Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works

Contents


IntroductionOne. Word Building as Lexicological Phenomenon

.1 Word Building as a part of Lexicology

.2 The Ways of Word Building

.2.1 Affixation

.2.2 Conversion

.2.3 Abbreviation

.2.4 CompositionTwo. Analysis of the Examples from E. A. Poes Prose and Poetry

.1 Derivation by means of Affixation

.1.1 Suffixation

.1.2 Prefixation

.2 Conversion

.3 Abbreviation

.4 Composition


Introduction

theme of our diploma paper is Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry (on the basis of E.A. Poe's works). The cause of this selecting is the linguistic importance of this subject because word building is a major part of morphology representing the study of construction rules of words and comparative analysis of its usage in a few different kinds of literature (prose and poetry in our case) can bring a particular linguistic value. Our investigation is connected with E.A. Poes works because both prose and poetry are represented in his literary creation and they give a vast field for the linguistic research due to high quality and innovation.main goal is to prove that major processes of word building play a relevant role in prose and poetry in E. A. Poes works and to investigate which of them are the most frequent and productive.

It leads to several objectives:) to select theoretical sources connected with the subject-matter;) to study these theoretical sources;) to learn what ways of word building exist;) to find out which of these ways are the most productive;) to investigate the works of E. Poe (in poetry and prose);) to pick out and analyze a certain amount of examples in order to prove the hypothesis of the diploma;) to come to certain conclusions;) to present the results of the investigation

The hypothesis of the work is that affixation is the most productive process of word building in E. A. Poes prose and poetry.

(Actuality of the diploma is in the importance of the subject and practical investigation of the novels written in British English and American English)

Actuality of this paper is in the importance of the subject of the research that opens prospects in further studying of this aspect, because knowledge of word-formation is one of the most effective aids to the expanding of ones vocabulary, and is of great value in inferring word meaning.following methods of investigation have been used, such as: selective, syntactical, and comparative (different methods of translation). The structure of the work is the following: Introduction, Chapter One, Chapter Two, Conclusions, Bibliography, and two Appendixes.

Chapter One is called Word Building as a Lexicological Phenomenon. It contains many theoretical data on different ways of word building as affixation, conversion, abbreviation, and dealing with compounds - composition. We see that there are numerous different patterns of compound formations, which can be distinguished, based on formal and semantic criteria. It represents the theoretical material for studying of such authors as: V. Adams, Ginsburg R.S., Arnold I.V, H. Marchand, and O. Meshkov O.D. etc.

Chapter Two is entitled Analysis of the Examples on the Basis of E.A. Poes Prose and Poetry. It represents about 200 examples picked out of E. Poes prose and poetry, which are collected, classified, analyzed, and presented in different tables. The chapter is divided into several subchapters. Each of them gives the detailed analysis of the examples picked out of E.A. Poes prose and poetry of each above mentioned word formation pattern.

Conclusions is the part of the diploma in which the results of the investigation as well as the confirmation of the hypothesis of the work is shown to our satisfaction, that is, affixation is the most productive process of word building in E.A. Poes prose and poetry.

Bibliography presents a good and important selection of the authors dealing with the subject of the investigation and some internet sites connected with the same subject. It also presents the list of dictionaries used in the course of work and literary sources by E.A. Poe.

Appendix 1 shows the examples, which were not included in Chapter Two.

Appendix 2 presents the statistic data of the research.


Chapter One. Word Building as a Lexicological Phenomenon

building is the study of words, dealing with the construction or formation rules of words in a certain language. This paper studies and analyses various ways of word-building two kinds of literature (prose and poetry) so that similarities and differences are found between them through comparison. This will be done in the following, theoretically-oriented chapter, where we present some theories that have explicitly aimed at modeling these relationships.have studied the theoretical sources dealing with numerous affixation processes in English in this part of the diploma. We saw that it is not always easy to differentiate affixes from other morphological entities, and then after investigating some general characteristics of English affixation, we see that suffixation and prefixation are very common and extremely restricted phenomenon in English word-formation. In the next section of this chapter we will have a closer look at the characteristics of some non-affixational processes by which new words can be derived. First, three major problems of conversion will be discussed and, then abbreviations will be investigated. We have touched upon one of the most productive means of creating new words in English, compounding, in the final subparagraph of our work. We have seen that there are numerous different patterns of compound or composed formations which can be distinguished on the basis of formal and semantic criteria., the term word building does not have a clear cut, universally accepted usage. It is sometimes referred to all processes connected with changing the form of the word by, for example, affixation, which is a matter of morphology. In its wider sense word formation denotes the processes of creation of new lexical units. Although it seems that the difference between morphological change of a word and creation of a new term is quite easy to perceive, there is sometimes a dispute as to whether blending is still a morphological change or making a new word. There are, of course, numerous word formation processes that do not arouse any controversies and are very similar in the majority of languages. [12, 34]of the distinctive properties of human language is creativity, by which we mean the ability of native speakers of a language to produce and understand new forms in their language. Even though creativity is most apparent when it comes to sentence formation, it is also manifest in our lexical knowledge, where new words are added to our mental lexicon regularly. The most comprehensive expositions of word formation processes that speakers of a language regularly use both consciously and unconsciously to create new words in their language are presented in this paper. [9, 56]


1.1 Word building as part of lexicology

term word-building or derivational pattern is used to denote a meaningful combination of stems and affixes that occur regularly enough to indicate the part of speech, the lexico-semantic category and semantic peculiarities common to most words with this particular arrangement of morphemes. Every type of word building (affixation, conversion, abbreviation, and composition for compound words) as well as every part of speech has a characteristic set of patterns. [3, 81]word-building are understood processes of producing new words from the resources of this particular language. Together with borrowing, word building provides for enlarging and enriching the vocabulary of the language.English language is in a permanent state of renewal and change. Language is the mirror of society and the English vocabulary reflects the quick social, cultural, and scientific changes undergone by modern society. New entries are constantly added, as speakers have to refer to new concepts, objects, and ideas. In the English vocabulary verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs belong to open classes, that is to say, they are open because they can be extended indefinitely by the addition of new items. [4, 45]these new words, save exceptions, are not created from nowhere, but are either borrowed or formed by combining words or parts of words which already exist in the language, abbreviating them or changing their word class Speakers of English can easily coin new terms to suit their needs. Journalists, in particular, take advantage of the power that the English language has to generate new terms. When we read a newspaper or a magazine we are likely to come across words which we have never seen or heard before because they have just been coined by a creative speaker or writer. However, native speakers are perfectly able to process innovative word uses, and these words can be easily understood because they share the pattern of established words in the vocabulary. If alcoholic is familiar, then other words formed on the same pattern, such as workaholic or shopaholic, are also comprehensible. Knowledge of word-formation is, therefore, one of the most effective aids to the expanding of ones vocabulary, and is of great value in inferring word meaning. [1, 79]are various ways of forming words, but largely, the various processes can be classified based on frequency of usage, into major and minor processes. There are three major processes, namely, affixation, conversion, abbreviation and compounding. There are eight minor processes, namely, blending, clipping, acronymy, back-formation, words from proper names, reduplication, neo-classical formation and miscellaneous. We will only touch upon major processes of word building because the attempt to pick out and analyze all the processes in E. Poes prose and poetry turned out to be fruitless due to their specificity. [5, 26]dealing with word-formation proper, we will first explain some of the terminology to use in the study and discussion of word building. The rule of word-formation define the scope and methods whereby speakers of language may create new words; for instance, the -able word-formation rule says, -able is to be added form an adjective meaning fit to be , or to nouns to form an adjective with the sense showing the quality of. In addition, one of the noun compound formations is noun plus noun. However, it should be pointed out that any rule of word-formation is: of limited productivity in the sense that not all words which result from the rule of the rule are acceptable: they are only acceptable only when they have gained an institutional currency in the language [11, 15]

Root , stem , and «base «are terms used in linguistics to designate that part of a word that remains when all affixes have been removed. If we describe a word as an autonomous unit of language in which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex and which is capable of a particular grammatical employment and able to form a sentence by itself we have the possibility to distinguish it from the other fundamental language unit, namely, the morpheme. According to the role they play in constructing words, morphemes are subdivided into roots and affixes. The latter are further subdivided, according to their position, into prefixes, suffixes and infixes, and according to their function and meaning, into derivational and functional affixes, the latter also called endings or outer formatives. [10,40]root is a form, which is further analyzable, either in terms of derivational or inflectional morphology. It is that part of a word -form reform that remains when the inflectional and derivational suffixes have been removed. A stem is of concern only when dealing with inflectional morphology inflectional (but not derivational) affixes are added to it: it is the part of the word-form which remains when all inflectional affixes have been removed. [12, 47] When a derivational or functional affix is stripped from the word, what remains is a stem. The stem expresses the lexical and the part of speech meaning. This stem is a single morpheme; it contains nothing but the root, so it is a simple stem. [11, 25]example, in the word desirable, desire is the base to which a suffix -able is added or in order words, an -able word-formation rule is applied; but -desire is also the root because it is not further analyzable. However, when un-»is then added to desirable the whole of this item desirable would be referred to as the base, but it could not be considered a root because it is analyzable in terms of derivational morphology, nor is it a stem since it does not permit the adding of inflectional affixes.a subject of study, word-formation is that branch of lexicology, which studies the pattern on which a language, in this cases the English language, coins new word. Thus, affixation, conversion and compounding or composition, are the three major types of word-formation in contemporary English.morphemes are subdivided into two large classes: roots (or radicals) and affixes. The latter, in their turn, fall into prefixes which precede the root in the structure of the word (as in re-read, mis-pronounce, unwell) and suffixes which follow the root (as in teach-er, cur-able, diet-ate). [5, 70], which consist of a root and an affix (or several affixes), are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word building known as affixation (or derivation).Derived words are extremely numerous in the English vocabulary. Successfully competing with this structural type is the so-called root word, which has only a root morpheme in its structure. This type is widely represented by a great number of words belonging to the original English stock or to earlier borrowings (house, room, book, work, port, street, table, etc.). Modern English, has been greatly enlarged by the type of word-building called conversion (e. g. to hand, v. formed from the noun hand; to can, (v). from can, (п).; to pale, (v). from pale, (adj).; a find, (n). from to find, (v).; etc.). [1, 59]widespread word-structure is a compound word consisting of two or more stems (e. g. dining-room, bluebell, and mother-in-law, good-for-nothing). The word-building process called composition produces words of this structural type.somewhat odd-looking words like flu, pram, lab, M. P., V-day, H-bomb are called shortenings, contractions or curtailed words and are produced by the way of word-building called shortening (contraction).minor types of word-formation, together with the four major types of word-formation (affixation, conversion, abbreviation and compounding) are the means by which new words are created in the English language. Genuine coinages are rare. [6, 56]


1.2 The Ways of Word building

this subparagraph, we present a number of word-formation processes that involve affixes as their primary or only means of deriving words from other words or morphemes and the processes, which derived words without any graphical changes. The four types (root words, derived words, compounds, shortenings) represent the main structural types of Modern English words, and conversion, derivation and composition the most productive ways of word-building. [2,45]


1.2.1 Affixation

Affixation consists in adding derivational affixes (i.e., prefixes and suffixes) to roots and stems to form new words. For example, if the suffix -able is added to the word pass, the word passable is created. Likewise, if to the word passable the prefix in-is attached, another word is formed, namely impassable. Affixation is a very common and productive morphological process in synthetic languages. In English, derivation is the form of affixation that yields new words.is one of the most productive ways of word building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation. The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to some root morpheme. The role of the affix in this procedure is very important and therefore it is necessary to consider certain facts about the main types of affixes. [2, 62]) Suffixationis the formation of words with the help of suffixes. Suffixes usually modify the lexical meaning of the base and transfer words to a different part of speech. There are suffixes how-ever, which do not shift words from one part of speech into another; a suffix of this kind usually transfers a word into a different semantic group, e. g. a concrete noun becomes an abstract one, as is the case with child-childhood, friend-friendship, etc.main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another; the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. (e.g. «educate» is a verb, educatee is a noun, and music is a noun, musicdom is also a noun). [5, 56]are different classifications of suffixes in linguistic literature, as suffixes may be divided into several groups according to different principles:

) The first principle of classification that, one might say, suggests itself is the part of speech formed. Within the scope of the part-of- speech classification suffixes naturally fall into several groups such as:) Noun-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in nouns, e. g.-er, -dom, -ness,» -ation, etc. (teacher, Londoner, freedom, brightness, justification, etc.);) Adjective-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in adjectives, e. g. -able, -less, -ful, -ic, -ous, etc. (agreeable, careless, doubtful, poetic, courageous, etc.);) Verb-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in verbs, e.g.-en, -fy, -ize (darken, satisfy, harmonize, etc.);) Adverb-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in adverbs, e.g.-ly, -ward. (quickly, eastward, etc.). [8, 76]

