incorporated as the basis of its consumer policy, the protection of the five fundamental rights which lie at the heart of national policies. These are:

. The protection of consumers' health and safety. Only products which will not endanger health or safety may be put on the market. This means setting safety requirements, providing full information about potential risks, and protecting consumers against physical injury.

. The protection of consumers economic, for example, a general ban on misleading advertising and unfair terms in contracts with consumers.

. Consumer rights to information and education.must be put in a position where they can make an informed choice among goods and services offered. This includes objective information on the features and price of the items available. Consumers also require proper information about their efficient and safe use.

. The right to redress.have the right to receive advice and help when seeking redress for faulty products or for injury or damage resulting from the use of goods and services. There need to be simple, affordable and rapid procedures for settling complaints and claims.

. Consumer representation and participation.of consumers need to be present in decision-taking procedures on issues of concern to them at local, national or EU level. At Union level, this covers not only specific consumer issues but also other relevant policy areas like food laws, transport, competition policy, financial services, environment and the like.the Community (the former name of European Union) adopted its first consumer programme in 1973, it focused on the practical application of the five principles. As a first result, a number of directives were adopted over the next 10 years covering among other things the safety of cosmetic products, the labelling of foodstuff, misleading advertising, consumer rights in door-step selling, product liability and the provision of consumer credit.addition to its programme of legislation on consumer protection, the Union took steps to make sure the interests of consumers are taken into account at local and EU level. It has supported the development of national consumer organizations and of five major EU-wide organizations with consumer interests. These are: the European Consumers Organization (BEUC), the Confederation of Family Organizations in the European Union (Coface), the European Community of Consumer Cooperatives (Eurocoop), the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), and the European Interregional Institute for Consumer Affairs (EIICA)., the European Commission created an independent Consumer Policy Service in 1989 in order to give more authority and a higher profile to the implementation of consumer policy.

Learn the following words and word-combinations:

conventional - звичайний;- товари; storе - антикварний магазин; store - магазин колекцій; pl [ek'seseriz] - обладнання; ['stra:ta] - прошарки (суспільства);- спеціальний асортимент; necessities - предмети нагальної потреби;

article - товар, вироб;-out - контрольно-касовий пункт

tag - ярлик, бірка

cashier - касир

till - касовий апарат

mall Am. - торгове містечко

kitchen utensils - кухонна утварь

mart Am. - невеликий магазин

Wal-Mart Am. - торгове містечко с багатьма магазинами.

Answer the questions on the text:

1. What articles are sold in conventional stores?

. What is a distinguished feature of supermarkets?

. What kind of stores are malls?

. What is the analogue of a mart in your country?

. Is any difference between Wal-Marts and malls?

. What kinds of stores described in the text are there in your country?

. What rights do the consumers enjoy in the EU?

. When was the first EU consumer programme adopted?

. What EU-wide organizations protect the interests of consumers?

. What service was created in 1989 and why?

Answer the questionnaire by putting yes or no at each point. Then read the comments below:

QuestionnaireYou a Skilled Buyer?a consumer you enjoy many privileges. You can buy a wide variety of products in a wide variety of stores. However, as a consumer you also have certain responsibilities. Reading labels, returning goods of poor quality, keeping records of your purchases, and paying bills promptly are among them. By accepting these responsibilities, you will be more pleased with what you buy.

. Do you take your time about buying?

2. Do you shop at sales?

3. Do you avoid impulse buying?

4. Do you look carefully at what you buy?

5. Do you study labels?

6. Do you compare prices and services?

If you have put yes at five points except the 2nd, you proved to be a skilled buyer.


To place an order for some goods it is necessary to fill in an order form stating the quantity of articles with their description, price, terms of payment, date of delivery, discounts, etc. it is necessary to make certain points quite clear a cover letter is prepared to accompany the order form.

The Seller or Supplier sends an order acknowledgement or confirmation in case he can fulfil it or a refusal if he cannot.

Sample of a Letter of Order LTD.

