Banking system and its development in the period of transition to the market

Content


Introduction.1. Banking system and its development in the period of transition to the market.

.1 Commercial banks as the main segment market economy

.2 Principles and functions of commercial banks

.3 Legal framework of commercial operation banks2. Banking risks and methods for their control

.1 The term "banking risks."

.2 Main types of banking risks.

.3 Methods of risk management.3. Analysis of banking risks and methods of their regulation (on the mat e rials local bank.)

Introduction

- one of the central components of the system of market structures. The development of their activities - a prerequisite of creating real market mechanics s ma. Process of economic transformation began with the reform in banco tion system. This sphere dynamic ra s Viva today.a long time, banks were public authorities and acted on d tion of "supporting structures" administrative-command system of economic management. As a result, business banking in the country and lost Traditional tion and experience of Russian banks. Today we have to catch up. Necessary in a short time to reach the level of contemporary world-class organization of the bank in case ray.of the market and market infrastructure, new mechanisms mouth and updating of economic relations and the development of entrepreneurship and competition, increase the sovereignty of the republics require the development of the theory of economic risks, methods of assessment and management at all levels of management: the country, the national, regional, local, as well as at the level of each business unit, regardless of the type and form of prop t vennosti.leading role in solving these problems should belong ba n banking system. This is determined by the increasing role of banks and credit relations in an unstable economy and transition. Banks not only form of loan capital markets, securities, foreign exchange market, participate in the establishment and functioning of commodity exchanges and new x about tural structures, but essentially, are the sole owner of n e necessary information on the financial condition of enterprises and organizations, conjuncture commodity, loan, and currency markets, economic pos e SRI region, republic, country. The latter indicates the importance of the study of the development of e banks foreign and domestic commercial and political risks of their clients. This is all the more appropriate that at this stage there are plaques and enabling environment for the establishment and improvement of partnerships hozyays t sponding subjects with banks to strengthen their mutual responsibility and co n trol.guiding principle in the commercial banks in the market yavl I etsya pursuit of greater profits. It limits the possibility of incurring losses Stu. Risk is monetary value of probabilistic events, leading to losses. The higher the risks, the higher the chance to make a profit. Risks are formed on the deviation from the actual data with today's evaluation of the standing and future development. These deviations can be positive and neg a tive. In the first case we are talking about the chances of making a profit, while the second - the risks. Every chance to make a profit on the costs against the possibility of losses., you can only make a profit if possible incur losses (risks) will be provided in advance (suspended) and insure and us. Therefore, the problem of economic risks in the commercial ba n Cove should be given considerable attention. The main ones include: ra s processing classification of bank risk assessment framework and methods of calculation of eq nomic and political and other risks of the bank, the individual borrower or a group of enterprises, industry, rep faces b, country.

Chapter 1. Banking system and develop it and ment during the first stroke to the market f


.1 COMMERCIAL BANKS AS PRIMARY SEGMENT MARKET ECONOMY

's banking system - one of the fastest growing with e to then ditch about techestvennoy economy, the transition to market relations, to that rum occurred most rapidly. For the second n about half of the program in 1990 was almost to a system vidirovana specialized state banks, and the beginning of 1991 mainly completed the formation of a two-tier banking system: Central Bank - commercial e ba n ki.light of the current problems of the Russian economy, associated with e tion overcome the crisis and inflation n processes, increased inv e vestment and credit activities, cos e rshenstvovaniem organization of settlements in the economy and stabilize c iey national currency, accelerating the formation of e ciently function f n ioniruyuschey banking system capable mobiles and u uw financial resources and their concentration on priorities structure t urn per e construction economy has neocene e nimuyu practice t ich e Skuju stamp and bridges.district of miles of the banking system in eq on omy national ho ture, related Ryno h governmental relations objectified e it possible that it operates in state in the payment system and states calculation is s; pain w th part of its commercial e sd lok carries through deposits, investments and credit operations; along with others from financial intermediaries gimi savings banks send e of us e tion to businesses and industrial structures. At the same time, the effective t ivnost impl e s t ted investment funds largely depends on cn lities most of the banking system to direct these funds precisely because zae m schikam who will find ways to optimal and efficient Run on lzovaniya. Comm e rcheskie banks, acting in accordance with the monetary policy of the State to regulate movement den e n tighteners on currents, slowing them about about a company, emissions, total weight including the amount of cash in circulation. Stabilisation of money growth - a pledge Redeye e m of those types of inflation, an e sintered constant price level at which the market-temperature e ystvuyut on the economy of the economy of the most effective time used.modern banking system - is the sphere of services to its diverse climate e ntam - on t traditional deposit and loan and cash operations, define ni base their banking, to new forms of monetary and financial instruments used by banking institutions (leasing, F to then the ring, trust and so on).banking, reaching their coherence and balance of the STI, commercial banks on e spechivayut thus its stability endowed w particular, yield, stability of the system in the market on t e s burden. All aspects and activities of commercial banks combined exercise unified strategy and inventive bank de l th, n fir which - to achieve a return on STI and liquidity. This integrated performance criteria and n and reliability of commercial banks, depending both on their on the floor and tics associated with the draw e tion of financial resources (management ALMC) and the policy of profitable posted e u e of bank funds in sf e tures of credit and investment systems (active management op e -talkies). These two aspects of the activities of commercial banks are interconnected, mutually imozavisimy, but at the same time and are mutually exclusive. If the bank in its de I t e tivity relies on getting quick and high returns on active operations, thereby it loses its liquidity, exposing themselves to the risk of becoming insolvent and vposl e dstvii possible bankrupt and then m Providing the same high level of its e th Liquidity ITY, bank, tend to lose profitability.accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation is to bank m mercial uchre Well denie created to raise funds from jurid and iCal and individuals and placing them on his behalf under conditions of return t particular, payment, and maturity, as well as perform other banking transactions . On the one hand, the bank, as well as any direct e dpriyatie, created to meet the interests of the bank's owners (shareholders or individual) and society n tion interests (clients - legal entities and individuals, TS w ivaemyh bank). On the other hand, the bank is a special kind of company that forms a body and movement exercises and loan capital, ensuring profits whether s own bank n nicks., the commercial banks are the most important link of the banking system, the main part of concentrating credit resources and implementing wide on cue dia n azone banking and financial services for legal and physical and entities. They represent Tue about swarm level of the banking system after Mr. Tse Central (state , national tion s) banks.of the banking syst e we coo t The associated developed market economy in Russia began in 1987 and was accompanied by a further increase in the number of commercial banks: nach.1992 city - 1360 KB 1993 - KB 1769, the end of 1993 - 1877 KB, beg. 1995 - 2600 KB. Crisis in the summer of 1995 - the crisis in the interbank market (MMM, etc.) touched small regional banks, and then the wave of the crisis, "covered" and large banks SVKB, INKOMBANK, Tokobank. Reducing the number of regional banks. Worsening economic crisis KB combine to create a holding. On nach.1996 city - 2079 KB, nach.1997 of KB-2024, y-1764 kon.1997 KB, nach.1998 of KB-1697, y-1598 ser.1998 KB, 01.07.99 - 1401 KB. Increasing number of cases of withdrawal.banks can be classified into a number of grounds. Prina d sories authorized ka n Itala Bank and its method of formation determine the type of bank. By the nature of the property distinguished public banks, sharehold of Nurney, cooperative, private, municipal, and mixed. In industrialized countries, the predominant form of ownership of commercial banks is a shareholder p tion.stock banks in Russia are in the form of a joint stock company s indoor and outdoor types. Entry of the Shareholders shall have those n the purchase of shares. As shareholders are legal entities and individuals, including the Institute of strange.commercial used and nkov with z given by equity contributions and inaugural teley (shareholders) as a limited liability partnership. Memb and kami such bank are legal and physical persons who bear responsibility for tons on its obligations with all their property. The number of joint-stock commercial banks increased used of Leia than doubled and amounted to 1.07.99, 37% of their total number. Private banks are banks, cos d Data is based on the capital of individuals in their Russian ca about was 1% of the total ba n Cove.types of operations are distinguished commercial banks - the universal and c e ized. Modern banks can t make a wide range of operations and provide a variety of services, which seek to expand the list. This determines the uni sal character of the bank. In Russia, the function p Univ sebaceous banks - credit institutions with cross-sectoral multidisciplinary field of activity, which can be about t bear, for example, Unicombank, Russian National Bank, Bank Mosbiznes etc. However, the bank may have a specialization that increases effektivnos be the implementation of individual operations. Functional specialization distinguish banks rec n struction and development, investment, un on technoy, export-import, BEAC e liary.a territorial basis distinguish banks Intern about dnye, the Republicans and whether central, regional and service NESCO l ko regions. By reflecting on the left orientation banks classified for industrial, agricultural t governmental, construction, trade. For example, in Russia it Dalrybbank, CB "IB Entrepreneurship Support" CB "Energobank" WITH KB social sphere "Conti" , CB "Oil" AB "Metallurg" KB "Gazprombank", etc.modern conditions the influence of banks on the economy. S figures completely credit institutions is not limited accumulation and accommodate the growing mass d enezhnyh funds companies, enterprises and the population. They contribute to the accumulation of capital, not tons of lko actively interfering in all aspects of economic life, but also directly involved in the activities of operating capital or exercising control over it. Thanks kam ba n the mechanism of distribution and redistribution of capital and areas of traslyam proi s duction, which is largely providing e t development of peoples d tion economy, depending on the objective needs of production. Additional funding for ex tra n about needs of industrial, transit from the port, agriculture investment, expand production, the banks they are e opportunity to influence the creation of a progressive national reproductive structure of x ture.