) Suffixes may also be classified into various groups according to the lexico-grammatical character of the base the affix is usually added to. Proceeding from this principle one may divide suffixes into:) Deverbal suffixes (those added to the verbal base), e. g. -er,-ing, -ment, -able, etc. (speaker, reading, agreement, suitable, etc.);) Denominal suffixes (those added to the noun base), e. g. -less, -ish, -ful, -ist, -some, etc. (handless, childish, mouthful, violinist, troublesome, etc.);) De-adjectival suffixes (those affixed to the adjective base), e. g. -en, -ly, -ish, -ness, etc. (blacken, slowly, reddish, brightness, etc.). [11, 80]

) A classification of suffixes may also be based on the criterion of sense expressed by a set of suffixes. Proceeding from the principle suffixes are classified into various groups within the bounds of a certain part of speech. For instance, noun-suffixes fall into those denoting:) the agent of an action, e. g. -er,-ant (baker, dancer, defendant, etc.);) Appurtenance, e. g. -an, -ian, -ese, etc. (Arabian, Elizabethan, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, etc.);) Collectivity, e.g. -age, -dom, -ery (-ry), etc. (freightage, officialdom, peasantry, etc.); d) diminutiveness, e. g. -ie, -let, -ling, etc. (birdie, girlie, cloudlet, squirreling, wolfing, etc.). [11, 82]

) Suffixes are also classified as to the degree of their productivity.is usually made between dead and living affixes. Dead affixes are described as those which are no longer felt in Modern English as component parts of words; they have so fused with the base of the word as to lose their independence completely. It is only by special etymological analysis that they may be singled out, e. g. -d in dead, seed, -le, -l,-el in bundle, sail, hovel; -ock in hillock; -lock in padlock; -t in flight, gift, height. It is quite clear that dead suffixes are irrelevant to present-day English word building; they belong in its diachronic study.affixes may be easily singled out from a word, e. g. the noun- forming suffixes -ness, -dom, -hood, -age, -ance, as in darkness, freedom, childhood, marriage, assistance, etc. or the adjective-forming suffixes -en, -ous, -ive, -ful, -y as in wooden, poisonous, active, hopeful, stony, etc. [15,32], not all living derivational affixes of Modern English possess the ability to coin new words. Some of them may be employed to coin new words on the spur of the moment; others cannot, so that they are different from the point of view of their productivity. Accordingly they fall into two basic classes - productive and non-productive word-building affixes.has been pointed out that linguists disagree as to what is meant by the productivity of derivational affixes. Following the first approach all living affixes should be considered productive in varying degrees from highly productive (e. g. -er, -ish,-less etc.) to non-productive (e. g. -ard, -cy, -ive etc.)., it becomes important to describe the constraints imposed on and the factors favoring the productivity of affixational patterns and individual affixes. The degree of productivity of affixational patterns very much depends on the structural, lexico-grammatical and semantic nature of bases and the meaning of the affix. For instance, the analysis of the bases from which the suffix -ize can derive verbs reveals that it is most productive with noun-stems, adjective-stems also favor ifs productivity, whereas verb-stems and adverb-stems do not, e. g. criticize(critic),organize (organ), itemize (item), mobilize (mobile), localize(local), etc. [2,51]of the semantic structure of a verb in -ize with that of the base it is built on shows that the number of meanings of the stem usually exceeds that of the verb and that its basic meaning favors the productivity of the suffix -ize to a greater degree than its marginal meanings, e. g. to characterize - character, to moralize - moral, to dramatize - drama, etc.treatment of certain affixes as non-productive naturally also depends on the concept of productivity. The current definition of non-productive derivational affixes as those which cannot hg used in Modern English for the coining of new words is rather vague and maybe interpreted in different ways. Following the definition the term non-productive refers only to the affixes un-likely to be used for the formation of new words, e.g. -ous", -th, fore-and some others (famous, depth, foresee).one accepts the other concept of productivity mentioned above, then non-productive affixes must be defined as those that cannot be used for the formation of occasional words and, consequently, such affixes as»-dom,-ship,-ful,-en,-ify,-ate and many others are to be regarded as non-productive. The theory of relative productivity of derivational affixes is also corroborated by some other observations made on English word-formation.instance, different productive affixes are found in different periods of the history of the language. It is extremely significant, for example, that out of the seven verb-forming suffixes of the Old English period only one has survived up to the present time with a very low degree of productivity, namely the suffix -en (e. g. to soften, to darken, to whiten). [6,39], there are cases when a derivational affix being nonproductive in the non-specialized section of the vocabulary is used to coin scientific or technical terms. This is the case, for instance, with the suffix -ance which has been used to form some terms in Electrical Engineering, e.g. capacitance, impedance, reactance. The same is true of the suffix -ity which has been used to form terms in physics, and chemistry such as alkalinity, luminosity, emissivity and some others. [10,67]) Prefixationmorphemes affixed before the stem are called prefixes. Prefixes modify the lexical meaning of the stem, but in so doing them seldom affect its basic lexico-grammatical component. Therefore, both the simple word and its prefixed derivative mostly belong to the same part of speech. The prefix mis-, for instance, when added to verbs, conveys the meaning wrongly, badly, unfavorably; it does not suggest any other part of speech but the verb. Compare the following oppositions: behave - misbehave, calculate - miscalculate, inform - misinform, lead - mislead, pronounce - mispronounce. The above oppositions are strictly proportional semantically, i.e. the same relationship between elements holds throughout the series. There may be other cases where the semantic relationship is slightly different but the general lexico-grammatical meaning remains, (cf. giving - misgiving, take - mistake and trust - mistrust.) [16, 65]is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In English it is characteristic for forming verbs. Prefixes are more independent than suffixes. Prefixes can be classified according to the nature of words in which they are used: prefixes used in notional words and prefixes used in functional words. Prefixes used in notional words are proper prefixes which are bound morphemes, e.g. un-»(unhappy). Prefixes used in functional words are semi-bound morphemes because they are met in the language as words, e.g. over-(overhead).main function of prefixes in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. But the recent research showed that about twenty-five prefixes in Modern English form one part of speech from another (bebutton, interfamily, postcollege etc). [8,124]can be classified according to different principles:

. Semantic classification:semantic effect of a prefix may be termed adverbial because it modifies the idea suggested by the stem for manner, time, place, degree and so on. A few examples will prove the point. It has been already shown that the prefix mis-»is equivalent to the adverbs wrongly and badly, therefore by expressing evaluation it modifies the corresponding verbs for manner.1 The prefixes pre- and post- refer to time and order, e. g. historic - pre-historic, pay - prepay, view -preview. The last word means to view a film or a play before it is submitted to the general public. Compare also: graduate: postgraduate (about the course of study carried on after graduation), Impressionism: Post-impressionism. The latter is so called because it came after Impressionism as a reaction against it. The prefixes in-, a-, ab-, super-, sub-, trans-»modify the stem for place, e. g. income, abduct to carry away, subway, transatlantic. Several prefixes serve to modify the meaning of the stem for degree and size. [15,137] the examples are out-, over-and under-.) Prefixes of negative meaning, such as: in-(invaluable), non-(nonformals), un-(unfree) etc,group of negative prefixes is so numerous that some scholars even find it convenient to classify prefixes into negative and non-negative ones. The negative ones are: de-, dis-,in-»im-, il-, ir-. Part of this group has been also more accurately classified as prefixes giving negative, reverse or opposite meaning. [6, 165]general idea of negation is expressed by dis- it may mean not, and be simply negative or the reverse of, asunder, away, apart and then it is called reversative. Cf. agree - disagree (not to agree) appear - disappear (disappear is the reverse of appear), appoint - disappoint (to undo the appointment and thus frustrate the expectation), disgorge (eject as from the throat), dishouse (throw out, evict).) Prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions, such as: de-(decolonize) re-(revegetation), dis-(disconnect)) Prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations, such as: inter-(interplanetary), hyper-(hypertension), ex-(ex-student), pre-(pre-election), over-(over drugging) etc.

. Origin of prefixes:the point of view of etymology, affixes are subdivided into two main classes: the native affixes and the borrowed affixes. By native affixes, we shall mean those that existed in English in the Old English period or were formed from Old English words. The latter category needs some explanation. The changes a morpheme undergoes in the course of language history may be of very different kinds. A bound form, for instance, may be developed from a free one. This is precisely the case with such English suffixes as -dom, -hood, -lock, -ful, -less, -like, -ship, The suffix»-hood that we see in childhood, boyhood is derived from Old English had state. The OE -dom was also a suffix denoting state. The process may be summarized as follows: first -dom formed the second element of compound words, and then it became a suffix and lastly was so fused with the stem as to become a dead suffix in wedlock. The nouns freedom, wisdom, etc. were originally compound words. The most important native suffixes are: -d, -dom, -ed, -en, -fold, -ful, -hood, -ing, -ish, -less, -let, -like, -lock, -ly, -ness, -oc, -red, -ship, -some,-teen, -th, -ward, -wise,-y. [9, 77]) Native (Germanic), such as: un-, over-, under-etc.) Romanic, such as: in-, de-,ex-, re-etc.) Greek, such as: sym-, hyper-etc.we analyze such words as: adverb, accompany where we can find the root of the word (verb, company) we may treat ad-,ac-as prefixes though they were never used as prefixes to form new words in English and were borrowed from Romanic languages together with words. In such cases we can treat them as derived words. But some scientists treat them as simple words. Another group of words with a disputable structure are such as: contain, retain, detain and conceive, receive, deceive where we can see that re-, de-, con-»act as prefixes and -tain, -ceive can be understood as roots. But in English these combinations of sounds have no lexical meaning and are called pseudo-morphemes. Some scientists treat such words as simple words, others as derived ones. [11, 56]majority of prefixes affect only the lexical meaning of words but there are three important cases where prefixes serve to form words belonging to different parts of speech as compared with the original word. These are in the first place the verb-forming prefixes be-»and en-, which combine functional meaning with a certain variety of lexical meanings. Be-forms transitive verbs with adjective, verb and noun stems and changes intransitive verbs into transitive ones. Examples are: belittle (v) to make little, benumb (v) to make numb, befriend (v) to treat [3, 182]