164 Victoria St., Newbay, Ches., J23 4FG England. (143)-564-412 Fax (143)-564-414s Clothes Dealers Ltd.

South Road Sheffield S20 4HL Englandref. BV4397ref. DFS3297

st March, 2007 Sirs,Order for Silk Shirtsresponse to your letter of 17th March, we thank you for sending us your catalogues of men's silk shirts. We are sure there will be a great demand for them in Ukraine.are enclosing our Order No.144, and would ask you to return its duplicate to us, duly signed and sealed, as an acknowledgement.faithfully,SmartonImport Manager .Order No.144

ORDER №144

(please refer to this number on all correspondence)s Clothes Dealers Ltd.

South Road Sheffield S20 4HL England

th March, 1997supply 400 men's silk shirts in the colours and sizes (collar) specified below:Colour Quantity

white 70

blue 30

white 70

blue 30

white 70

blue 30

white 70

blue 30: $10.53 each (total - $4212) ; air freight, CIF Kiev: by letter of credit: standardWincot ManagerLtd.send us the copy of this order, duly signed and sealed, as an acknowledgement.

Write your own letter of order for 200 men`s suits, 60.7 pounds of sterling apiece, in black, grey and blue colours, payed for by a letter of credit, and delivered CIF Odessa. Use the word-expressions below:

In reply (response) to your letter (fax) of (dated) … enclose (are enclosing) our order for … accept your offer and have pleasure in placing an order with you for …

Please confirm that you can supply … send the copy of this order to us, duly signed, as an acknowledgement.

Please supply/send us…

Choose from the words below to complete the sentences.

net, market, loss, cash-flow, capital, sales, overheads, expenditure, gross, profit.

. The forecast which predicts how much money will be gained by a business is called the ... forecast.

. The forecast which predicts how much money will be lost by a business is called the ... forecast.

. The forecast which predicts how much money will be received or spent by a business is the ... forecast.

. The forecast which predicts where most sales will be made, and what their value will be, is the ... forecast

. The forecast which predicts how much the company will sell is the ... forecast.

. The forecast which predicts how much money will be spent by the company is the forecast of...

. The Forecast which predicts how much money is needed to start up a business or to increase its wealth is the ... forecast.

. The forecast which predicts how much money the company will earn before tax is paid is the ... profit forecast

. The forecast which predicts how much money the company will earn after tax is paid is the ... profit forecast.

. The forecast which predicts how much money the company will have to spend on salaries, heating and lighting, rent, etc., is the forecast of...

Watch BBC Business Course, unit Negotiating Prices; make up your own dialogues.


an S-corporation is not always best.

It is generally believed that small companies should incorporate as S-corporations. While an S-corporation enjoys many corporate attributes (the main is that the owners of a corporation do not expose their personal assets to corporate liability), it is treated like a partnership for purposes of determining its Federal income tax liability. At the end of each fiscal year, its total earnings (or losses) are prorated to each shareholder, and these earnings (or losses) are incorporated into their individual income tax returns.the advantages of the S-corporation for small business is no double taxation - paying an income tax on corporate net income, and then paying an individual income tax on the dividend income subsequently distributed by the corporation., an S-corporation generally will not be liable for federal income tax. If losses are incurred during the start-up period (or any other period), these losses can be deducted each year from the shareholders tax returns. All income, losses, credits, and deductions are washed through the S-corporation at the end of each fiscal year and carried directly to the individual tax return for each shareholder. Being emptied out at the end of each fiscal year, the S-corporation has no retained earnings account.most of small businesses, the S-corporation has long been the preferred corporate structure. The operational accounting is simpler, and accounting, legal, and administrative expenses are minimized. Shareholders receive the immediate benefits of earnings without double taxation, and the shelter of tax deductive losses on their individual tax returns. There are sound reasons to state that this is generally the most popular corporate structure., for small businesses that are growing rapidly, the conventional C-corporation status may turn out to be more preferable. The primary motivation for such a change would be the ability to retain and reinvest earnings in the expanding business.maximum Federal income tax rate for C-corporation is 34 percent for taxable income up to $10 million, whereas the maximum tax rate on S-corporation income is now the maximum individual rate of 39.6 percent. At the other end of the range, the Federal tax on corporate income of $100,000 is $22,250 for a C-corporation, whereas the incremental tax on this income added to other income of the shareholder in an S-corporation could be as high as $39,600 if the shareholders are already in the maximum tax bracket. If the business is striving to retain and reinvest all possible cash during a period of strong growth, it will obviously forgo distributing cash dividends thereby avoiding the problem of double taxation.