1.2 Business Principles for STI. FUNCTIONS AND COMMERCIAL BA H RGB

first and fundamental principle of the commercial bank is working within existing resources really. Commercial bank may make non-cash payments in favor of other banks to provide loans to other banks and get paid in cash within the balance in their correspondent accounts. Opportunities to create their own e d tender funds to the account of its customers in excess of their available resources and Restriction of were obtained.within and Commercially resources means that a commercial bank must provide not only a quantitative relationship between their resources and credit investments, but also to ensure compliance with the specifics of the nature of banking assets mobilized their resources. First of all, it refers to those terms and others. So, if the bank raises funds mainly used for short time periods (short-term deposits or demand deposits) and inc and dyval them primarily in long-term loans, its ability without zade p rods to pay its obligations properties (that is, its liquidity) is under eel about Zoe.of bank assets in a large number of loans with increased w ennym risk requires the bank to increase the share of equity in the total amount of its resources. Strict dependence on the nature of the bank's assets of its liabilities must be considered when determining the economic standards of banks and the regulation of their operations. The possibility of making one or another specific banking (mortgage, investment and so on) dete r mined structure of bank liabilities. Therefore, developing the terms of these op e radios, must be given high priority to the development of appropriate sources of liabilities.the resources available to the banks he is free to conduct its active operations (subject to the established economic standards), that is, the volume of its active operations can not be limited to administrative, volitional methods. Administrative restrictions can have a one-time, transdermal s Extraordinary character. Their systematic application undermines the commercial basis of the bank and, therefore, a priority in the management, including having restrictive focus should be given to economic Laughter. frames.of operation within the actual resources mobilized as the foundation of business bank changes all its accents of vannost be interested in increasing bank deposits, developing genuine competition for liabilities liberating movement of credit resources from administrative shackles single state bank. Acute struggle for liabilities stimulates n of banks claim the most effective areas to apply their resources. Proish DIT real displacement of bank capital in the most cost-effective and q and namichnye industry (unfortunately, in terms of inflation has become the most profitable area of circulation - trade, exchange business, and bank capital and incentive to increase their ruet speculation). Radically changing the credit plan in banks. Commercialization shall not constitute a waiver of loan and pl ning, on the contrary, its value (both current and prospective) unchanged Roman e increases. But the basis for planning in this part already l yayut resources ka ba n, and it is not about tion.within really attracted resources, while ensuring the maintenance of its liquidity, commercial Th Bank for maybe only having to s high degree of economic freedom combined with a full economic tons of responsibility for the results of its activities s completely.fundamental principle, which is based on activity measures to m h eskih banks is a complete economic independence, implied e colliding and economical e Skuju responsibility for the results of the bank Worker l xed ITY. E conomic independence implies freedom of disposal used with governmental funds and to recruit and resources, free choice of cells and tomers and investors, disposal and e income of the remaining n after taxes.banking laws gave all Commercial banks e Skim economic freedom in managing their funds and income and mi. Income (profit) of the bank, remaining at its disposal after paying cash for beef, distributed in accordance with the decision of the general meet and ers. It sets standards and the size of allocations to the various funds of the bank, as well as on the amount of dividends to tsiyam.responsibility of a commercial bank is not limited to current income ( as was the case in respect of self-financing institutions specialized banks), but extends and on his capital. On its obligations to m mercial bank meets all of its funds and property, which, in accordance with the current legislation can be cash on collection Genaux. All risk from their operations Commercial Bank for e incurs.e Tille principle is that the relationship between a commercial bank with its clients built as used ychnye market relations. Before with Tavlya loans commercial bank comes before all of the market criteria of profitability, risk and liquidity. Targeting the "nation-wide int e ests" is not compatible with the commercial character of the bank and will inevitably turn to him to a liquidity crisis.fourth principle of the commercial bank is that pe regulation of its activities can be carried out only on indirect ehkon nomic (rather than administrative) methods. The state defines "rights and la games" for commercial banks, but can not give them a straight and Kazov.of the important functions of a commercial bank is to mediate the loan, which they exercise through reallocation of funds temporarily released in the circulation of funds of enterprises and cash income individuals. Feature mediating function comconsole p mercial banks is that the main criterion reallocation of resources stands profitability of their use by the borrower. Redistribution of resources is performed pe horizontal economic relations from a lender to a borrower s, by means of banks without teaching art Ia intermediaries in the face Your e facing banking institutions on the terms of payment and repayment. Fee for t data and obtained loan funds formed under the influence and in the demand and pre d Proposition borrowings. The result is f and the free movement of financial resources in the economy, the corresponding market type of t relations.intermediary functions of commercial banks for the successful development of pa s market economy is that its activities are clever shayut s degree of risk and uncertainty in the economic system. Money can be moved from lenders to borrowers without mediation of banks, but it dramatically increases the risks of losing money, fin and Vai in the loan, and increase the overall cost of their movement, as lenders and borrowers are not aware of the solvency of each other, and Mr. s policies and terms of offers funds do not coincide with the size and timing of demand for them. Commercial banks borrow funds, which can be given as a loan, in accordance with the needs of borrowers and on the basis of w Roca and diversify their assets reduce aggregate risk owners d e neg placed into bank accounts.second major function of commercial banks - encouraging however p tions on the farm. Implementation of structural st rearrange themselves th ki economy should be based on the use of mainly and primarily internal and n accumulation economy. They, and not foreign investment should be on with the main part of the funds needed to reform the economy, between those all its previous development is not created from direct manufactures e lei and other subjects of economic life, including population, sufficient incentives to save and accumulate resources. For businesses proportion of distribution received income and accrued consumption at part with tablished policy planning. At low income levels and the towns thereof n propensity to save was on Mr. izkom level and diluted n ing of the consumer market dropped to the lowest level this about t tags.banks, speaking on the financial market with the demand for loans t ITATION resources should not only possible to mobilize available x ture of savings, but also to generate sufficient incentives for efficient accumulation of N and tools based on the limitations of current consumption. Incentives to Mr. and accumulation and preservation of cash generated through flexible policy zitnoy Dept. of commercial banks. In addition to high interest is paid on deposits e Mykh, bank creditors requires high reliability guarantees premises accumulated resources in the bank. Safeguards will create forms and counted with the Russian Federation bank insurance fund assets uchre deny Well, deposits in commercial framework of ba n .order to protect the savings of the citizens of the Russian Federation and to increase their confidence in the b ankovskim institutions of the country in accordance with the Uk and by Presidential Russian Federation № 409 of March 28, 1993 in the Russian Federation has created tons of smiling Federal Insurance Fund assets of banking institutions formed by attracting deposits of citizens. Based on the decision of the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of 22-23 September 1993 (protocol number 40) to the fund as a fear of O contributions transferred funds of commercial banks listed them in 1991-1993. in the deposit insurance fund in commercial banks.with the deposit insurance important for investors is the availability of information on the activities of commercial banks and on those guarantees that they can give. In deciding whether to use available funds from a lender, it must have sufficient information about the financial condition of the bank yanii to himself assess the risk of future invest e s.virtue of underdevelopment in our country securities market deposits in banks during the transition period will be the predominant form mobilizes tion and financial resources for the implementation of economic reforms. Remark cottage banks - to create such forms fundraising that really zai n teresovyvali to clients in the accumulation of resources and they have formed the habit of saving, which determines the investment opportunities of the economy, develop and veloping under the laws of the market.third function of banks - intermediation in payments between separate independent entities - the transition to a market Prio used new PETA with about content. Under state th monopoly on the whole people own district completely all transactions between entities of the property held by units and us st State Bank. Accordingly, the form of payment, payment procedure, sanctions sides were calculated absolute concentration of all the calculations in one bank and adaptation to it. Guarantor and committing pl tezhey such a system was the state calculations. It assumes all risks, which, however, were very minor s E. Establishment of independent commercial banks led to the dispersal of settlements and improve in this regard risks that must be assumed by commercial banks. Forms of payment, and payment documents have not changed. They are still focused on the settlement operations between profiles and Lamy one bank, and payment documents in the form are in vnutribanko cal documents. But the dismantling of settlements with using accounts MFIs and the transition to settlements between banks through correspondent accounts types s shayut their risks, since the calculations are not held between the branches of a bank, and between independent commercial banks. Under these conditions is particularly important responsibility of banks for timely and full implementation of orders of their clients to commit a tezhey Sq.all countries with a market called internal economies commercial banks occupy e duschee place in the payment mechanism of the economy. The role of commercial ba n Cove to provide calculations in the national economy and in our country. But in the changed economic conditions shiesya require reforming all , payments and fur ism, inherited from the administr actively and command system.connection with the formation of the stock market is being developed and is a func tion to commercial banks as intermediary in securities transactions. Unlike some developed countries (eg the U.S.) to the actions of our m of commercial banks in the securities market is not limited to me. They can drive a variety of proi s securities transactions. In accordance with the setting e tion on the issue and circulation of securities and stock exchanges in the RSFSR, p utve firmed RSFSR Government Resolution December 29, 1991, banks have the right to act as investment institutions that can carry out activities in the securities market as a mediator (inv e vestment broker); investment adviser, investment company and investment fund. Acting as a financial broker, banks s suppl intermediary (agent) of the sale of securities for the account and on behalf of the client based on the dialect d commission or commission.an investment bank consultant provides consulting services to its customers about the issue and circulation of securities. If the bank assumes the role of an investment company, it is engaged in the organization of the securities issue and issuance of guarantees on their placement in favor of a third party; ku n ley selling securities on its own behalf and at its own expense, including the path to the portation of securities securities, that is, declaring certain securities' prices on the seller's direct "and" bid price "for which he undertakes to buy and sell. When the bank allocates its resources in securities on its own behalf and all risks associated with such placement, all gains and losses - on t changes in the market valuation of the acquired securities shall be borne by the shareholders of the bank, it acts as an investment fund. Prerequisite of e performs the role of the investment fund is the presence in the state bank of professionals working with securities having a qualification certificate p Ministers of Finance of the Russian Federation, giving the right to carry out transactions with the involvement of citizens.