1.2.2 Conversion

Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [1,89 ] Thus, when the noun sign shifts to the verb sign(ed) without any change in the word form we can say this is a case of conversion. However, it does not mean that this process takes place in all the cases of homophones [3, 68]. Sometimes, the connection has to do with coincidences or old etymological ties that have been lost. For example, mind and matter are cases of this grammatical sameness without connection by conversion-the verbs have nothing to do today with their respective noun forms in terms of semantics.is particularly common in English because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It is usually impossible in languages with grammatical genders, declensions or conjugations. [11, 43]status of conversion is a bit unclear. It must be undoubtedly placed within the phenomena of word-formation; nevertheless, there are some doubts about whether it must be considered a branch of derivation or a separate process by itself (with the same status as derivation or compounding). [5, 88]this undetermined position in grammar, some scholars assert that conversion will become even more active in the future because it is a very easy way to create new words in English. There is no way to know the number of conversions appearing every day in the spoken language, although we know this number must be high. As it is a quite recent phenomenon, the written evidence is not a fully reliable source. We will have to wait a little longer to understand its whole impact, which will surely increase in importance in the next decades.is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system. It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. Saying that, however, is saying very little because there are other types of word building in which new words are also formed without affixes (most compounds, contracted words, sound-imitation words, etc.). [3,150] the notion of conversion is to re-classification of secondary word classes within one part of speech, a phenomenon also called transposition.consists in making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. The new word has a meaning, which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it. It has also a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech. The term «conversion» first appeared in the book by Henry Sweet «New English Grammar» in 1891. Conversion is treated differently by different scientists, e.g. prof. A.I. Smirntitsky treats conversion as a morphological way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech by changing its paradigm, e.g. to form the verb «to dial» from the noun «dial» we change the paradigm of the noun (a dial,dials) for the paradigm of a regular verb (I dial, he dials, dialed, dialing). A. Marchand in his book The Categories and Types of Present-day English treats conversion as a morphological-syntactical word-building because we have not only the change of the paradigm, but also the change of the syntactic function, e.g. I need some good paper for my room. (The noun «paper» is an object in the sentence). I paper my room every year. (The verb «paper» is the predicate in the sentence) [1, 90]from the perhaps more obvious possibility to derive words with the help of affixes, there are a number of other ways to create new words on the basis of already existing ones. We have already illustrated these in the first chapter of this book, when we briefly introduced the notions of conversion, truncations, clippings, blends, and abbreviations. In this chapter we will have a closer look at these non-concatenative processes. We will begin with conversion. Conversion can be defined as the derivation of a new word without any overt marking. In order to find cases of conversion we have to look for pairs of words that are derivationally related and are completely identical in their phonetic realization.can be seen from the organization of the data, different types of conversion can be distinguished, in particular noun to verb, verb to noun, adjective to verb and adjective to noun. Other types can also be found, but seem to be more marginal (e.g. the use of prepositions as verbs, as in to down the can). Conversion raises three major theoretical problems that we will discuss in the following: the problem of directionality, the problem of zero-morphs and the problem of the morphology-syntax boundary. [11, 92]question of conversion has, for a long time, been a controversial one in several aspects. The essence of this process has been treated by a number of scholars (e. g. H. Sweet), not as a word-building act, but as a mere functional change. From this point of view the word hand in Hand me that book is not a verb, but a noun used in a verbal syntactical function, that is, hand (me) and hands (in She has small hands) are not two different words but one. Hence, the саsе cannot be treated as one of word-formation for no new word appears. [15,128]to this functional approach, conversion may be regarded as a specific feature of the English categories of parts of speech, which are supposed to be able to break through the rigid borderlines dividing one category from another thus enriching the process of communication not by the creation of new words but through the sheer flexibility of the syntactic structures.this theory finds increasingly fewer supporters, and conversion is universally accepted as one of the major ways of enriching English vocabulary with new words. One of the major arguments for this approach to conversion is the semantic change that regularly accompanies each instance of conversion. Normally, a word changes its syntactic function without any shift in lexical meaning. E. g. both in yellow leaves and in the leaves were turning yellow the adjective denotes color. Yet, in the leaves yellowed the converted unit no longer denotes color, but the process of changing color, so that there is an essential change in meaning. The change of meaning is even more obvious in such pairs as hand - to hand, face - to face, to go - a go, to make -»a make, etc. [15,180]two categories of parts of speech especially affected by conversion are nouns and verbs. Verbs made from nouns are the most numerous amongst the words produced by conversion: e. g. to hand, to back, to face, to eye, to mouth, to nose, to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to can, to coal, to stage, to screen, to room, to floor, to blackmail, to blacklist, to honeymoon, and very many others.are frequently made from verbs: do (e. g. This is the queerest do I've ever come across. Do - event, incident), go (e. g. He has still plenty of go at his age. Go - energy), make, run, find, catch, cut, walk, worry, show, move, etc.can also be made from adjectives: to pale, to yellow, to cool, to grey, to rough (e. g. We decided to rough it in the tents as the weather was warm), etc.can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings because of that, e.g.) Verbs have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting parts of a human body e.g. to eye, to finger, to elbow, to shoulder etc. They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.g. to hammer, to machine-gun, to rifle, to nail,) Verbs can denote an action characteristic of the living being denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to crowd, to wolf, to ape,) Verbs can denote acquisition, addition or deprivation if they are formed from nouns denoting an object, e.g. to fish, to dust, to peel, to paper,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the place denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to park, to garage, to bottle, to corner, to pocket,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the time denoted by the noun from which they have been converted e.g. to winter, to week-end. [11, 94]can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e.g. to tame (to become or make tame), to clean, to slim etc. Nouns can also be formed by means of conversion from verbs.nouns can denote:) instant of an action e.g. a jump, a move,) process or state e.g. sleep, walk,) agent of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a help, a flirt, a scold,) object or result of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a burn, a find, a purchase,) place of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a drive, a stop, a walk. Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentaneous actions. In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as: to have, to get, to take etc., e.g. to have a try, to give a push, to take a swim. [10, 95]frequent but also quite possible is conversion from form words to nouns. e. g. He liked to know the ins and outs. Shant go into the whys and wherefores. He was familiar with ups and downs of life. Use is even made of affixes. Thus, ism is a separate word nowadays meaning a set of ideas or principles, e. g. Freudism, existentialism and all the other -isms.all the above examples the change of paradigm is present and helpful for classifying the newly coined words as cases of conversion. But it is not absolutely necessary, because conversion is not limited to such parts of speech which possess a paradigm. That, for example, may be converted into an adverb in informal speech: I was that hungry I could have eaten a horse. [3,189]speaker realizes the immense potentiality of making a word into another part of speech when the need arises. One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e. g. love, n. - to love, v.; work, n. - to work, v.; drink, n. - to drink, v., etc.) which did, not occur due to conversion but coincided as a result of certain historical processes (dropping of endings, simplification of stems) when before that they had different forms. On the other hand, it is quite true that the first cases of conversion (which were registered n the 14th c.) imitated such pairs of words as love, n. - to love, v. for they were numerous in the vocabulary and were subconsciously accepted by native speakers as one of the typical language patterns [6, 167]


1.2.3 Abbreviation

In the process of communication, words and word-groups can be shortened. The causes of shortening can be linguistic and extra-linguistic. By extra- linguistic causes, changes in the life of people are meant. In Modern English many new abbreviations, acronyms, initials, blends are formed because the tempo of life is increasing and it becomes necessary to give more and more information in the shortest possible time. There are also linguistic causes of abbreviating words and word-groups, such as the demand of rhythm, which is satisfied in English by monosyllabic words. When borrowings from other languages are assimilated in English, they are shortened. Here we have modification of form on the basis of analogy, e.g. the Latin borrowing fanaticus is shortened to «fan» on the analogy with native words: man, pan, tan etc. There are two main types of shortenings: graphical and lexical. [2,209]

. If the abbreviated written form lends itself to be read as though it were an ordinary English word and sounds like an English word, it will be read like one. The words thus formed are called acronyms (from Gr. acros- end +onym - name). This way of forming new words is becoming more and more popular in almost all fields of human activity, and especially in political and technical vocabulary: U.N.O., also UNO - United Nations Organization, NATO - the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, SALT-Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. The last example shows that acronyms are often homonymous to ordinary words; sometimes intentionally chosen so as to create certain associations. Thus, for example, the National Organization for Women is called NOW. Typical of acronymic coinages in technical terminology are JATO, laser, maser and radar. JATO or jato means jet-assisted take-off; laser stands for light amplification by stimulated emission radiation; maser- for micro-wave amplification and stimulated emission radiation; radar -for radio detection and ranging, it denotes a system for ascertaining direction and ranging of aircraft, ships, coasts and other objects by means of electro-magnetic waves which they reflect. Acronyms became so popular that their number justified the publication of special dictionaries, such as D.D. Spencers Computer Acronym Handbook. [5,189] Acronyms present a special interest because they exemplify the working of the lexical adaptive system. In meeting the needs of communication and fulfilling the laws of information theory requiring a maximum signal in the minimum time the lexical system undergoes modification in its basic structure: namely it forms new elements not by combining existing morphemes and proceeding from sound forms to their graphic representation but the other way round - coining new words from the initial letters of phrasal terms originating in texts.

. The other subgroup consists of initial abbreviation with the alphabetical reading retained, i.e. pronounced as a series of letters. They also retain correlation with prototypes. The examples are well known: B.B.C. - the British Broadcasting Corporation; G.I. - for Government Issue, a widely spread metonymical name for American soldiers on the items of whose uniforms these letters are stamped. The last abbreviation was originally an Americanism but has been firmly established in British English as well. M.P is mostly used as an initial abbreviation for Member of Parliament, also military police, whereas P.M. stands for Prime Minister.are freely used in colloquial speech as seen from the following extract, in which СР. Snow describes the House of Commons gossip: They were swapping promises to speak for one another: one was bragging how two senior Ministers were in the bag to speak for him. Roger was safe, someone said, he'd give a hand. What has the P.M. got in mind for Roger when we come back? The familiar colloquial quality of the context is very definitely marked by the set expressions: in the bag, give a hand, get in mind, etc. [12, 34]

. The term abbreviation may be also used for a shortened form of a written word or phrase used in a text in place of the whole for economy of space and effort. Abbreviation is achieved by omission of letters from one or more parts of the whole, as for instance abbr for abbreviation, bldg- for building, govt- for government, wd- for word, doz or dz for dozen, ltd for limited, B.A.- for Bachelor of Arts, N.Y.- for New York State. Sometimes the part or parts retained show some alteration, thus, oz denotes ounce and Xmas denotes Christmas. [15, 34]

. An interesting feature of present-day English is the use of initial abbreviations for famous persons names and surnames. Thus, George Bernard Shaw is often alluded to as G.B.S., Herbert George Wells as H.G. The usage is clear from the following example: Oh, yes... where was I? With H.G.s Martians, [7,137]is no uniformity in semantic relationships between the elements: Z-bar is a metallic bar with a cross section shaped like the letter Z, while Z-hour is an abbreviation of zero-hour meaning the time set for the beginning of the attack, U is standing for upper classes in such combinations as U-pronunciation, U-language. Cf. U-boat (a submarine). Non-U is its opposite.will have been noted that all kinds of shortening are very productive in present-day English. They are especially numerous in colloquial speech, both familiar colloquial and professional slang. They display great combining activity and form bases for further word-formation and inflection.of words consists in clipping a part of a word. As a result we get a new lexical unit where either the lexical meaning or the style is different from the full form of the word. In such cases as »fantasy» and «fancy», «fence» and «defence» we have different lexical meanings. In such cases as «laboratory» and «lab», we have different styles. [2,112]does not change the part-of-speech meaning, as we have it in the case of conversion or affixation, it produces words belonging to the same part of speech as the primary word, e.g. prof is a noun and professor is also a noun. Mostly nouns undergo abbreviation, but we can also meet abbreviation of verbs, such as to rev from to revolve, to tab from to tabulate etc. But mostly abbreviated forms of verbs are formed by means of conversion from abbreviated nouns, e.g. to taxi, to vac etc. Adjectives can be abbreviated but they are mostly used in school slang and are combined with suffixation, e.g. comfy, dilly, mizzy etc. As rule pronouns, numerals, interjections, conjunctions are not abbreviated. The exceptions are: fif (fifteen), teenager, in ones teens [7,189]abbreviations are classified according to the part of the word which is clipped. Mostly the end of the word is clipped, because the beginning of the word in most cases is the root and expresses the lexical meaning of the word.type of abbreviation is called deflexion orapocope. Here we can mention a group of words ending in o, such as disco (dicotheque), expo (exposition), intro (introduction) and many others. On the analogy with these words there developed in Modern English a number of words where «o» is added as a kind of a suffix to the shortened form of the word, e.g. combo (combination), Afro (African) etc. In other cases the beginning of the word is clipped. In such cases we have apheresis, e.g. chute (parachute), varsity (university), copter (helicopter), thuse (enthuse) etc. Sometimes the middle of the word is clipped, e.g. mart (market), fanzine (fan magazine) maths (mathematics). Such abbreviations are called syncope. Sometimes we have a combination of apocope with apheresis,when the beginning and the end of the word are clipped, e.g. tec (detective), van (avanguard) etc. [8,176] Sometimes shortening influences the spelling of the word, e.g. «c» can be substituted by «k» before «e» to preserve pronunciation, e.g. mike (microphone), Coke (coca-cola) etc. The same rule is observed in the following cases: fax (facsimile), teck (technical college), trank (tranquilizer) etc. The final consonants in the shortened forms are substituted by letters characteristic of native English words.