The maximum tax will be effectively reduced by more than 16 percent, and substantial funds will then be retained to meet the capital needs of the expanding enterprise. Discounting the effects of depreciation charges, this shift of corporate structure yields an almost 10 percent increase in net cash flow.

Answer the following questions:

1. What types of corporations are described?

. What is the maximum corporation tax rate for taxable income up to $10.0 million?

. What is the main advantage of the S-corporation status?

. What does the term double taxation mean?

. In what case is the C-corporation status more preferable than the S-corporation status?

Substitute the following definitions with the words below:

unlimited liability,legal entity, partnership, limited liability, sole proprietorship.

1. non-incorporated business with unlimited liability owned by one person who may or may not have employees.

. non-incorporated business formed by the association of two or more persons (but not more than twenty) who share risks and profits according to a partnership agreement.

. party that may make contracts, carry out businesses, own property, employ people and is capable of suing and being sued for the breach of contract.

. legal law according to which shareholders are responsible for the company's debt only to the amount unpaid on their shares.

. legal law according to which owners are responsible for company's debt to the full extent of their fortune.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of business.

1. In ___ there are two or more joint owners of the business. Each of the partners is jointly, and personally, responsible for what is done by the firm. Capital availability is usually a little greater than in ____, though most ____ are small, and often consist of members of the same family.

. This category covers businesses which are owned and controlled by a single person, whether run by that person or by a hired manager. The owner being solely responsible for everything done by the business, and accountable only to him, can make all the decisions, subject only to what is technically feasible and to market forces. ____ is common in most sectors of the UK economy, especially in retailing.


Contract is an agreement made by two or more persons that is enforceable by law. It consists of voluntary promises to do or not to do certain things. When people make a contract, their promises become legal obligations.are vital to the economic systems of countries where private enterprise is encouraged. Much of the wealth of free enterprise nations takes the form of such contracts as bonds and promissory notes. Most business activities in these countries depend on contracts. These contracts include promises to deliver or pay for goods, perform or pay for services, pay wages or rent, exchange property, and construct buildings.made economic decisions are basic elements of the free enterprise system. As a result, a leading principle of contract law is that persons may agree with each other on any terms they think fit. But an agreement that would upset public order is unenforceable. For example, the courts would not enforce an agreement to bribe a public official. The courts also refuse to enforce an agreement if one party has clearly taken unfair advantage of another. The laws bar some people, chiefly minors or the mentally incompetent, from assuming obligations under contract.making of a contract usually involves two important acts: (1) making an offer and (2) accepting the offer. The acts may be verbal or in writing. However, the law requires certain contracts to be made in writing. These contracts include agreements to sell or lease property and, for instance, hire purchase agreements and contracts of employment.

Before a contract is formed, the parties usually negotiate the terms of the agreement. One party makes one or several offers. As soon as the other party accepts an offer, the negotiations are over. Under many systems of law, the moment of acceptance is decisive. At that time, the contract is concluded and after the two parties come to an agreement about terms and conditions of the transaction they sign a contract.

Commercial invoices, bills of lading.

Commercial invoices are usually issued by sellers or sellers banks after the goods are shipped, together with shipping documents invoices are usually sent to the buyers bank for payment.invoices generally contain the following information: number and date of the invoice, number and date of the contract, date of delivery, number and date of the transport document, description of the goods, price per unit, quantity and total amount to be paid.