1.3 LEGAL BASIS AND functioning ing Commercial E Sgiach BANKS

procedure for opening, registration and liquidation of commercial banks for those pp and Torii Russian Federation is defined by the Law of 02.12.1990 № 395-1 "On Banks and Banking de I sequences in the RSFSR." In accordance with this law, the Russian Federation has the license procedure for banking activities. Ba n Minkowski operations can be performed only on the basis of a special face n diffusion CBR. The need for special licensing of banking operations due to their increased risk and the impact that they have on the level of payment e capable of demand in the economy. Organizations commit bank and operas tion require strict state regulation and supervision of the Central Bank, so they must obtain a license to commit banco in Sgiach operations and register with the Central Bank. Otherwise banking operations are nezako n governmental.norms institutions and organizations regulated commercial banks n tiruetsya banking legislation acts, determined th schimi organizational and legal forms of enterprises and the general provisions on pre d trepreneurial activities and banking regulatory document and E.organizations working t s for the creation and con t p on any of the activities of comconsole p mercial banks CBR has developed in 1991, "Guidelines for the establishment and operations of commercial banks in the Russian Federation", which in the following years Last e been made certain of torye changes and additional about ying. This document about holding information about how to create a bank of n on obtaining a license to prov e tion of banking operations, the conditions of the state of registration and opening of bank branches. A special section on sacred supervision of banks by the Bank of Russia and their responsibility for the violation of existing rules. The last section contains the procedure for the liquidation of the bank kommerch e tion.Bank acquires the status of a legal entity since the Register and its charter tion and licensing Mr. and banking transactions by the Central Bank of the Republic, in which he is smiling t find., shareholders of commercial banks may be individuals or legal entities, except for representatives of all levels of government and their executive bodies, political organizations and specialized public authority and governmental organizations.and organizations with illiquid balance or declared insolvent, can not be founders, shareholders, participants of a commercial bank.commercial bank has separate property: buildings, structures, equipment, inventory, statutory and other funds and funds belonging to the bank on the right of ownership. Statutory fund ka ba n is formed at the expense of shareholders, received from the sale of shares ba n ka, if the bank is created as a joint stock company, or by shares (deposits) uch as ticipants if created bank is a limited respon t ve n completely.a contribution to the charter capital of shareholders (participants) of the bank can make money in rubles and foreign currency, buildings, of about equipment and other tangible assets, securities, rights and user of land, water and other natural resources, buildings, COOP w eniyami and equipment, as well as other property rights. Contribution priced in rubles, representing the proportion of the shareholder, participant in the statutory cap and tal.authorized capital of the commercial bank formed only with the odd prop t governmental funds of shareholders (participants). D o For each of the participants in the authorized capital shall not exceed 35%. By its compulsory t elstvam bank is about t ve r liability within the entire property being his property. We h ac t n iki bank established as a limited liability company, on Candlelight t t for its obligations within their unit, and the participants of the joint stock bank - to the value of acquired ak u s. Minimum ra s measures authorized capital for newly established commercial banks of all kinds in Russia rises and installed e n to 10/10/94 in the amount of e p 3 billion in b. (The equivalent of 1 million ECU). By decision of the Central Bank of Russia until 1999, Russian comm e rh e SCIE banks should n s increase the amount of own funds up to an amount equivalent to 5 million tons tion ECU. To date, the minimum capital for newly established banks should not be less than 27,130,000 rubles.