1.2.4 Composition

This type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems, is one of the three most productive types in Modern English, the other two are conversion and affixation. Compounds, though certainly fewer in quantity than derived or root words, still represent one of the most typical and specific features of English word-structure. [2,113]words are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a sentence as a separate lexical unit. E. g.: I'd rather read a time-table than nothing at all.or compounding is the way of word building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. The structural unity of a compound word depends upon: a) the unity of stress, b) solid or hyphenated spelling, c) semantic unity, d) unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. These are characteristic features of compound words in all languages. For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on the first component), e.g. hard-cover, best-seller. We can also have a double stress in an English compound, with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component, e.g. blood- vessel. The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses, e.g. snow- white, sky-blue. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphenated spelling. [7,103]in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling even in the same text, e.g. war-ship, blood- vessel can be spelt through a hyphen and also with a break, insofar, underfoot can be spelt solidly and with a break. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound words which are called block compounds, they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break, e.g. air piracy, cargo module, coin change, pinguin suit etc. The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components, e.g. to ghostwrite, skinhead, brain-drain etc. In nonidiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong, e. g., airbus, to bloodtransfuse, astrodynamics etc. English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. They are used in a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically, e.g. these girls are chatter-boxes. «Chatter-boxes» is a predicative in the sentence and only the second component changes grammatically. There are two characteristic features of English compounds: a) both components in an English compound are free stems, that they can be used as words with a distinctive meaning of their own. The sound pattern will be the same except for the. The stems are bound morphemes, as a rule.) English compounds have a two-stem pattern, with the exception of compound words which have form-word stems in their structure, e.g. middle- of-the-road, off-the-record, up-and-doing etc. The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones. [9,146]) Ways of forming compound wordsstructural cohesion of a compound may depend upon unity of stress, solid or hyphenated spelling, semantic unity, unity of morphological and syntactic functioning, or, more often, upon the combined effect of several of these or similar phonetic, graphic, semantic, morphological or syntactic factors. [6,64]integrity of a compound is manifest in its indivisibility, i.e. the impossibility of inserting another word or word-group between its elements. If, for example, speaking about a sunbeam, we can insert some other word between the article and the noun, e. g. a bright sunbeam, a bright and unexpected sunbeam, because the article a is a separate word, no such insertion is possible between the stems sun and beam, for they are not words but morphemes here. Syntactic ties are ties between words, whereas in dealing with a compound one studies relations within a word, the relations between its constituents, the morphemes. In the compound spacecraft space is not attribute, it is the determinant restricting the meaning of the determinatum by expressing the purpose for which craft is designed or the medium in which it will travel.great variety of compound types brings about a great variety of classifications. Compound words may be classified according to the type of composition and the linking element; according to the part of speech to which the compound belongs; and within each part of speech according to the structural pattern (see the next paragraph). It is also possible to subdivide compounds according to other characteristics, i.e. semantically, into motivated and idiomatic compounds (in the motivated ones the meaning of the constituents can be either direct or figurative). A classification according to the type of the syntactic phrase with which the compound is correlated has also been suggested. Even so there remain some miscellaneous types that defy classification, such as phrase compounds, reduplicative compounds, pseudo-compounds and quotation compounds. [15,178]classification according to the type of composition permits us to establish the following groups:

) The predominant type is a mere juxtaposition without connecting elements: heartache (n), heart-beat(n), heart-break(n), heart-breaking(a), heart-broken(a), heart-felt(a).

) Composition with a vowel or a consonant as a linking element. The examples are very few: electromotive (a), speedometer (n), Afro-Asian (a), handicraft(n), statesman(n).

) Compounds with linking elements represented by preposition or conjunction stems: down-and-out (n), matter-of-fact (a), son-in-law(n), pep-per-and-salt(a), wall-to-wall (a), up-to-date(a), on the up-and-up(adv) (continually improving), up-and-coming, as in the following example: No doubt hed had the pick of some up-and-coming jazzmen in Paris. There are also a few other lexicalised phrases like devil-may-care (a), forget-me-not(n), pick-me-up(n), stick-in-the-mud(n), whats-her name(n). [12, 97]classification of compounds according to the structure of immediate constituents distinguishes:

) Compounds consisting of simple stems: film-star;

) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a derived stem: chain-smoker;

) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a clipped stem: maths-mistress (in British English) and math-mistress (in American English). The subgroup will contain abbreviations like H-bag (handbag) or Xmas (Christmas), whodunit (n) (for mystery novels) considered substandard; [11,112]

) Compounds where at least one of the constituents is a compound stem: wastepaper-basket.what follows the main structural types of English compounds are described in greater detail. The list is by no means exhaustive but it may serve as a general guide.) Classification of English compoundsto the parts of speech compounds are subdivided into:

. Noun compounds: Noun compounds are subclassified according to the syntactic relation of the compounding elements:) Subject and verb: The verb may take the form of the base or that of the base plus -ing. Example are headache «the headaches», heartbeat «the heart beat»; crybaby «the baby cries»; commanding officer «the officer commands» and revolving door «the door revolves».) Verb and object: The verb may take the form of the base or that of the base + -ing. For example: pickpocket «to pick pockets» birthcontrol «to control birth»; house-keeping «to keep house»; and dressmaking «to make dresses».The type housekeeping and dressmaking is very productive.) Verb and adverbial: Verbal noun in -ing + adverbial (consisting of a prepositional phrase); e.g. swimming pool «to swim in the pool or a pool for swimming»; diving board «to dive from a board», drinking cup «to drink out of a cup»; typing paper «to type on paper». It is a very productive type. [3, 89]) Subject and object: steamboat «steam powers the boat»; gaslight «the gas produces light»; honeybee «the bee produces honey».) Restrictive relations: the first element restricts the meaning of the second: raindrop «a drop of raining»; moonwalk «a walk on the moon»; evening school «a school in the evening»; tablecloth «a cloth for the table»; ashtray «a stray for ash»; breakfast time «the time for breakfast».These types of words like ashtray, tablecloth and breakfast time expressing purpose is very productive.) Appositive relations: the first element is in apposition to the second one: e.g. a peasant girl the girl is a peasant, a pine tree «the tree is a pine».Compound nouns can also be formed from phrasal verbs. This type is very common in contemporary English. Examples are: sit-in, dropout , phone-in, breakdown, walk-on , walkout, setback , and take-off. [11,113]

. Adjective compounds: Adjective compounds are also subclassified according to the syntactic relation of the compounding elements:) Subject and verb: Examples are thunder-strick (houses) «thunder struck the houses»; weather-beaten (rocks) «weather beat the rocks»; suntanned (skin) «sun tanned the skin». This type is highly productive.) Verb and object: The verb is in the form of present participle, e.g. fault-finding «to find fault»; peaceloving «to love peace»; record-breaking «to break records». It is a productive type.) Verb and adverbial: e.g. ocean-going to go across oceans; hardworking «to work hard» everlasting «to last forever»; well-behaved «to behave well; new-laid (eggs) «x has laid (the eggs) recently».) Noun and adjective: e.g. taxfree free from tax; seasick sick due to sailing on the sea; watertight tight against water; ocean green as greenas the ocean; crystal-clear «as clean as a crystal; knee-deep so deep as to reach the knees». [5,120]) Coordinating relationship: e.g. bittersweet sweet but bitter; Anglo-French relation relation between Great Britain and Francecompounds also are formed from:) Phrasal verb: This endlessly talked-about topic bored me. (cf. this topic has been talked about endlessly.)) Adverbial phrases: They kept a round-the -clock (all the time) watch on the house. (cf. They watched the house round the clock.)) From proverbs and idiomatic expressions: My grandfather displayed a never-to-be-too-old-to-learn spirit (from the proverb One is never too old to learn.)) From an attributive clause: a jet-propelled plan (a plane that is propelled by jet). [11,114]

. Verb compounds: Verb compounds fall into main groups according to their method of formation:) Those formed by back-formation: Back-formation is a reversal of derivation, for instance, house-keep is formed by deleting -ing and -er from housekeeping and housekeeper, which entered the language much earlier.) Those formed by conversion. In this case, the verb compounds are converted from noun compounds; e.g. to blue-pencil, to honeymoon, to machine-gun, to nickname, to outline, to snowball, etc. [5,100]

. According to their structure compounds are subdivided into:) Compound words proper which consist of two stems, e.g. to job-hunt, train-sick, go-go, tip-top) Derivational compounds, where besides the stems we have affixes, e.g. ear-minded, hydro-skimmer,) Compound words consisting of three or more stems, e.g. cornflower- blue, eggshell-thin, singer-songwriter,) compound-shortened words, e.g. boatel, tourmobile, VJ-day, motocross, Intervision, Eurodollar, Camford. [3,98]can make a conclusion that a compound word is made up of two or more words that together express a single idea. There are three types of compounds. An open compound consists of two or more words written separately, such as salad dressing, Boston terrier, or April Fools Day. A hyphenated compound has words connected by a hyphen, such as age-old, mother-in-law, force-feed. A solid compound consists of two words that are written as one word, such as keyboard or typewriter. In addition, a compound may be classified as permanent or temporary. A permanent compound is fixed by common usage and can usually be found in the dictionary, whereas a temporary compound consists of two or more words joined by a hyphen as needed, usually to modify another word or to avoid ambiguity. [2, 87]general, permanent compounds begin as temporary compounds that become used so frequently they become established as permanent compounds. Likewise many solid compounds begin as separate words, evolve into hyphenated compounds, and later become solid compounds. Although the dictionary is the first place to look when you are trying to determine the status of a particular compound, reference works do not always agree on the current evolutionary form of a compound, nor do they include temporary compounds. The following general rules apply to forming compounds. Keep in mind that words that are made up of a word root plus a prefix or a suffix are not normally considered compounds, strictly speaking. [5, 78]

. According to the relations between the components, compound words are subdivided into:) Subordinate compounds where one of the components is the semantic and the structural centre and the second component is subordinate; these subordinate relations can be different:comparative relations, e.g. honey-sweet, eggshell-thin, with limiting relations, e.g. breast-high, knee-deep, with emphatic relations, e.g. dog-cheap, with objective relations, e.g. gold-rich, with cause relations, e.g. love-sick, with space relations, e.g. top-heavy, with time relations, e.g. spring-fresh, with subjective relations, e.g. foot-sore etc) Coordinative compounds where both components are semantically independent. Here belong such compounds when one person (object) has two functions, e.g. secretary-stenographer, woman-doctor, Oxbridge etc. Such compounds are called additive. This group includes also compounds formed by means of reduplication, e.g. fifty-fifty, no-no, and also compounds formed with the help of rhythmic stems (reduplication combined with sound interchange) e.g. criss-cross, walkie-talkie. [6, 76]

. According to the order of the components compounds are divided into compounds with direct order, e.g. kill-joy, and compounds with indirect order, e.g. nuclear-free, rope-ripe.suggested subdivision into three groups is based on the degree of semantic cohesion of the constituent parts, the third group representing the extreme case of cohesion where the constituent meanings blend to produce an entirely new meaning. [1,103]following joke rather vividly shows what happens if an idiomatic compound is misunderstood as non-idiomatic.

Patient: They tell me, doctor, you are a perfect lady-killer.: Oh, no, no! I assure you, my dear madam, I make no distinction between the sexes.this joke, while the woman patient means to compliment the doctor on his being a handsome and irresistible man, he takes or pretends to take the word lady-killer literally, as a sum of the direct meanings of its constituents. [2, 123]this chapter, we have looked at numerous affixational processes in English. We investigated some general characteristics of English affixation; we saw that suffixation and prefixation are very common and extremely restricted phenomenon in English word-formation. In the next chapter, we will have a closer look at the characteristics of some non-affixational processes by which new words can be derived.In this chapter we have looked at a number of word-formation processes that do not involve affixes as their primary or only means of deriving words from other words or morphemes. We have seen that English has a rich inventory of such non-affixational processes, including conversion, and abbreviation. Each of these mechanisms was investigated in some detail and it turned out that, in spite of the initial impression of irregularity, a whole range of systematic structural restrictions can be determined. As with affixation, these restrictions can refer to the semantic, syntactic, and phonological properties of the words involved and are highly regular in nature.

affixation conversion abbreviation composition poe


Chapter Two. Analysis of the Examples on the Basis of E. Poes Prose and Poetry


The practical part of our works deals with the major processes of word building in E. Poes works. Giving the examples of their using in Poes prose and poetry we want to face with the problem that neither a traditional morphological nor a syntactic interpretation sufficiently explains the unique function of word-formation. From a linguistic perspective, this work offers a reasonable insight into the English language as regards word formation. Language is a living instrument, so it evolves with its users and adjusts to the times; accordingly, some words fall out of use because speakers no longer have need for them, whereas some new words arise in response to different motivations: pragmatic, communicative and connotative. Both the birth and the death of words are illustrated in the prose and poetry.has never lost its native powers of making new words by derivation, of building up words of native stocks and parts. Though these powers were atrophied by centuries of foreign domination in cultural matters during the French supremacy and to a less extent by the almost overwhelming importance of Latin at the Renaissance, they never ceased to be; and its huge expansion in the later centuries, these powers have been to some extent called into use. [16, 34]supplement our review of word-formation processes, of which compounding has been given primary attention, one has to present some instances of words derived by means of affixation and coined by the process of compounding, such a way of producing new words is extremely productive in English.derivation with composition, the analysis shows that while a different conceptual process is involved, composition also includes large areas where it fades into prefixation and suffixation. Finally, derivation is contrasted with conversion which generally requiring a larger degree of contextual support than derivation, and this is regarded as the major reason for the continuing productivity of derivational word-formation in English.article shows how language resorts to the productive use of already existing devices to cater for both new and ever-present needs. Therefore derivation, compounding, conversion are used to name new realities, to speed up communication, to gain in conciseness, to awaken positive associations, to build individual and collective identities, and above all, to maintain a desirable status quo. [18, 67]


2.1 Derivation by means of Affixation


Affixation is a phenomenon giving two ways of word building: suffixation and prefixation. Comparing both linguists have come to the conclusion that suffixation is a more fruitful way of forming new derivatives than prefixation, though it is also widely used in forming new words, that is the new parts of speech.