Transportation documents are usually attached to commercial invoices as a proof of shipment which also enables the buyers to receive the goods. Transportation documents include: bills of lading, air waybills, railway bills, road carriage bills and others depending on the mode of transportation used.

Since sea and river shipments are considered most economical, they are most often used and bills of lading are thus most popular transportation documents.

Bills of lading usually contain the following: name of consignor, name of consignee, name of vessel, shipping date, weight, measurement, marking, number of cases, contents of the cases.

Sometimes, when the packing is bad or the cases are damaged, the master of the ship makes a certain note of it on the bill. It makes the bill dirty then. If no notes are made on the bill it is clean. Usually the contracts say that only clean bills of lading can be attached to the commercial invoices and thus considered a proof of shipment.

Task 1. Fill in the gaps, choosing from the words below:

terms, reclaim, charges, delivery, letter of credit, arbitration, freight/loading, penalty, substandard, parties, payment, specification, late, invoked.

DRAFT CONTRACT WIDGETRY Ltd (hereafter known as the seller) and MERCURY plc (hereafter known as the buyer)

seller undertakes to supply the buyer with 120,000 super widgets, to BSI (1) … 999and to pay all (2) … and insurance (3) ... .terms of (4) ... . and immediate payment of (5) ... charges by confirmed and irrevocable (6) ... are to be standard.(7) ... clause will be included in the contract. It will be (8) ... against the seller for late delivery or (9) ... quality; against the buyer for (10) ... payment.the event of non-payment, the seller shall be entitled to (11) ... the of a dispute between the (12) ... to the contract, the matter will be taken to independent (13) ... . All the (14) ... of the contract must be complied with by both parties.

You are an Order processor for Office Universe Limited, a London-based stationery and office equipment company. A customer rings with a problem over an invoice.

Here is a copy of the invoice:

Office Universe Limited

430-4 Upper Richmond Road SW15 5TY England 0171 434 7272 Fax 0171 434 5286


Angus LtdIndustrial Estate North Side15 Your ref: OOU22.10AB24 5TR Our ref: RG3472/5ref Qty Item Price

-1 100 A4ZoomCopyPaper@$2.20 $220.00 4563-1 2 packsMarkerpens@$5.80 $11.60

-2 1 Staples 5000 pack $5.20

-8 20 Rulers@ $0.80 $16.00

-2 100 Coloured ring binders@ $2.10 $210.00 3482-1 100 Pack of dividers @ $0.56 $11.20total $473.00 Less discount 5% $23.65total $449.35 @ 17.5% $78.64total $527.99

+ Carriage and packing $20 + $3.50 VAT @ 17.5% $23.50

TOTAL $551.49

Terms: 30 days from invoice date. Thank you for your custom. Telephone or fax your orders to Julie 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.:

You have checked with the original telephoned order and can find no mistake: the customer did order all the goods you have sent. You do sell cheaper copy paper and cheaper ring binders, but with different part reference numbers.

You accept the customer should have received a 10% discount and free

carriage and packing offer to send a new invoice.

Your company recently altered its terms to 30 days for all customers and all were notified in a separate letter.

You cannot take back the order but if the customer is unhappy he/she can return the goods and no fee will be charged.

Offer to send different quality (standard, not laser quality) copy paper and different ring binders (plain coloured).