"Guidelines" provide necessary d imy for l and licenses and state registration of bank documents, n redst and indications will in the General Directorate of Regional Central Bank. Department of Banking s ora CB carries m e Todd and cal guidance on registration and licensing of credit institutions tion, as well as e counter of miles for this avenue of assignment.banks operate on the basis of the Charter, to from ory adopted by its members. The Charter of the fixed functions of the bank, its legal structure, the order of formation h per secution and powers of government. Commercial e Skim banks are prohibited to carry out activities in the field of ma t erialnogo straight on production and trade of material goods, as well as engage in all rows and insurance, except for insurance of currency and credit risks. Banks can be founders and participate own Mr. governmental funds on a pro rata wasps basis in economic activity pre priya d t s and organizations.with clients are based on contract, while the parties have ample opportunities tee in determining their conditions. For example, from January 1, 1992 in Russia on Tmenov restrictions on setting interest rates on operations kommerch e banks. Bank and enterprise, engaging in dog about Vorn relationship with each other, seek to implement their self-supporting interests effectively erase d eration.the supervision of commercial banks exercised Depart t Ament banking Above s ora checked out correctly ba n Minkowski laws and regulations CBR, as well as the counter of liruetsya enforce bank prudential regulations. For these purposes, may be about m Mfr e Dehn continuous or spot check of bank operations. Ba n ki required to submit a constituent e firmed CB for its location balances, plans, reports and other documents required to determine the correctness of credit and settlement op e radios.commercial banks, admitting fault, can ca e nyatsya sanctions or action. For example, the bank is recom tion and possible ways to eliminate the shortcomings, on financial recovery plan for the bank (increase equity, restructuring of assets, etc.). As sanctions applied increasing reserve requirements, a fine in the amount of income earned in pe result of unlawful actions of the bank; review the license for banking operations or the imposition of restrictions on bank operations. Review l licenses and acts as a decision to liquidate the bank. This measure is used in the next e following cases: detection of false information on the basis of cat ryh licensed, with delayed onset of activity for more than one year from the date of issue of the license; performing operations prohibited by legisla tion m and beyond provided by the bank license , identifying drug solutions at the bank of the antimonopoly legislation (for example, pr e Vyshen 35% stake in the authorized capital of the bank by one of its members). Organ ization and management structure and commercial bank regulated by its Charter, which contains provisions on the governing bodies of the bank, their structure, the order of formation and functions. Commercial banks are not in s shestoyaschih bodies. The supreme body of the commercial bank is used in common with even earlier shareholders (shareholders), convened annually for the following in about asking: Charter change and the authorized capital, the election of the Board of Bank utve p firmed annual results, the distribution of income of the bank, and CREATE and liquidation of subsidiaries Bank enterprises and some other important activities in about asking the bank (not related to its agement n ta).organization of relationships with commercial banks and methods of regulating the activities of the past provided the relevant banks in SKIM legislation. So, given the current situation in the economy CBR regulates commercial banks through the use of such a complex economical e Sgiach methods as:

Changes in reserve requirements placed by commercial ba n k and E in the CBR;

Change the volume of loans to commercial banks to the Central Bank, as well as straight about interest rates on loans;

Transactions with securities and foreign shaft that th.these purposes, the CBR was developed in the 1991 instruction number 1 "On the order and regulation of commercial banks 'ing' and Notes on the formation of the centralized funds ba n Russian banking system by contributions from commercial banks that joined the de th consequence to July 1, 1991 ofaccordance with the above regulations CBR image from a reserve fund credit tion system of the Russian Federation, whose funds formed by reserving it in a certain percentage of funds attracted by commercial banks and the foreign enterprises and governmental organizations org.

Chapter 2. Bank risk AND THEIR METHODS AND ADJUST tion


.1 CONCEPT "BANKING RISKS"

entity acts of market relations "in their right forks, "a one and at the same time adhering to the letter of the law. Su exists, of course, and the state n tion regulation, and then adds the hassle of credit institutions. In such a time, banks under such an unstable, rapidly changing situation yuscheysya forced to consider all possible consequences of their actions jumping n Comrade, customers and anticipate the probable changes in the legislation. Ima n but this uncertainty and an increased level of risk - is the fee for obtaining n ing economic freedom (although having Yasya economic "freedom" is still far from the freedom that is required for the normal dynamics of the market economy - but that's another topic).banking market is unthinkable without risk. Risk is inherent in any operation, but it can be of different scales and different "smya g chatsya" compensated. Have lo be highly naive to look for options implementation phenomenon of banking operations which would completely exclude the risk of Chali and advance would guarantee certain financial sovy result. With such a spoiler on the house to the point in the market for a long time and it is impossible to stop to as the "afloat.", for the banking activities important YaV determined not to avoid risk at all, and the foresight and reducing them to a minimum.is risk? A risk is understood as the probability bility, or rather Mr. Rose Bank of the loss of their resources, revenue or produced e additional expense as a result of the definition of n tion financial cial operations. In this connection it is necessary to navigate the application next e subsequent categories:

* Expenses.activity is impossible without costs. Ras moves banks associated with the need to pay interest to depositors, fees for loans purchased from other financial institutions for funds for work on n lat bank employees and other operating expenses tional. In applying the concept of risk costs may occur in the following forms: changing market conditions have resulted tion requiring higher percent Comrade, Vai and paid on deposits; universal deficit loan resources affected the types s shenii their purchase stand STI; increase staff salaries in other cr e ditnyh institutions caused the need for the bank respectively corresponding measures, etc.

* Losses., manifested in the form of revenue shortfall or excess of the expenditure scheduled happen when there is insufficient analysis of the upcoming surgery, miscalculations, not the best of circumstances, or just before the n th predictability situation. The risk of such losses related to mismanagement of funds placement, inaccurate assessment ry nightlife opportunities and threats, always threatens to cause serious trouble for the bank styami.