2.1.1 Suffixation

a) Nominal suffixessuffixes are often employed to derive abstract nouns from verbs, adjectives and nouns. Such abstract nouns can denote actions, results of actions, or other related concepts, but also properties, qualities and the like.examples from E.A. Poes poetry


"As in that fleeting, shadowy, misty strifesemblance with reality, which brings" [19, 67]


Semblance (n) It is formed by adding the suffix "-ance", and stands for the word "resemblance". It is attached mostly to verbs, -ance creates action nouns such as absorbance, riddance, retardance. The suffix is closely related to -cy/-ce which attaches productively to adjectives ending in the suffix -ant/-ent. Thus, a derivative like dependency could be analyzed as having two suffixes (dependency) or only one (dependency).


This some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door-late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door" [19,144]


Entrance (n)-derived from the verb to enter with the suffix "-ance" We can find -ance nominals only if there are corresponding -antadjectives.


Defendant of the palace- reared its head.the monarch Thought's dominion" [19, 56]


Defendant (n) the word derived from the verb "to defend" by adding of suffix "-ant". This suffix forms count nouns referring to persons or to substances involved in biological, chemical, or physical processes (attractant, dispersant, etchant, suppressant). Most bases are verbs of Latinate origin.


It was many and many a year ago,a kingdom by the sea [19, 67]

(n)-derived by adding suffix "-dom" to the noun "king" The native suffix -dom»is semantically closely related to «-hood and - ship» which express similar concepts.


It was night in the boredom of Octobermy most immemorial year" [19, 77]


Boredom (n) the suffix -dom attaches to nouns to form nominals which can be paraphrased as state of being something as in apedom, clerkdom, slumdom, yuppiedom.


That the play is the tragedy, "Man,"its hero the Conqueror Worm" [19, 23]


Conqueror (n) formed from the verb "conquer" by adding of the suffix"-or" its orthographic variant of the suffix "-er". The orthographic variant -or occurs mainly with Latinate bases ending in /s/ or /t/, such as conductor, oscillator, compressor. The suffix -or is frequently used in the poem Conqueror Worm


In the clamor and the clangor of the bellsgone to their eternal rest" [19, 89]


Clangor (n) the verb to clang" is added by the suffix "-or'


With a desperate desire,a resolute endeavor [19, 90]

(n) it is the native origin word and stands for "the try".


Thy messenger hath knowndreamed for thy Infinity [19, 22]


Messenger (n) the word "message" is added by the suffix"-er" The suffix -er can be seen as closely related to suffix-ee as its derivatives frequently signify entities that are active or volitional participants in an event.


It was down by the dank tarn of Auber,the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir" [19, 99]


Auber (n) the suffix -er is used to create person nouns indicating place of origin or residence (e.g. Londoner, New Yorker, Highlander, New Englander)like thoughts that are the souls of thought,, far wilder, far sealer visions [19,109]

(n) derived from the word "to seal". Suffix -er is often described as a deverbal suffix, but there are numerous forms (not only inhabitant names) that are derived on the basis of nouns (e.g whaler, noser, souther).


Enchantress fills my soul with Beauty (which is Hope),are far up in Heaven- the stars I kneel to [19, 62]


Enchantress (n)-The word prince is added be the suffix "-ess". This suffix derives a comparatively small number of mostly established nouns referring exclusively to female humans and animals (stewardess, lioness, tigress, and waitress).


Then- in my childhood, in the dawna most stormy life- was drawn. [19, 50]


Childhood (n) It is built from the suffix "-hood" and the word "child Similar in meaning to the suffixes -dom, hood «derivatives express concepts such as state (as in adulthood, farmerhood).and collectivity (as in beggarhood, Christianhood, companionhood).


The heritage of a kingly mind,a proud spirit which hath striven [19, 71]

(n) the suffix-age derives nouns that express an activity (or its result) as in coverage, leakage, spillage, and nouns denoting a collective entity or quantity, as in acreage, voltage, yardage.


Adorn yon world afar, afar- The wandering star. [19, 95]


Wandering (adj.) derived from the verb "to wander" by adding the suffix "-ing". Derivatives with this deverbal suffix denote processes (begging, running, sleeping) or results (building, wrapping, stuffing). The suffix is somewhat peculiar among derivational suffixes in that it is primarily used as a verbal inflectional suffix forming present participles.


In a mad expostulation with the deaf and frantic fire [19,121]


Expostulation (n) the word consist of the verb "expostulate" which stands for to convince" and suffix "-ion. Derivatives in -ion denote events or results of processes. As such, verbal bases are by far the most frequent, but there is also a comparatively large number of forms where the suffix -ation is directly attached to nouns without any intervening verb in the suffix-ate. The suffix has Latin origin.


What a world of merriment their melody foretells! [19, 119]


Merriment (n) derived from the adjective "merry" by adding the suffix "-ment". This suffix derives action nouns denoting processes or results from (mainly) verbs.


And much of Madness, and more of Sin,Horror the soul of the plot [19,120]

(n) formed by the suffix "-ness" which is the most productive suffix of English. The suffix -ness is much less restrictive than its close semantic relative- ity. But in E. Poe's poetry there are only a few example of using this suffix.examples from E.A. Poes prose


Indeed, some remote connection between this passage in the English moralist and a portion of the character of Ligeia [20, 65]


Passage (n) is derived by the suffix -age. This suffix derives nouns that express an activity (or its result) as in coverage, leakage. Base words may be verbal or nominal and are often monosyllabic.


Ah, word of no meaning! Behind whose vast latitude of mere sound we entrench our ignorance of so much of the spiritual [20, 46]

(n) is formed by the suffix -al. A number of verbs take -al to form abstract nouns denoting an action or the result of an action. The teeth glancing back, with a brilliancy almost startling. [21, 78]

Brilliancy (n) the word consists of the base and the suffix -cy. The suffixes -cy/-ce which attaches productively to adjectives ending in the suffix -ant/-ent. Thus, a derivative like dependency could be analyzed as having two suffixes (depend -ent -cy) or only one (depend -ency)


It was faultless -- how cold indeed that pickpocketee when applied to a majesty so divine! [21, 35]


Pickpocketee (n) is derived by the means of the suffix -ee. The meaning of this suffix can be rather clearly discerned. It derives nouns denoting sentient entities that are involved in an event as non-volitional participants.


I forget myself, were in no manner acted upon by the ideal, nor was any tincture of the mysticism which I read to be discovered. [20,199]


Mysticism (n) the word is formed by means of the suffix-ism. Forming abstract nouns from other nouns and adjectives, derivatives belonging to this category denote the related concepts state, condition, attitude, and system of beliefs or theory, as in blondism, Parkinsonism, conservatism, revisionism, Marxism.


She seemed also conscious of a cause, to me unknown, for the gradual alienation of my regard. [19, 68]


Alienation (n) is made with the suffix -ion. This Latinate suffix has three allomorphs: when attached to a verb in -ify, the verbal suffix and -ion surface together as -ification (personification).


I think, truly defines to consist in the saneness of rational being [21,132]

(n) is derived by the suffix -ness. Quality noun forming -ness is perhaps the most productive suffix of English. With regard to potential base words, -ness is much less restrictive than its close semantic relative --ity.) Verbal suffixesare four suffixes which derive verbs from other categories (mostly adjectives and nouns), -ate, -en, -ify and -ize, and all of them occur in E.Poes prose and poetry.examples from E.A. Poes poetry


Astarte's bediamonded crescentwith its duplicate horn [19,151]


Duplicate (v) formed by the suffix "-ate" Forms ending in this suffix represent a rather heterogeneous group. There is a class of derivatives with chemical substances as bases, which systematically exhibit so- called ornative and resultative meanings.bloom the thunder-blasted treethe blacken eagle soar! [19, 90]


Blacken (v)is made by merging of the adjective "black and the suffix "-en" The Germanic suffix -en attaches to monosyllables that end in a plosive, fricative or affricate.


And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtainme- filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before [19,160]


Silken (v) is formed form the noun "silk" and the suffix "-en". Most bases are adjectives (e.g. blacken, broaden, quicken, ripen), but a few nouns can also be found (e.g. strengthen, lengthen)


My tantalize spiritblandly reposes [19, 74]

(v) this word has roots in Latin mythology and formed by adding of the suffix "-ize". Both -ize and -ify are polysemantic suffixes, which can express a whole range of related concepts such as locative, ornative, and causative/factitive, resultative, inchoative, performative, similative.examples from E.A. Poes prose


In studies of a nature more than all else adapted to deaden impressions of the outward world [20, 170]

(v) is derived from the word dead by means of the suffix -en. The Germanic suffix -en attaches to monosyllables that end in a plosive, fricative or affricate. Most bases are adjectives (e.g. blacken, broaden, quicken, ripen) and nouns can also be found (e.g. strengthen, lengthen).all we want just now, you know, uncle, is that you would indicate the time precisely [21, 65]

(v) this example of the suffixation has the suffix -ate and can be paraphrased as provide with something, as fluorinate, or make into something, as in methanate.


All I accomplished was the demolition of the crystal which humidifies the dial of the clock upon the mantel-piece [19, 33]

(v) made by the suffix -ify. Both -ize and -ify are polysemous suffixes, which can express a whole range of related concepts such as locative, ornative, and causative/factitive, resultative, inchoative, performative, simulative.) Adjectival suffixesadjectival suffixes of English can be subdivided into two major groups. A large proportion of derived adjectives are relational adjectives, whose role is simply to relate the noun the adjective qualifies to the base word of the derived adjective.following are the examples from E.A. Poes poetry


A dark unfathomed tideinterminable pride [19, 30]

(adj.) the verb "to intermine" is combined with the suffix "-able". The suffix chiefly combines with transitive and intransitive verbal bases, as in deferrable and perishable, respectively, as well as with nouns, as in serviceable, fashionable.

, opaque, immortal- all by dintthe dear names that he concealed within't. [19, 71]


Immortal (adj.) is produced by the suffix the "-al. This relational suffix attaches almost exclusively to Latinate bases (accidental, colonial, cultural, federal, institutional, and modal).


Gazing, entranced, adown the gorgeous vista,thrilling as I see, upon the right [19, 51]

(adj.) is derived from the noun gorge" by adding he suffix "-ous". This suffix derives adjectives from nouns and bound roots, the vast majority being of Latinate origin (curious, barbarous, famous, synonymous, and tremendous).


O God! Can I not save?from the pitiless wave [19, 21]

(adj.) this word is combined by adding the suffix "-less' to the adjective "pity". Semantically, -less can be seen as antonymic to -ful, with the meaning being paraphrasable


Up many and many a marvellous shrinewreathed friezes intertwine?blend the turrets and shadows thereall seem pendulous in air" [19,100]


Marvellous (adj.) and pendulous (adj.) are derived by the suffix "-ous"


Their odorous souls in an ecstatic death-on the upturned faces of these roses [19,104]

Ecstatic (adj.) is form by adding the suffix "-ic" to the base -ecstate". Being another relational suffix -ic also attaches to foreign bases (nouns and bound roots). Quite a number of -ic derivatives have variant forms in -ical (electric - electrical, economic - economomical, historic - historical, magic - magical etc.).


How many scenes of what departed blissmany thoughts of what entombed hopes. [19, 109]


Departed (adj.) derived by the adding of the suffix -ed to the verb "to depart. This suffix derives adjectives with the general meaning as in broad-minded, pig-headed, and wooded.

Entombed (adj.) the suffix "-ed" is added to the verb "to entomb. The majority of derivatives are based on compounds or phrases (empty-headed, pig-headed, air-minded, and fair-minded).following are the examples from E. A. Poes prose


Through a species of unutterable horror and awe, for which the language of mortality has no sufficiently energetic expression [20, 143]


Unutterable (adj.) consist of the base utter, prefix un- and the suffix -able. The suffix chiefly combines with transitive and intransitive verbal bases, as deferrable and perishable, respectively, as well as with nouns, as in serviceable, fashionable.


I derived, from many existences in the material world, a sentiment such as I felt always aroused within me by her large and luminous orbs. [19,209]


Material (adj.) derived by the means of the suffix -al. This relational suffix attaches almost exclusively to Latinate bases (accidental, colonial, cultural, federal, institutional, and modal).it rather a caprice of my own -- a wildly romantic offering on the shrine of the most passionate devotion? [21,165]


Romantic (adj.) is built be the suffix -ic. Being another relational suffix, -ic also attaches to foreign bases (nouns and bound roots). Quite a number of -ic derivatives have variant forms in -ical (electric - electrical, economic - economomical, historic - historical, magic - magical etc.).