Appendix 1



Sales manager

Export/import manager

Marketing manager

to conclude an agreement

to send a fax (~ a letter by fax)delay the delivery

to pay penalty

to open a letter of credit

Chief executive officer interviewLetter

Curriculum vitae competitive company offer a job with position, vacancy


Аpplication for the position vacant/wanted,appointments

a reference, Letter of Recommendation, Testimonial

an experimental period, term of probation

superior, undertaker, businessman discharge, fire, sack go on business return ticket

two-way or round-trip ticket

Arrivals open-date ticket pay cash ., fax machine details

.correspondence list

original contract of credit mail

to get through the customs (to clear ~)

to apply for a visa

to declare smt

to be liable to duty

to be duty free

Bill of lading

Bill of sale


Goods, wares, merchandise


4.of goodsstock/available from stock

Delivery dates

Terms and discounts

Method of Transportation


Prices of goods, quotations

Samples of goods


to effect payment by letter of credit (cheque, bank transfer)

to meet the standards

company, firm, corporation be on sale

Daughter company, subsidiary, affiliated company

Public Limited Company , stockholder


Draft Contract

Joint ventureestablish (run, close down) a business/Buyer/ Seller/Consignee

Typical Contract


Transportation costs

Terms of delivery and paymentof goods, assortment of goods

Firm offer

to be valid till

Performance, technical characteristics

to outperform smth Guarantee periodplace an order with a company for a productLimited Company

Appendix 2


А/С, АС, ас, С/А, са (account current) - поточний рахунок

а.f. (as follows) - як указано далі

a.m. I. (above mentioned) - вищезгаданий; 2. (ante meri-diem) - до полудня (див. Урок 1)

Appx (appendix) - додаток

Attn (attention) - до уваги (когось)

В/Е (bill of exchange) - перевідний вексель, трата

B/L (bill of lading) - коносамент

CEO (chief executive officer) - виконавчий директор

cf (compare) - порівняйте

CV (curriculum vitae) - коротка біографія

enc, encl (enclosed, enclosure) - вкладений, що додається, вкладення, додаток (до листа тощо)

ехс, excl. (except, excluding, exception, exclusion) - виключаючи, виключення

expn (expiration) - закінчення (терміну)

h.a. (hoc anno, лат.) - в поточному році

inv. (invoice) - рахунок-фактура

IOU (І owe you) - боргова розписка

l.a. (letter of advice) - авизо, повідомлення

L/A (letter of authority) - довіреність

L.C., L/C (letter of credit) - аккредитив

Ltd. (limited) - закрите акціонерне товариство c обмеженою відповідальністю

Ld. - акціонерне товариство c обмеженою відповідальністю

LOC (letter of commitment) - гарантійний лист

mdse (merchandise) - товари

р.а. (per annum, лат.) - на рік

Рlс, PLC (public limited company) - відкрите акціонерне товариство c обмеженою відповідальністю

р.р. (pages) - сторінки

рр, p.p. (per pro, лат.) - від імені і за дорученням

qv (quod vide) - дивись (там-то)

ret, rept (receipt) - розписка, квитанція

rе (regarding) - відносно

rеf. (reference) - посилання

shipt (shipment) - відгрузка, відправка

v., vs, vers. (versus) - против

VAT, V.A.T. (value-added tax) - ПДВ .s. (vide supra, лат.) - див. вище.

Appendix 3



administration government in power уряд (діючий)

blue-chip first-class першокласні

investments investments інвестиції

call loan short-term loan короткострокова позика

checking account current account поточний рахунок

claim letterletter of complaint лист-рекламаціяon delivery cash on delivery сплата після доставки

common stock ordinary share звичайна акціяlaw company law закон про компанії

express man carrier посильнийfix a meeting to arrange а meeting призначати зустріч

freight not prepaid carriage forward без сплати за перевезенняprepaid carriage paid із сплатою за перевезення

freight train goods train товарний потяг

government bonds government securities державні цінні папери

in good shape in good condition в гарному стані

investment bank merchant bank инвестиційний банкbusiness practice (law) процессуальне право

local taxes rates місцеві податкиoperate to run a business займатися бізнесомcosts running expenses поточні витрати

ordinance by-law постанова, указ

to pass up an offer to decline an offer відхиляти пропозицію stock preference share привілейована акція

president chairman президент (компанії)

right away immediately негайно

shipment consignment партія (товару)

stockholder shareholder акціонер

sturb counterfoil корінець (чека)

tag label етикетка

tender offer пропозиція

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