* Loss., understood as an unexpected decline in bank profits Minkowski, advocate general indicator, ha characterized by the risk inherent in banco tion activities. This figure combines all the properties of the categories, op and the two previously mentioned, and therefore best characterized forms a st e stump risk., the risk can be defined as the risk that the bank will incur losses on n, the size of which is showing Telem level of riskiness of the upcoming event and the quality of the stratum e energy in risk., the notion of risk and losses are intimately linked. Cl e Consequently, the risk can be described and quantitative tively, using the category of loss. This approach is t smiling basis for the development of risk theory.the amount of risk can be expressed in absolute and relative foreign exchange rates tion s. In absolute terms zhenii risk is the size of s possible losses when implementing a particular operation. However, to evaluate these losses with sufficient accuracy is not always possible. If the size of potential losses attributed to any indicators e peo characterizing the banking de yours elf, for example, to the size of credit resources, the size of RA moves or income of the bank in connection with the con crete operations, then n shines on the amount of risk in respect Tel'nykh terms.of the risk in absolute and relative display telyah enough cha with that practiced by banks. In this case the absolute risk is calculated, when it comes to one particular transaction. If senior management n ka ba developed regulations regarding the acceptable level of risk in committing various bank banking business, the provisions relating tional indicators and whether describing, for example, the amount of risk to the sum to moves expected as a result of nodules t operations., risk is the probability category, which can be a sufficient degree of accuracy completely evaluated by analysis of the n losses.level of risk is increased if:

* Problems arise suddenly and contrary to expectations;

* New tasks that do not conform to past experience;

* Management is not able to take the necessary and urgent IU ry that of m can lead to financial loss;

* The existing order of the bank or the imperfection of Legislative ment and prevent the adoption of certain optimal measures for a particular situation.operations are very diverse, each of them has its own x and tic features, and, consequently, a certain level of financial risk or probability of loss to the sate. All variety of complementary banking I etsya variety of clients and changing market condi loviyami that receptacle and considerably complicates the development of some of the criteria to estimate the risk of ki n.are almost all kinds of banking operations. Analyzing the risks of commercial banks in Russia at the present stage, it is necessary to teach s Vat:

* The critical state of the economy, which is reflected not only a drop in production, financial instability sustainability of many organizations, but also to destroy e ho tion series I bonds tural communication;

* Fragility of the political situation (very low index TAKE);

* Incomplete formation in banco tion system;

* Absence or imperfection of some basic law enforcement and to comrade, the discrepancy between the legal framework and a real-life situa tion;

* Inflation, etc.circumstances make substantial changes in the aggregate during kupnost s Nika banking risks and methods of their study of. However, this does not exclude the presence of w denotes the occurrence of common problems of risks and trends in the dynamics of their uro nya., with the development of risk theory developed methodology and methods of analysis. In our view, we can define the following main stages ing meth gy analysis of banking risks:

. Type and specificity of the bank analyzes the level of a certain species or the overall risk of its activities, activity sequences of their partner, contractor, customer, vendor, entered via e nickname, etc.

. Sphere of influence of the analyzed individual or aggregate risk completely ri with Cove.

. Method of calculation, analysis of the level of error, absolute and applies to enforcement of t deviations.

. Ability to control specific risk analyzed.

. Management tools risky situations in general.

. Evaluating the effectiveness of the analysis and recommendations based on the results of the recommendations.banking practice in risk assessment mainly take into account the probability of insolvency of customers, a sharp deterioration in their financial condition, impact sible seizures certain part of the funds placed in deposits, changes in exchange rates and securities, as well as the probability of the various monetary restriction. It should be borne in mind that all the risk factors into account is almost impossible, so the score is based on certain before started up, and the result is to a certain extent at approximately. However, this does not detract from the importance of developing a strategy for responsible risk.of risk strategy Proch one number sequence um different stages, including e lyayut Bldg:

) Identify factors increases and decreases in a specific type of risk impl e Implemented ban certain banking business.

) Analysis of the factors identified in terms of the magnitude of the effect on risk.

) Evaluation of a specific type of risk.

) Establishment of an optimal level with ri ka.

) Analysis of individual transactions for compliance with the acceptable level of risk.

) Development of measures to reduce risk.for the factors affecting the risk, they are usually regarded with Mr. Banks did not complete and if to take into account whether the w e s objectified lenny standard set of them, which is periodically reviewed. These factors do not carry any particular settlement prednaz The values and serve as the initial basis for risk analysis, as well as "recover" and detail clean mat e matic evaluation.


.2 MAIN TYPES OF BANKING RISKS

to the history of marketing all manufacturers, including banks and Kira, and try min mize risk and maximize profits.balance between risk and expected profit S varies, depending on p yes I objective and subjective factors.oldest way to assess the risk level and reduce YaV it possible page and ance., analysis and evaluation of the level of risk produced by using the tools of probability theory and mathematical techniques tion statistics. To analyze the level of risk is most commonly used dynamic standard deviation values ??of net profit were. If a particular situation is analyzed, the analysis is carried out in a static lys. First of all, take into account the time of the ban Minkowski risk.the time the risks are allocated to the retrospective, current and vp to the contrary. Retrospective analysis of risks, their nature and methods of reducing them makes it possible to more accurately predict Vat current and future risks. Further analyzes degree penalties (level) of existing risks.to the degree (level) banking risks can be divided into low Kiya died ITATION n and l ITATION.figure number 1 (page 18) shows the main types of bank ri with Cove. Optionally be noted that in the course of business, banks hundred l ki vayutsya with a plurality of different types of risks that differ IU forward to a place and time of occurrence, combined external and internal factors are affecting their level, and hence Indeed, in the way they methods of analysis and their descriptions. In addition, all kinds of risks are interrelated and influence the activities of a bank. Change one kind of risk cause changes almost all other species. All this, of course, complicates the choice of the method of analysis of specific risk and a decision on its optimization leads to the corner b Allotment When analyzing a variety of other factors Skov. Therefore the choice of nodules t tion method of analysis of their level, the selection of wholesale and mal factors are very important.the main factors of banking risks are economical and political e cal. Political risks - this figure matches due rev e neniem political situation, adverse affects on the results nicely de I sequences enterprises (closed ment borders, ban on the export of goods to other pages and us, the military action tions in the country, etc.).(commercial) risks - these are the risks caused ITATION unwholesome about pleasant changes in the economy of the bank or in the economy. On and more common type of economic tion risk, which would concentrate on Wana private risks is liquidity risk (w completely unperturbed timely fulfill payment obligations). Economic risks also represented a change in market conditions, the level of control e.main types of risks are linked, and often in practice and Ven exactly difficult to separate them. In turn, both political and economic risks can be external and internal.external risks are not directly related to the activities of the bank or its audience contact. The level of external risk affects a very many factors - political, economic, demographic e SCIE, social, geographical, etc.internal include risks associated with the activities of the bank and its clients (borrowers) or a specific counterparties. Their level and shows the influence of approx business activity management of the bank itself, the choice of optimal range tion s marketing strategy and tactics of policy and other factors.RISKScommercial risks can be country, currency and risk and disaster E (force majeure).riskrisks directly related to the internationalization tion de I sequences banks and banking institutions (joint banks - Sat), the presence of global risk, depend on the political and economic stability of STI client countries and / or countries counterparties Comrade, importers or exporters. They are relevant to all banks established with foreign capital participation (joint ba n Cove - Sat), and banking institutions with a general license. Based in ITATION errors that allows management of banks associated with misjudgment of financial stability of the foreign counterparty. One of Mr. recomm mended ways to analyze the level of country risk index is MOVEMENT, reg larly published in Germany by MOVEMENT. With the help of pre-defined I etsya level of country risk. His definition engaged about 100 ex p Comrade who are using different methods to estimate expert analyze knock four times a year. In this way, analyzing are all aspects of political and economic situation in the partner country. Questionnaire, which was prepared anonymously respons e time specialists represented countries, contains 15 evaluation criteria, each of which has its specific gravity, with a total of 100 %. Each GP grew assessed by the score-scale interest and has 5 replies and variants - from 0 (unacceptable) to 4. The higher the number of points collected, the lower country risk.risk can be structured to risks convertible summability, risk transfer or payment moratorium.method of analyzing the level of country risk application nyaet Shwe th royal Banking Corporation. Even before World War II service banks and banking institutions, authorized for Nima definitioncountry risk, functionally divided into advanced and shta ITATION b. Engaged in collecting the most advanced modern and relevant assessments, while staff have developed independent scientific prognosis of direct economic and political situation in the riskiness of a particular country or region. Further, these studies have become regular char ter and began to take shape in the standard way s zu.1980 the economic department Shveytsars bank ATMs in Coy tion Corporation has developed a new, systematic and well-normalized principles approach to determining the level of country risk:

* Prediction of country risk should be based on analysis of the structure p tion and qualitative characteristics of the State, as well as quantitative indicators, based on the study ITATION digital data and t wo relations;

* Conclusions about the causes of increased riskiness of provisions should be fully understood t us the reader of the report;

* A combination of two types of analysis (qualitative and quantitative) should be clear and specific: all tables and comparisons must include pa with encryption cuts to facilitate the analysis and enhance its effects in completely.basic principles have led to the formation of a two-stage structure of the analyzed statistical and analytical materials on board. The first item in the stump of a report on the situation in the country (brief description of the economic situation). The volume of this part of the summary is strictly limited to two pages. At the beginning PriVO ditsya most significant part of the analysis, ie conclusion regarding the country risk and the final yes n ITATION the country from here it selected key information. These summaries ful l nyayutsya on standard dard model taking into account the political situation, national s tional economy, external balance and foreign Zadoya l relief.on this analysis, statistical and analytical control of serves a complimentary and is a judgment concerning the classification of the country risk in the forward and changes to the analyzed country.the second part of the analysis carried out specific economic-poly cally and with conflict situations and the level of total country risk using risk factors Scheme (FIS). Thus it turns out straight (Swe th royal Banking Corporation - consumer) and reverse (bank, manufacturer, etc. - Swiss Banking Corporation) relationship. Create compressed information report, which ing can be quickly analyzed and ensuring of reliable e Chiva completely results and their comparison Schemes risk factors with data from other surveys or marketing directly with governmental observation I E.in this way multilateral dialogue - is wel t vuemy and the desired result of contributing to effective cuttings processing and final decisions on the on the boards of financial activity of STI in the analyzed habitat, taking into account that risk factors. For these reasons, risk factors scheme adopted in Swiss banks, is particularly simple, easy to read and comprehend form. Of course, this does not mean that the experts on statistics and analysis of specific national action sitivity analysis limited to only those data that are contained in the soda p Scheme factors with ri kariskrisk, or the risk of capital losses associated with internationalization zatsiey market banking, the creation of transnational (joint) pre d enterprises and banking institutions and diversify their activities tion and pre d constitutes a possibility of financial loss as a result of currency fluctuations.first attempts to control l eniya currency risk were carried us in the early 70s, when floating exchange rates were introduced.its part, currency risks are structured as follows arr way:) commercial, ie associated with a reluctance or inability to properly and ka (the guarantor) with pa considered on its obligations;) conversion (cash), ie risks of currency losses on con crete operations These risks are structured on the risks con concrete deals. The most common techniques reduce the risk of conversion I lyayutsya:

* Hedging, ie creation of compensating currency position for Single Well doy risky transaction. In other words, there is com sation rate of exchange of one of the risk - profit or loss - ri with other relevant com;

* Currency swap, which has two varieties. First Napo Mina clearance parallel loans, when the two sides in two different countries of equal provide loans with the same terms and ways absorption and maturity, but denominated in various currencies. The second option - just agreem ting between Bank and E to buy or sell a currency at a rate of "slot" and on p and tit deal in pre-agreed date (in the future) to determine the rate divided "slot." Unlike parallel loans swaps do not include payment of interest due;

* Set-off risks of assets and liabilities, the so-called ME Todd "matching" (matching), where by deducting income shaft w you value the outflow of the bank's management has the ability to affect me of their size.transnational (joint) Banks (SB) use the "don t Thing" (netting), which is expressed with the maximum number of abbreviations in foreign exchange transactions and by their enlargement. For this purpose, the coordination of all departments of banking institutions should be of a high standard (system "7C" social Hoc concept Marketi n ha)''.1986, ten large SAT London organized by "Foreksnet" for netting, reducing the number of conversion tion operations and a reduction in foreign exchange risks and transaction costs. Accordingly, when such centralizes tion and currency risk hour partially removed from the branches and specific units and transferred to a central unit relates;) translational (accounting) risks that arise when n ke overestimate assets and liabilities balances and account "Gains and losses" and profiles of foreign fishing clients, contractors. These pics of ki turn depend on the choice of currency conversion, its stable variability and other factors. Recalculation can be carried in lyat smiling method of translation (at the current rate on the date of conversion) or east of trigonometric method (as at the date of the con crete operation). Some of rye banks account for all current operations at the current rate, and long-term - for historical mu, others analyze the level of risk of financial operations at the current rate, and the other - the historic and still others choose one of the two accounting methods and use it to control the totality of their risky op e radios.) risks forfeiting that arise when forfeter (they often I wish to set up a bank) assumes all risks exporter without recourse. But at the same time forfeiting (method refi nancing commercial risk) has its advantages, with the help of which may be reduced at the level of risk in order n:

* Simplify the balance of relationships possible obligations ments;

* Improvement (at least temporarily) liquidity, which gives OPPORTUNITIES w completely to further strengthen financial stability STI,

* Reduce the probability and possibility of losses by insurance of at z sible difficulties that almost inevitably arise in the period are charged e of previously insured requires O considered;

* Reduction or even absence of the risks associated with fluctuations in interest rates;

* A sharp decline in the level of risk associated with exchange rate fluctuations tions in a lute and changed e tion of financial stability of the debtor;

* Lack of risks and costs associated with the activities of the credit for bodies collecting money for bills and other payment documents nym n there., of course, forfeiting can not be used at all times and de ve s. This is one of the ways to reduce risks.CBR regularly publishes the so-called "currency basket" - a method of measuring the weighted average exchange rate of the ruble against a specific set of other currencies.finally, the external risks include the risk of natural disasters tions or as it is called force majeure (Roy), which depends on the presence or absence of natural phenomena of nature and related after d consequence, and from all sorts og straints with hand gosudars t wa.riskrisks depend on the type and specificity of the bank, the nature of its activity, s capacity (opera u s) and the composition of its partners (clients and counterparties n cent).associated with the bank's vieware three types of commercial banks Cove - special purpose district ITATION, industry and universal. In each of them there are all kinds of pu with Cove, but the probability of their frequency originated emergence and specificity depend on the type of himself on the banking institution.of universal banks also uni versal. They are engaged in virtually all types of banking services (credit, settlement and financial s E). Moreover, in the village of glaciers time universal commercial banks are increasingly carried mented unconventional operations, such as operations with various governmental types of securities, leasing, factoring, clearing etc.commercial banks targeting the de yours elf to provide basically any specific con meadow, ie have clear cuttings and fluoropyridinium commodity orientation. For example, innovation, investment, ss at dosberegatelnye, mortgage, deposit, clearing and other banks. Other banks specialized ed on the maintenance of certain categories of customers from sectoral (agricultural, industrial, construction) or to national func (exchange, insurance, trust, cooperative ITATION, utilities) and the characters straight.finally, there is a market and orient tion activities spe cialised commercial banks, ie they may be regional tional, interregional, transnatsional s governmental.and type of internal risks faced again personal types of commercial banks, mainly depend on the specific activity of their matches on the STI.specialized commercial banks, such as innovation onnyh dominate the risks associated with lending to new tech nologies. According to the results of the sampling pe sa statistical analysis is my biggest risk I is commissioning technological innovations without qualified pre d provisional assessment of its potential real effective. The reasons for the increased risk of m Gut be:

* Use the new technology started prematurely, even before production costs are aligned with the actual level Ryno h relative prices;

* Products released before the buyer is willing to pay for novshes wa t, ie volume of potential demand is insufficient to justify the Difficult and you., the real s tion demand even lower;

* The number of suppliers and intermediaries involved with the prospect of growth in demand, redundant for a particular market (a market segment, windows, niches), which leads to higher specific banking tons of Vara., many investment banks have, for example, a lower level of portfolio risk, as they have impact opportunity to offer their customers a variety of services for management claimed credit portfolios of securities. Thus, they get fixed incomes. In order to reduce such risks not only the banks but also their well-meaning and intended audience contact should conduct active marketing efforts to identify actual and potential market capacity and ka real potency and Alno and demand for a particular product of the bank (ie, certain banking cond in gu) '.branch banks the most important value for the level of risk are of the form and specific industry-specific (old or new, first prospective, strategic, etc.).of universal banks exposed to risks of both types, and the one to the same combinations thereof and tions.related to the nature of banking operationson the nature of banking risks may be associated with specific balance sheet or off-balance sheet transactions, and those and other e Div lyayutsya risks of active and passive operations risks.of passive operationsis through passive operations Bank adjusts its D resources for the implementation of active banking operations. To versatile nym operations comconsole p mercial banks include deductions from profits if the formation (increase) in authorized capital with; credit value dits received from other entities; deposit Opera tion. Only the first group forms the passive operations with b governmental ITATION from banks. Obtain bank loans from other legal entities must often for operational liquidity regulation ball n cos issuing banks or unforeseen credits.operations - operations that fundraising businesses and / or individuals in deposits or to On demand of, or on a certain date. Deposits may be urgent, on demand, in the form of savings deposits of individuals, the prices of securities. Passive operations risks associated with possible hindered neniyami active operations in providing resources. Most often it is the risk associated with performance management Assessing the contribution of Dr. Chica (one manufacturer or group "Sister" company tions). For warning Well tion risk for the formation of deposits banks must comply Cams optimal balance between passive and active mi deposit operations, ie contributions enterprises prises to the bank and deposits placed by banks in some others have gih banks, determine the size and liquidity attracted deposited securities to raise the level and quality of mobile, find it advisable tion s minimum ratio of equity and risky assets, and discharge methods Botha calculating the coefficients ent connectedness deposits taking into account features of the bank STAY and guide them when placing a deposit and comrade.of active operations Interest riskactive operations related to the level of so-called interest rate risk, which banks are constantly exposed to in their work.rate risk associated with possible fluctuations in market s Prospect of interest rates. The risk to the bank may, for example, be in the next e following. Issuing, say, a loan, the bank may be at a disadvantage if an increase in market interest rates, as it will be forced to pay higher interest on de n positive and pur nym resources, which most directly affect the amount of n beam profits.riskrisk is the probability of loss on certain types of securities, as well as all categories of loans. Portfolio risk Subpart I are financial, liquidity risks, the system cal and nesist e matic.risks can be defined as follows: the more leveraged banks are joint stock companies, enterprises, including joint banks, the higher the risk for their shareholders, founders. At the same sp e mja borrowed funds are an important and lucrative source of funding, since the cup all of cheaper than the production and sale of additional shooting Jay securities. According to the accepted standards for borrowers corresponding ratio between equity and debt - the debt ratio (Kd) - varies within 0.2-0.3. This risk is closely associated with the risk of the lever (L e veredzha - leverage), which depends on the ratio of capital invested in securities with fixed income Rowan, non-fixed-income and total volume of fixed and working capital. The level of this risk is measured using the following formula in the forms:

= ROAxEM,

: ROA - return on assets, ie level of efficiency using transformations of all of the bank;- level is effectively used and of equity ka capital;- the coefficient of the bank's ownership.risk - the ability of financial assets operators arr, swiftly and schatsya in cash. The largest and most famous of Producers and banks whose shares are traded on central exchanges, have the lowest risk of this kind. Small firms same - neoplasms ized, venture capital - more dangerous in this rel about shenii. In this case, special attention should be paid to the choice of mediation and Cove. The main types of financial intermediaries, the specifics of their rights and obligations bilities have a big impact on the business activity of banks Cove. S right in their boron affects all kinds of risks.risk associated with changes in stock prices and their yields Stu tech at schim and expected interest on the bonds, expected by E dividend rate and additional profit caused by general market fluctuations. It combines the risk of changes in interest rates, the risk that the overall market prices and inflation risk tion. Lends itself quite accurate prediction, as the tightness of St. I link (correlation) between the exchange rate and stock market conditions common in reg lar and fairly reliably recorded difference h governmental stock indices.risk does not depend on market conditions and the specifics of a particular company is banking. It can be branches left and financial. On with new factors that have influence on the level of non-systemic briefcase s rate risk, are the availability of alternative spheres of (investment) f and financial resources, commodity and stock market conditions ry n Cove and others.of systemic and non-systemic risk is the risk and invest Nations.market risk of falling pricesmarket risk of falling prices - is the risk of forgone income and so on to kim or financial assets. It is most commonly associated with a fall in prices for all tion of the market b inverting Mr. Tse ITATION paper at the same same time.countries with developed market economies, there are firms s - e whether observers (for example, "Standard End Puers "), which are constantly analyzing the level of portfolio risk of various securities.can definitely maintains that shares of private firms and joint-stock enterprises riskier than government bonds. State No. of those theoretically and practically can not go broke because of its income on debt guaranteed by all the treasure of the country. At the same time negosuda p respectively, and to the joint stock and venture enterprises are more flexible, efficient, although the level of bankruptcy is higher.risk - the risk that defined life cycle reflects scrap ley. The main factors affecting the development of the industry next e following:) reorientation of the economy, due to the overall economic stability and nest in the world, in certain regions, countries, markets, market segments n there, niches and windows, on the one hand, the rising cost of resources with others in goy;) any depletion of resources;) changes in demand in the domestic and world markets tion of marketing;) general historical development of civilization.riskrisk, or the risk of default of debt, to the same extent as applies to banks , and to their customers and can be promsh lennym (related to the probability of e th decline in production and / or demand for products u uw with whether certain reflection); risk settlement and poctavok due to failure for some reason the contract s relationship, the risk that is associated with transformation f th kinds of resources (most likely date), and the risk of force majeure obstoyate l stv. Credit risk of banks depends on the following factors:

* Degree of concentration of credit the bank's activities in any field (industry) that is sensitive to changes in the economy that having elastic demand for their products, which is expressed by the degree of concentration c entratsii n ka ba customers in certain of raslyah or geographical areas, especially prone to konyun tural changes;

* If the share of loans and other banking contracts coming ing on customers experiencing certain specific ski e d labor completely;

* Con fi entratsiya the bank's activities in neglected, new, not a tradition n tion areas;

* Make frequent or significant changes in the policy of the bank and on before with tavleniyu e cr dits, the formation of portfolio securities;

* Share of new and recently attracting tion n clients;

* The introduction of too many new services in a short period (then the bank most exposed to the presence of negative or zero, the potential demand ) ;