The most beautiful became the most hideous. [21,172]


Beautiful (adj.) constructed with the suffix - ful. The adjectival suffix -ful has the general meaning having something, being characterized by something and is typically attached to abstract nouns, as beautiful, insightful, purposeful, tactful.


His complexion was absolutely bloodless. [20,249]


Bloodless (adj.) derived by the means of the suffix -less. Semantically, -less can be seen as antonymic to --ful, with the meaning being paraphrasable as without something: expressionless, hopeless, speechless, and thankless.


Yet I believe that I met her first and most frequently in some large, old, decaying city near the Rhine. [20, 72]


Decaying (adj.) the suffix -ing is added to the word to decay. This verbal inflectional suffix primarily forms present participles, which can in general also be used as adjectives in attributive positions.


His imagination was singularly vigorous and creative; and no doubt it derived additional force from the habitual use of morphine. [19,290]

Vigorous (adj.) combined by the adding of the suffix -ous. This suffix derives adjectives from nouns and bound roots, the vast majority being of Latinate origin (curious, barbarous, famous, synonymous, and tremendous).

Creative (adj.) this suffix forms adjectives mostly from Latinate verbs and bound roots that end in t or s: connective, explosive, fricative, offensive, passive, preventive, and primitive, receptive, speculative. Some nominal bases are also attested, as in instinctive, massive.can conclude according the examples, which are given above that the main function of suffixes in E.A. Poes prose, and poetry is to form one part of speech from another; the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. Suffixation is the most productive type of affixation in E.A. Poes literally works and throughout the history of English literature. It consists in adding a suffix to the stem of a definite part of speech. E. Poe used the process of affixation to coin a new word by adding a suffix or several suffixes to some root morpheme.role of the suffixation in E. Poes works is very important and therefore it is necessary to consider certain features of this process dominating in E. A. Poes prose and poetry. From the scope of the part-of- speech classification Noun-suffixes and Adjective-suffixes prevail in comparing with the other types of this classification. According to the lexico-grammatical character of suffixes, de-nominal and de-adjectival suffixes are the most frequently used ones. Also a wide spread have the Latin and Greek suffixes due to specificity of E. Poes works.


2.1.2 Prefixation

In contrast to compounding, affixation links so-called prefixes and suffixes, which are not independent, to words of all types. The type of affix determines the effect the affixation will have on the word. Here, we discuss supportive and opposing prefixes. They are used to express support for or disapproval of whatever is expressed by the word they are attached to.prefixes of English can be classified semantically into the following groups. First, there is a large group that quantify over their base words meaningexamples from E.A. Poes poetry


Flapping from out their transparent wingsWoe [19,198]


Transparent (adj.) the prefix "trans-"designating direction and location (super-, sub-, hyper-, hypo-, mid-, trans-, ultra-»and retro-). However, many direction and location prefixes have quantificational senses as well, exploiting the conventional metaphorization of over as more and under- as -iess.


Can struggle to its destined eminence,-distant spheres, from time to time [19,14]

(adj.) derived by the prefix di-" which denotes twice or two (bi-, bilateral, bifurcation and di-, disyllabic, intransitive)


Lest an evil step be taken,-the dead who is omnipotent [19,42]

(a) is derived by the prefix omni-which denotes all (omni-omniscient, omnipresent, omnirange).


For the same end as before-Videlicet, a tent-I think extravagant [19,58]


Extravagant (a) is made by the prefix "extra-". It could be included here, with the meaning of 'outside', and one needs to imagine an appropriate situation, for example, extracurricular., there are numerous locative prefixes. Locative prefixes determine the place, or relative place, or (relative) direction, of action or objects. Also, abstract nouns and processes or relations are determined in terms of locality.examples from E. A. Poes poetry


And I have other reasons for so doingmy innate love of contradiction [19, 68]

(n) Prefix "contra-"Another prefix that overlaps in meaning with against or in opposition to is counter-, which can be prefixed to nouns and verbs.


While the star that oversprinklesthe heavens seem to twinkle [19, 66]

(v) the verb "to sprinkle" is added by the prefix "over-" is one of the most productive English prefixes.


Wreathed in myrtle, my sword I'll concealthose arch-enemies devoted and brave [19, 94]

(n) the noun "enemy" is combined with the prefix "arch-. Arch-has meaning 'principle', attaches to nouns referring to people occupying an important social or psychological role.examples of Locative prefixes in E. Poes prose.


…and then I entered the antechamber. [20, 127]


Antechamber (n) is derived by the adding of the prefix "ante-",which denotes before and added to nouns.circumnavigated this area again and again. [21, 28]


Circumnavigate (v) is completed by the prefix circum- which means around and mostly added to verbs, nouns.


I could smelt the extrasensory of this performance in the air. [19, 171]


Extrasensory (adj.) is based on the prefix extra-which stands for outside, beyond and added to: adjectives, nouns.


The beast cut her forefinger and disfigured her face. [21, 40]


Forefinger (n) is made by adding the prefix fore-to the noun finger. This prefix means in front, front part of.Prefixesthird group consists of prefixes expressing negation: de-, dis-, in-, non-, un- etc.examples from E.A. Poes poetry

the jewels of antichrists throne,of Hell! And with a pain [19, 105]


Antichrist (n) it is completed by of the prefix anti-" to the base. This polysemantic prefix can express two different, but related notions in the words like anti-war, anti-abortion, anti-capitalistic, anti-scientific, and anti-freeze.


Vast forms that move fantasticallya discordant melody [19,121]

(adj) the prefix dis- is closely related semantically to «un-and «de-, the prefix dis-»forms reversative verbs from foreign verbal bases «disassemble, disassociate, discharge, disconnect, disproof, disqualify.


Disconsolate linger- grief that hangs her head,follies that full long have Red [19,154]

(v) the verb "consolate" is mixed with the "prefix" dis- Apart from deriving reversative verbs, this suffix uniquely offers the possibility to negate the base verb in much the same way as clausal negation does: disagree, not agree, disobey, not obey, dislike, not like.


Yet heavier far than your Petrarchan stuff-downy nonsense that the faintest puff [19,125]

(n) the word "sense is added by the prefix "non-" Nouns prefixed with non-can either mean absence of something or not having the character of something (non-delivery, non-member, non-profit, non-stop).


While the angels, all pallid and wan,, unveil, affirms [19.141]


Unveil (v) the verb "to veil" is added o the prefix" un-" which can attach to verbs and sometimes nouns.


I see them still- two sweetly scintillant, unextinguished by the sun [19, 38]

(v) is derived by the adding of the prefix "un". The prefix is also used to negate simple and derived adjectives: uncomplicated, unhappy, unsuccessful, and unreadable.examples from E.A. Poes prose


The asymmetrical architecture of this palace frightened me. [20, 59]


Asymmetrical (adj.) is derived by the means of the prefix a-which stands for not, lacking in, not affected by and added to adjectives, nouns.


I felt disgust being in front of this statue. [20, 62]


Disgust (n) is derived by the prefix dis -which denotes not, absolute opposite of what is meant by the second element and added to abstract nouns, verbs.


This unexpected blizzard was crashing all around. [20,231]


Unexpected (adj.) is derived by the means of the prefix un-which has meaning not, the opposite of and before words of French origin transformed in in-, il-(before l), im- (before p), ir- (before r). These are the most commonly used prefixes of negation.can conclude according the examples of suffixation and prefixation which are given above that the process of affixation is the most productive in E.A. Poes prose and poetry. Affixation consists in adding derivational affixes (i.e., prefixes and suffixes) to roots and stems to form new words. Affixation is a very common and productive process of word building in E.A. Poes prose and poetry. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation, they both are presented above in examples according the context of our investigation.. Poe used Prefixation to form the words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In his works, it is mostly characteristic for forming verbs. If we analyze the examples according the Semantic classification of prefixes-»Prefixes of negative meaning are frequently used (de-, dis-,in-»im-, il-, ir-) Prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions and Prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations rarely occur in E. Poes prose and poetry and have small number in comparison with the other types of Prefixation. From the point of view of etymology the using of the borrowed affixes (Romanic, such as: in-, de-,ex-, re-and Greek, such as sym-, hyper-) play an important role in E. Poes literally works.analyzed the total amount of the cases (from E. Poes prose and poetry) in which the processes of affixation take place, we can draw a conclusion that the role of the suffixation in his works is dominative.


2.2 Conversion


Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [2,78 ] Thus, when the noun sign shifts to the verb sign(ed) without any change in the word form we can say this is a case of conversion. However, it does not mean that this process takes place in all the cases of homophones [6, 67]. Sometimes, the connection has to do with coincidences or old etymological ties that have been lost. For example, mind and matter are cases of this grammatical sameness without connection by conversion-the verbs have nothing to do today with their respective noun forms in terms of semantics.is particularly common in English because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It is usually impossible in languages with grammatical genders, declensions or conjugations. [11, 56]status of conversion is a bit unclear. It must be undoubtedly placed within the phenomena of word-formation; nevertheless, there are some doubts about whether it must be considered a branch of derivation or a separate process by itself (with the same status as derivation or compounding). [16,176]this undetermined position in grammar, some scholars assert that conversion will become even more active in the future because it is a very easy way to create new words in English. [11,156 ] There is no way to know the number of conversions appearing every day in the spoken language, although we know this number must be high. As it is a quite recent phenomenon, the written evidence is not a fully reliable source. We will have to wait a little longer to understand its whole impact, which will surely increase in importance in the next decades.) Noun - verb conversion. Today the largest number of words formed by conversion is constituted by verbs from nouns.examples from E.A. Poes poetry


My sorrow; I could not awakenheart to joy at the same tone [19, 96]


Joy (n) - to joy (v) the noun is converted into the verb and it denotes the act of being asleep or the process of triumph.


For the moon never beams without bringing me dreamsthe beautiful [19.185]


Beam (n) - to beam (v) the word is turned into verb and took the meaning to appear through something.

the startled ear of nightthey scream out their affright! [19, 74]


Scream (n) - to scream (v) the noun is conversed into the verb and denotes the action in which someone is involved in the process of making the noise.


Streams up the turrets silently-up the pinnacles far and free [19.134]


Stream (n) - to stream (v); Gleam (n) - to gleam (v) the noun are converted into the verbs and they turned the natural phenomenon into the actions.


With its Phantom chased for evermore,a crowd that hammers it not [19.247]

(n) - to hammer (v) in this case of conversion the word express the action done with the noun as instrument. It can be exemplified with hammer (to hit a nail by means of a hammer).

visions of the dark nighthave dreamed of joy departed[19.259]


Dream (n) - to dream (v) the noun is converted into the verb and it denotes the act of being asleep or the process of dreaming.


Where an Eidolon, named NIGHT,a black throne reigns upright [19, 74]

(n) - to reign (v) this abstract noun is turned into verb denoting the process of being enthroned.


Ah, let us mourn! - For never morrowdawn upon him desolate? [19,215]


Mourn (n) - to mourn (v) the noun is conversed into the verb and denotes the action in which someone is involved in the process of grieves.the queen of the angels

To shield me from harm [19,215]


Shield (n) - to shield (v) the word is turned into verb and took the meaning to protect from something.


The examples from E.A. Poes proseNegros canned apples. [19,134]


Can (n) - to can (v) it stands for to put in/on something the nouns are usually locative nouns denoting a place, a container or a specified location and can be paraphrased as The workers put apples in cans.


They sheltered the orphans. [21.248]


Shelter (n) - to shelter (v) To give something, to provide something It can be paraphrased as They gave shelter to the orphans.


William weeded the garden [20.143]


Weed (n) - to weed (v) To deprive of something or to remove the object denoted by the noun from something It can be paraphrased as He cut off weeds in the garden.


She mothered the orphan [20, 24]


Mother (n) - to mother (v) To be / act as something with respect to … It can be paraphrased as She looked after the orphan like a mother.


Will you please mail the parcel? [18.247]


Mail (n) - to mail (v) To send / go by something It can be paraphrased as Will you please send the parcel by mail? [19,143]summered in Qingdao. [21.202]


Summer (n) - to summer (v) To spend the period of time denoted by something (We spent summer in Qingdao.)) Verb- noun conversion

Conversion from verb to noun is also quite common. Nouns converted from verbs are not as numerous as verbs converted from nouns, because the English speaking people are inclined to employ derivation by means of deverbal suffixes (as in arrangement from arrange, ratification from ratify and the numerous noun-formations in -ing ) or to employ a ready-made synonym from borrowed words (as to climb, ascent; to scatter, dissemination)examples from E.A. Poes poetry


The curtain, a funeral pall,down with the rush of a storm [19.215]

rush (v) - rush (n) the meaning of the verb is shifted and instead of action it denotes the numinalizated name of this process


The tremble of a living wirethose unusual strings [19.217]


To tremble (v) - tremble (n) in this case of conversion the word expresses the effect done with the noun as biological process.


A walkway for the queenliest dead that ever died so young-dirge for her the doubly dead in that she died so young. [19, 97]


To dirge (v) - dirge (n) the verb denoting the act of church ceremony is shifted to the noun reflected its matter.I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to borrowmy books surcease of sorrow- sorrow for the lost Lenore- [19, 96]

surcease (v) - surcease (n) the verb is conversed to show the matter of the action.examples from E.A. Poes poetry


A few days ago in Baltimore, Ms. Burns was in her apartment in the middle of a high- rise in the middle of everywhere in place. [21, 213]


To rise (v) - rise (n) this verb can also be nominalised, like in turn (where to turn)


This election had been the most emotionally draining experience of my life. [21, 234]


To experience (v) - experience (n) the noun coming from verbs can express state of mind or state of sensation


More than half of the incidents were involved loss of consciousness or a heart attack. [20, 151]


To attack (v) - attack (n) the noun coming from the verb can express state of mind or state of sensation.

Noah will be living proof that one animal is able to carry, and give birth to, a healthy animal that is the clone of a completely different species. [19, 217]

To clone (v) - clone (n) In this case the noun refers to the subject of the original verb.) Adjective - noun conversion- noun conversion is classified into two groups: partial conversion and complete conversion. Partial conversion: Some adjective are used as nouns when preceded by the definite article such as the poor, the wounded; yet these converted nouns take on only some of the feature of the noun; i.e. they do not take plural and genitive inflections, nor can they be preceded by determiners like a, this, my, etc. early (n. - adv.).examples from E.A. Poes poetry


A void within the filmy Heavenwaves have now a redder glow [19, 31]


Void (adj.) - void (n)


I feel it more than half a crime,Nature sleeps and stars are mute [19, 54]

(adj.) - mute (n)


From their high thrones in the Heavenlight like hope to mortals given [19, 55]

(adj.) - mortal (n)


But their red orbs, without beam,thy weariness shall seem [19, 108]

(adj.) - orb (n)examples from E.A. Poes prose


From one direction comes the rich smell of frying bread, from another the aroma of boiled pork dumplings and from yet another fermented or "smelly" bean curd, a Chinese favorite. [20, 65]


Favorite (adj.) - favorite (n) - is the case of nominalization which occurs when the noun is elided and the adjective is widely used as a synonym of an existing set pattern.


We have to assume the worst. [21, 45]


The worst (adj.) - worst (n) this adjective can still be changed to the comparative and superlative form (adjective nature).


We've got some older fans now, but the more the merrier-everyone's welcome! [19, 178]


More (adj.) - more (n) - these adjective and noun cannot have any inflections if their number or case is changed, they will produce ungrammatical sentences.process of Conversion is mostly peculiar to E.A. Poes poetry because of the necessity to state a poetical thought in a limited number of syllables. Due to Conversion one can contain the sense of a whole phrase into a single word. In the most of the cases to distinguish the type of Conversion which was used is obviously impossible because of the basic form of nouns and verbs are identical in many cases. Conversion from verb to noun is the most typical aspect of this word formational process in the case of E. Poes prose and poetry. The others are not frequently occur in his literally works due to the period when they were created (Conversion is more peculiar to the Modern Literature.)


2.3 Abbreviation


An abbreviation is a short way of writing a word or a phrase that could also be written out in full. Abbreviations are very rarely used in formal writing of E. Poe. Almost the only ones which are frequently used are the abbreviations for certain common titles, when these are used with someone's name: Mr Willis, Dr Livingstone, Mrs Thatcher, Ms Harmon, St Joan. «(Note that the two items Mrs and Ms are conventionally treated as abbreviations, even though they can be written in no other way.) When writing about a French or Spanish person, you may use the abbreviations for the French and Spanish equivalents of the English titles: M. Mitterrand, Sr. González. (These are the usual French and Spanish abbreviations for Monsieur and Señor [], equivalent to English Mister.)

Other titles are sometimes abbreviated in the same way: Prof. Chomsky, Sgt. Yorke, and Mgr. Lindemann []. However, it is usually much better to write these titles out in full when you are using them in a sentence: Professor Chomsky, Sergeant Yorke, and Monsignor Lindemann. The abbreviated forms are best confined to places like footnotes <#"justify">According to tradition, Rome was founded in 753 b.c. [21,169]emperor Vespasian died in a.d. 79. [21,170]can conclude that the process is sufficient in the case of E. Poes prose and poetry due to the specificity of his literally works and the period of time when they were created.


2.4 Composition


E.A. Poe created a great amount of compound words in his literally works, many of them not purely ornamental or pretentious, not humorous or satirical, but poetic, evocative, fancy-embodying, according to the "power of words" at their suggestive best, as. E.Poe expressed it. Many of these come from his poems: the "angel-nod," the "after-drunkenness of soul," the "eagle-hope," the "fountain-flood" of the Naiad, the "ghoul-haunted woodland," the "lip-begotten words," the "sad-serene City in the Sea," the "silvery-silken," the "spirit-land," the "star-dials," the "star-isles," the "love-haunted heart," the "wanlight," and the "storm-tormented ocean of his thoughts," and "surf-tormented shore."list of compounds is full of these fantasies of his creative auctorial spirit. The compound in E. Poes prose and poetry are humorous, often satiric, sometimes shocking in its novelty, and not essentially contributory to the total "power of words" of English language. This type probably arises from the habitual indulgence in linguistic play, puns, fanciful place names, and jocular coinages of the authorthe variety of his interests encompassed scientific developments, especially demonstrated in Eureka, we find him apparently coining such terms as "concentralization," "counter-vortex," "imparticularity," "cycloid," "nebulist," "space-penetrating", "light-particles" and "light-impressions," and "ray-streams." A few, but very few, of his coinages may be attributable to misconceptions or even typographical mistakes, such as "sphereicity," or "fillogram," or "post-pranclian," or "nare," but Poe's mastery of Latin and, probably of Greek, as well as a still disputed control over German, French, Spanish, and Italian makes his errors or blunders very few indeed.) Noun-Noun Compositionmost common type of word formation is the combination of two (or more) nouns in order to form a resulting noun:


Noun + Noun = Noun


This type of word building is very common to E. Poes prose and poetry among so many words, there would have to be many pertaining to common and commonplace objects, perhaps showing that Poe merely embalmed in his books expressions widely current, but not recorded by any of the contemporary or, for a few words, subsequent dictionaries: "balloon-bag," "chandelier-chain," "cigar-girl" and "perfumery-girl," "demon-traps", "dog-leaf," "history-writing," "humming-top, " "mail-robber," "trunk-paper," "walking-advertiser" and "walking advertisement," and ''coffin-tressels.''examples from E.A. Poes poetry


The storm, the earthquake, and the ocean-wrath-

(Ah! will they cross me in my angrier path?) [19, 56 ]


Earthquake (n + n = n) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. The compound may create a whole new meaning of the used words.


But now, at length, dear Dian sank from sight,a western couch of thundercloud [19, 60]

(n + n = n) It is noun compound according to the parts of speech classification. Neutral compound. It is compound words proper, which consist only of two stems, with the direct order of the components.


O! Nothing earthly save the thrillmelody in woodland rill [19,173]

(n. + n = n) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with the direct order of the words. In this case the nature of the compound is self-explanatory, and their meanings are quite comprehensible even for those who encounter them for the first time.examples from E.A. Poes prose


Innumerable battle-lanterns, which swung to and fro above her rigging The battle-lanterns were always at hand. [21, 89]


Battle-lantern (n + n = n) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. The compound may create a completely new meaning of the used words.


The true book-purpose is answered. [16.37]


Book-purpose (n + n = n) It is semantically simple compound which can be easily understand and is coined by E. Poe.


Death-furniture floundered about [21.184]


Death-furniture (n + n = n) It is noun compound according to the parts of speech classification. Neutral compound. It is compound words proper, which consist only of two stems, with the direct order of the components.


The frogman croaked away [20.75]


Frogman (n + n = n) this compound is made by E. Poe for the aims of his narration and it characterize the awkward looking man.) Verb-Noun Composition

Here verbs describe what is done with an object or what a subject "does", in short, a new noun is formed, usually referring to something concrete, and the verb defines the action related to it:


Verb + Noun = Noun


The examples from E.A. Poes poetry


In spring of youth it was my lot

To haunt of the wide drawbridge a spot [19, 21]

Drawbridge (v + n = n) draw + bridge = drawbridge. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. A drawbridge is a bridge that can be inclined in order to allow ships to pass, or "drawn". Here, the noun is the direct object.


Come! Let the burial rite be read- the funeral song be sung!-walkway for the queenliest dead that ever died so young [19, 82]

(v + n = n) walk + way = walkway. In the word walkway (a way to walk on) the noun may stand for an adverb of place.


Thy soul shall find itself alonedark thoughts of the grey grindstone… [19, 92]


Grindstone (v + n = n) Grind + stone = Grindstone. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. Here, the word as part of speech is the subject.


But that, among the rabble-men,ambition is chain'd down. [19, 184]


Rabble-men (v + n = n) rabble + man = rabble-man. This compound is coined by E. Poe in his poem Tamerlane and it has meaning common people, plebeians.examples from E.A. Poes prose


…by that analogy which speaks in proof-tones to the imagination alone. [21, 159]


Proof-tone (v + n = n) proof + tone = proof-tones. It is noun compound according to the parts of speech classification. Neutral compound. It is compound words proper, which consist only of two stems, with the direct order of the components


…the tinkering of the Punch-men among the tombs [20, 105]

man (v + n = n) punch + man = punch-men. It is E. Poes neologism and has a metaphoric function in his works. In this case the nature of the compound is not self-explanatory, and their meanings are quite incomprehensible for those who encounter them for the first time.) Noun-Adjective Composition.and adjectives can also be compounded in the opposite order:


Noun + Adjective = Adjective

examples from E.A. Poes poetry


Rome to the Caesar- this to meheritage of a heartsick [19, 153]

(n + adj. = adj.) heartsick (a person suffering from heart disease). Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. In this case, the resultant is an adjective, while the noun explains the objective.


Sought a precipitate pathway up through heaven,fell a soul-black veil of light. [19, 149]


Soul-black (n + adj. = adj.) Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. Another possibility is that the noun supports the adjective, i.e. as an intensifier.

It is not that my founts of blissgush-strange! With tears. [19, 189]


Gush-strange (n + adj. = adj.) gush + strange = gush-strange. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. In this case, the resultant is an adjective, while the noun explains the objective.examples from E.A. Poes prose


…the expression of his earnest and human-evil eye. [20.194]

Human-evil (n + adj. = adj.)... revolve, moon-pale, about their starry circles. [19.279]

Moon-pale (n + adj. = adj.)love which shall be passion-free… [19.382]

Passion-free (n + adj. = adj.)patent-black line (business), perhaps an error for patten-blacking [20.285]

Patent-black (n + adj. = adj.)

…by the sable-draperied, by the corporate Night. [19.74]

Sable-draperied (n + adj. = adj.)


All these examples of compounds which are built by means of adding a noun to a adjective and have the similar structure and they are coined by E. A. Poe. The compounds listed above play mostly stylistical function in his prose and their meaning may be incomprehensible without the contest of the literal work but they brightly characterize the compositional tendencies in E. Poes prose.) Adjective-Noun Composition

Another major type of word formation is the compounding of Adjectives and nouns:


Adjective + Noun = Nounexamples from E.A. Poes poetry


And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the sidemy darling- my darling- my life and my bride [19, 56]

tide (adj. + n = n) the flow that occurs at night. In this case, the adjective defines or describes the character of the noun. It is also possible, however, to link the two segments and end up with a totally new word.


Too coldly- or the stars- however it wasdream was as that night-wind- let it pass. [19, 96]


Night-wind (adj. + n = n) night + wind = night-wind. Neutral compound. Compound words proper, with indirect order of the words. In this case, the nature of the compound is self-explanatory, and their meanings are quite comprehensible even for those who encounter them for the first time.


Till the fair and gentle Eulalie became my blushing bride-the young Eulalie with yellow-hair became my smiling bride [19, 55]

hair (adj. + n = n) yellow + hair = yellow-hair. Neutral compound. Derivational compounds, where besides the stems we have affix -ed.


With all thy train, athwart the moony sky-like red-flies in Sicilian night. [19, 104]


Red-fly (adj. + n = n) nouns, such as: baby-moon, globe-trotter Neutral, which are formed by joining together two stems without any joining morpheme, e.g. ball-point, to window-shop, Compound words proper which consist of two stems.examples from E. A. Poes poetry


Those which came from the larboard being what are called backwater seas. [19, 73]


Backwater (adj. + n = n) back + water = Backwater.


the burn of blue-fire melodramaticism. [21.188]


Blue-fire (adj. + n = n) blue+ fire= Blue-fire.


He has broken Fair-law. [20, 176]


Fair-law (adj. + n = n) fair+ law= Fair-law.


…a pile of ratlin-stuff and old sails [21, 208]


Ratlin-stuff (adj. + n = n) ratlin+ stuff= Ratlin-stuff.


There were the Philadelphia picturesque-hunters. [19,128]


Picturesque-hunter (adj. + n = n) Picturesque + hunter= Picturesque-hunter.


lunar-lunatic theories in St. Pierre [20,182]


Lunar-lunatic (adj. + n = n) Lunar + lunatic = Lunar-lunatic


Frog Pond munching of peanuts and pumpkins and buried in big-wigs [21.394]

Big-wig big + wig = big-wig


All these examples of compounds which are built by means of adding a adjective to a noun and have the similar structure and they are coined by E.A. Poe. The compounds listed above play mostly stylistical function in his prose and their meaning may be incomprehensible without the contest of the literal work but they brightly characterize the compositional tendencies in E. Poes prose.are very often used in E. Poes literally works because of their brevity and vividness, which were necessary for his humorous and grotesque works. For example «a schoolboy is more concise than «a boy attending school», «up-to-the-minute information» is more vivid than «the latest information. The old man would sit for hours, thinking sadly of all the might-have-been is more compact and expressive than …thinking sadly of the desirable things that could have happened in the past. Adjective compounds like coffee-pot-fresh, dew-bright and lemon-fragrant, often seen in advertising, are particularly vivid.is a phenomenon that needs more study than it has received, especially for its influence upon literary figures. Such a study would require a careful examination of the magazines and newspapers of the day and the reading habits and scope of references, interests, and author assignments of figures such as Poe, Melville, and Hawthorne. Among Poe's words are many almost flippant coinages of this sort, often compounds but also single words, especially for the proper noun derivatives. These coinages indicate, to my mind, a power of satire attached to a gay and merry spirit that too few readers impute to the poet of "The Raven" and the writer of Tales of the Grotesque []tendencies, in his coinages, which tell us much more about his personality than there is time to indicate here. He used "looking" as a sort of enclitic at the end of thirty-eight compounds, such as "cosy-looking," "ivory-looking," "square-looking," and ''light-house-looking.'' "Like," added to a noun, provided twenty-four words, from the useful "chasm-like" to the humorous "forlorn-hope-like." His use of "soul" as the first element in eight compounds is probably symptomatic of his belief. Finally, perhaps appropriately for the first-person narrator par excellence, he started thirteen compounds with "self."


Conclusions


The practical part of our work deals with the major processes of word building in E.A. Poes creative works in prose and poetry. Having chosen and analysed more than 300 examples and their usage in Poes prose and poetry we wanted to face the problem that neither a traditional morphological nor a syntactic interpretation sufficiently explains the unique function of word-formation and to make a comparative analysis of these word building ways.can conclude, according to the examples of suffixation and prefixation, which are shown in Chapter Two, that the process of affixation is the most productive in E.A. Poes prose and poetry. Affixation consists in adding derivational affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to roots and stems to form new words. Affixation is a very common and productive process of word building in E.A. Poes prose and poetry. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation, they both are presented above in examples according to the context of our investigation..A. Poe used Prefixation to form the words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. It is mostly characteristic for forming verbs in his works. If we analyze the examples according to the Semantic classification of prefixes- Prefixes of negative meaning are frequently used (de-, dis-,in-»im-, il-, ir-) Prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions and Prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations rarely occur in E. Poes prose and poetry and have small number in comparison with the other types of prefixation. From the point of view of etymology the using of the borrowed affixes (Romanic, such as: in-, de-,ex-, re-and Greek, such as: sym-, hyper-) play an important role in E. Poes literally works.analyzed the total amount of the cases (from E. Poes prose and poetry) in which the processes of affixation take place, we can draw a conclusion that the role of the suffixation in his works is dominative. The rest of the examples are presented in Appendix 1.process of Conversion is mostly peculiar to E.A. Poes poetry because of the necessity to state a poetical thought in a limited number of syllables. Due to Conversion he can contain the sense of a whole phrase into a single word. In the most of the cases to distinguish the type of conversion which was used is obviously impossible because of the basic form of nouns and verbs are identical in many cases. Conversion from verb to noun is the most typical aspect of this word formational process in the case of E.A. Poes prose and poetry. The others are not frequently occur in his literally works due to the period of time when they were created (Conversion is more peculiar to the Modern Literature.)

Abbreviations are very rarely used in formal writing of E. Poe. Almost the only ones, which are frequently used, are the abbreviations for certain common titles, abbreviations b.c. and a.d., for marking dates <#"justify">Another dominant among the processes of word building in E.A. Poes prose and poetry is Composition. Compounds are very often used in E. Poes literally works because of their brevity and vividness, which were necessary for his humorous and grotesque works. For example «a schoolboy is more concise than «a boy attending school», «up-to-the-minute information» is more vivid than «the latest information. The old man would sit for hours, thinking sadly of all the might-have-been is more compact and expressive than …thinking sadly of the desirable things that could have happened in the past. Adjective compounds like coffee-pot-fresh, dew-bright and lemon-fragrant, often seen in advertising, are particularly vivid..A. Poe created a great amount of compound words in his literally works many of them not purely ornamental or pretentious, not humorous or satirical, but poetic, evocative, fancy-embodying, according to the "power of words" at their suggestive best, as he expressed it; many of these come from his poems. The list of compounds is full of these fantasies of his creative auctorial spirit. The compounds in E. Poes prose and poetry are humorous, often satiric, sometimes shocking in its novelty, and not essentially contributory to the total "power of words» of the English language.derivation with composition, the analysis shows that while a different conceptual process is involved, composition also includes large areas where it fades into prefixation and suffixation. Finally, derivation is contrasted with conversion which generally requiring a larger degree of contextual support than derivation, and this is regarded as the major reason for the continuing productivity of derivational word-formation in English., we can conclude that the most productive way of word building in E.A. Poes prose and poetry is affixation. This result professes the hypothesis of our diploma thesis. The parity statistics of word building processes in E.A. Poes prose and poetry is presented in Appendix 2.


Bibliography


1. [1] Adams V. Introduction into English Word formation. Lnd, 1986.

. [2] Akhmanova O.S. Lexicology: Theory and Method. M. 1972

. [3] Bauer, Laurie, English Word-formation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983

. [4] Arnold I.V. The English Word. M. 1986.

. Burchfield R.W. the English Language. Lnd.,1985.

. [5] Block, Bernard and Trager, G. Outline of Linguistic Analysis. Baltimore, 1942.

. [6] Downing, Pamela 1977, On the creation and use of English compound nouns, N.Y,1986.,

. Chafe, Wallace L. Meaning and the Structure of Language. Chicago-London, 1970.

. [7] Fries, Charles С The Structure of English. N. Y., 1953.

. [8] Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979.

. [8] Jespersen, Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford, 1982.

. [9] Hatcher, Anna G., An introduction to the analysis of English compounds 1960

. Howard Ph. New words for Old. Lnd., 1980.

. Labov W. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, 1966.

. [10] Maurer D.W., High F.C. New Words - Where do they come from and where do they go. American Speech. 1982.

. [11] Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation. Wiesbaden, 1960.

. Patridge E. Slang To-day and Yesterday. Lnd., 1979.

. [12] Potter S. Modern Linguistics. Lnd., 1957.

. Quirk R. Style and Communication in the English Language. Lnd., 1980.

. Schlauch, Margaret. The English Language in Modern Times. Warszava, 1965.

. [13] Sheard, John. The Words we Use. N.Y..,1954.

. Vesnik D. and Khidekel S. Exercises in Modern English Wordbuilding. M., 1964.

. [14]Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка.М. 1959.

. Беляева Т.М. Словообразовательная валентность глагольных основ в английском языке. М., 1979.

. Виноградов В.В. Об основных типах фразеологических единиц в русском языке. Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография. Избранные труды. М. 1977

. Волков С.C., Cенько Е.В. Неологизмы и внутренние стимулы языкового развития. Новые слова и словари новых слов. Л., 1963.

. Жлуктенко Ю.А. и др. Английские неологизмы. Киев.,1983.

. Заботкина В.И. Новая лексика современного английского языка. М., 1989

. [16] Ивлева Г.Г. Tенденции развития слова и словарного состава. М.1986.

.Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. М. 1972

. [17] Мешков О.Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. М. 1976.

. [18] Смирницкий А. И. Лексикология английского языка. М., 1956.

Dictionaries. Literary sources

33. [19] John W. Ostrom, ed., The Letters of Edgar Allan Poe, 1966 (revised edition) Lnd. 1980.

. [20] The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe (Vol. 1 - Poems; Vols. 2 & 3 - Tales and Sketches) Lnd. 1980.

. [21] The Collected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe (Vol. 1 - The Imaginary Voyages, Pym, etc) Lnd. 1980.

. [22] The Collected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe (Vol. 2 - The Brevities, Marginalia, etc) Lnd. 1980.


Appendix 1


Compound Words Coined by E.A. Poe


After-dream - …the after-dream of the reveller upon opium [21,273]

After-drunkenness - And after-drunkenness of soul / Succeeds the glories of the bowl [19, 58]

All-hallowed - To join the all-hallowed mirth / of more than thrones in heaven. [21,207]

Angel-nod - Nor ask a reason save the angel-nod / she grants to us. [19.114]

Babylon-like - Up fanes - up Babylon-like walls [21.200]

Banner-like - Some lilies wave all banner-like, above a grave. [19.193]

Beast-like - The imitations made by the dwarf were sufficiently beast-like. [18.223]

Cab-introduction - The cab-introduction will bring among us a peculiar race of people, the cabman. (i.e., introduction of cabs) [21, 57]

Child-opinion - The child-opinion coincides with that of the man proper. [18.92]

Death-producing - …and of its forbidden fruit, death-producing, and a distinct intimation. [4.202]

Death-struggles - My death-struggles with the water [20.590]

Eastern-looking - An Eastern-looking city, such as in the Arabian Tales. [21.169]

Fancy-exciting - Fancy-exciting and reason-repressing character of the alleged [19.134] discoveries.

Gaily-jewelled - Not the gaily-jewelled dead / Tempt the waters from their bed. [21.202]

Half night-mare - …recurring visions, half night-mare, half asphyxia. [19.215]

Humming-top - The words must be all in a whirl, like a humming-top. [21.275]

Ill-based - A truly profound philosophy might readily prove them ill-based. [19.247]

King-coxcomb - He is king-coxcomb of figures of speech. [20.130]

Lee-lurch - …lee-lurch about the whole sign [20.170] also The brig gave a tremendous lee-lurch. [3.96]

Maiden-angel - A maiden-angel and her seraph-lover [21.112]

Misty-looking - …a misty-looking village of England. [21.301]

Moon-hoax-y - It had an amazingly moon-hoax-y air. [20.247]

Ocean-wrath - The storm, the earthquake, and the ocean-wrath [19.105]

Opium-engendered - …wild visions, opium-engendered [20.264]

Patriot-farmer - He has taken us abroad with the patriot-farmer in his rambles about his homestead. [19.14]

Plague-goblins - Plague-goblins were the popular imps of mischief. [2.172]

Ready-slided - It is just as well to print them (vowels) ready-slided. [19.259]

Seraph-lover - A maiden-angel and her seraph-lover [21.112]

Shoe-peas - …the monastic hair-cloths and shoe-peas [18.93]

Shovel-footed -Not a shovel-footed negro waddles across the stage. [19.114]

Silvery-silken - There fell a silvery-silken veil of light. [20.445]

Soul-life - …was dearer to my soul than its soul-life. [21.467]

Star-isles - At the many star-isles / that enjewel its breast [20,110]

Star-litten - To duty beseeming / these star-litten hours [21,109]

Time-eaten - Time-eaten towers that tremble not! [21,199]

Town-lamp - …the only one (light) apparent except those of the town-lamps [21, 293]

Under-toned - to give voice to under-toned comments about the condition of the Island of Manhattan. [19, 74]

Unthought-like - …unthoughtlike thought - scarcely the shades of thought [18,167]

Vampire-wing-like - And vampire-wing like pannels back [19,185].

Weather-lanyards - As the brig gave a tremendous lee-lurch the word was given to cut away the weather-lanyards. [19, 96]

World-reason - …a conventional World-Reason awakens us from the truth of our dream [18, 312]

Appendix 2



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