* Acceptance as collateral c ennostey, difficult to be realized n and the market or used subject to depreciation s stroma.to the results of the statistical analysis, we can conclude that the private and joint-stock companies are more flexible and efficient than state, but often ruined. The same can be said about the large and small manufactures e Lyakh. Joint ventures I often susceptible to external and / or political risks e SKIM. sharehold 'statutory enterprises should pay special attention to all types of portfolio risks.risk borrowers depends on the type of credit granted. Depending on the terms of granting loans are short -, medium-duty and on the urgent, the kinds of software - provide tained and unsecured, which in turn can be per sonalnymi and banking, the specifics of credit d um about ditch-banks SCIE, state, commercial (corporate), loans insurance panies and individuals konsortsionalnye (syndicated), which are structured to cells in bnye (where the number of creditors is limited Cheno) and open (uch a part in it. can accept any bank or business) from species d e inhibitors - agricultural, about thinking, utilities, personal, eg by using a tion tion - consumer, industrial, about the formation of working capital, investment, seasonal, time to eliminate government finances on O difficulties, intermediate, transactions with precious E trading, import and export, by size - small, medium set, large, the presentation mode - promissory notes, for n on can open accounts soup, seasonal consignment.riskparticular interest are the so-called transport risks. Cation of them stem from the first International trade has been brought howling Chamber in Paris (1919) and unified in 1936, whenever there first promulgated rules INCOTERMS. After the recent correction (1990) various transport risks are classified by the degree of smiling and liability in four groups E, F, C and D.E includes one situation - when the supplier (selling c ) holds tons of var on its own warehouses (Ex Works). Risks adopted versity itself fasting crate and his bank before accepting the goods on the purchasers. The risk of transportation from the premises to a final seller centage points already assumed by the buyer and its ba n com.F contains three specific situations transfer responsibility vennosti and risks :) FCA (Free Carrier ...... / named Place), this means that the risk response and liability of the seller (and his bank) transferred to the buyer (broker) in m of element in the transfer of goods from the layer in lennom place;

) FAS (Free Along Side Ship ...... / named port of deshuation), is lake began that responsibility and risk for the goods pass from on stavschika (and his bank) to the numerator in buying a particular contract port;) FOB (Free On Board ..... / named of Shipment) means that sold ECV and his bank disclaim any responsibility after unloading the goods from the bead to about Rabelais.C includes situations u s, when an exporter selling fi , his bank sign a contract with a buyer for transportation, but not taken versity no risk. They include the following th ing specific situations:) CFR (Cost and Freight ....... / named port of deshuation). Seller and his bank pay the cost of transportation to the port of arrival, but the risk and responsibility t bility for the integrity and stored completely goods and the additional costs assume the buyer and his bank. Transfer of risk and liability occurs at the element s and loading the ship;

) CIF (Cost, Insurance, Freight ....... / named port of deshuation) meaning is that, apart from duties, as in the case of CFR, the seller and the bank must provide and pay for insurance risks during transport and Rovki ;) CPT (Carriage Paid That ...... / named Place of deshuation), ie sa ve fi and dormancy in the patel (and their banks) are divided between the risks and responsibility vennost. At some point (usually some intermediate point tion transportation) is full of risks pass from Stu about giving u and and his bank to the buyer and his ba Koo;) CIP ( Carriage And Insuranse Paid To .... / named pl A ce of deshuation) means , that the risks are transferred from the seller to the buyer in determining divided intermediate point transportation, but other than that of, the seller provides and pays one hundred and bridges insurance product.last group of terms D means that all transportation risks are borne by the seller. This group includes the following specific situa tion as:) DAF (Delivered At Frontier .... / named Place), ie Seller adopted maety the risks specific to the state border. Next, take on risks with e os buyer and his bank;

) DES (Delivered Ex Ship ...... / named port of deshuation) means that the transfer of risk from seller to buyer takes on board the bark used in A;) DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay (Duty Paid ) ...... / named port of deshua tion) - ln e cottage risk occurs when the goods arrive at the port loaded s ki;) DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid ..... / named Place of deshuation) - the seller takes the risk for damage to vehicles, sweat ri, theft and other goods up to a certain place of the contract (cha slit all this warehouse) in the buyer ;) DDP (Delivered Duty Paid ..... / named Place ofdishuation) sa- ve n t respon veins for transport risks to a certain place on the territory of the buyer, but he has to pay them.should be noted that, if the buyer does not receive the goods on to a kim any reason or is unable to produce Oplan that in the contractual period, the risks can go from straight on pressure p and to him early hour above.and factoring risksLevel of bank risks may also arise when the implementation of leasing and SRI l and factoring operations, and barter of Mr. Cleary O transactions.- a method of financing the development of new technology, expand sales of equipment, which is especially important in the period required use of conductivity accelerated introduction of individual elements of the real main cap and Tala, reducing lifecycle tons of goods and etc.is currently considered the operation at risk. P of this expedient implementation lyat losses from him from the reserve fund of the bank.on the shape of relations between entities carried stvlyayuschimi leasing operations, it can be operational, finan cial, return, international. Each of vysheperechis lennyh types of leasing may be a direct or indirect I mym, and renewable term (revolving), clean and l nym.- payment is mutual between the two banks, regions, economy and unity cal u s, the states in which producers ditsya exchange goods without transferring money (currency). The essence of the clearing ha expressed as follows: def f divided for calendar period, usually one year, the amount of bilateral trade used inverting on specific bank accounts tion of various countries on regular trading on Vania special clearing agreement. Exercising clearing, on each side of the exporter receives the amount of exported goods from its first bank. The Bank, for its part, is not waiting for the translation of the bank import tera, debit clearing account and sends a corresponding debit memo sponding bank associated with m and porter . /transactions - is a form of compensation when goods Oplan CHAIRPERSON no money, and goods. Barter transactions may be between brand and Interstate have dedications. Most often barter intercompany transactions are carried out through a variety of intermediaries n.barter transactions, as well as clearing and linked us with price lists, technical credits, in alyutoy for conversion and the cost of goods, but they are not associated with a certain time period, and the duration of ba r istic contracts depends on the quantity and value of goods specified in the district to any concrete price cmax.- a kind of trade and commission operations in which cn e fied com pany credits seller about when they run tons of shipment vara transaction sales, purchasing receivables customers and exacting that it yourself.associated with the specifics of the customer's bankits core bank - is a commercial enterprise. The basic principle of relations "Bank - Client" is the principle by obtaining bank profits at a lower cost and the principle of minimization of All kinds of risk. The Bank may in fact risk (and he ri will forge every day in their work) their own capital, but not client's capital and its profits . To minimize the risk the bank should:

* Diversify their customers, leading to diversification fication of all kinds with ka ri, ie its dispersal;

* try to provide loans in the form of smaller amounts of pain to Shem ditional Clieu n Comrade;

* To provide large amounts of clients konsortsionalnoy basis and soone of the ways to classify the bank's clients, with help of the Torah can be reduced level of all types of banks tion risk.of customers in the bank, depending on the belonging to different sectors (industry risk)to the theory of risk before a major sign of belonging to the acceptance of a particular industry is the appointment of manufactured products u s. Distinguish primary enterprise sphere, to which of the pre d worn agricultural enterprise, the enterprise sphere secondary (industrial), who with his art on hand, may be to come in and processing, and Nakhon fi , businesses tertiary dimensional sphere, providing a range of services (banks, insurance high, aud and Tor, consulting companies, etc.) and performs its activity guides s completely in sales (wholesale or retail on the go).influencing the level of industry risk, can be grouped as follows u them education m :

* Alternative industries activities for a certain period of time;

* Intersectoral competition, which may be the price and non-price depends on the complexity and entry of new producers teley the industry, the presence or absence of substitute products, the market power of buyers (consumers), ranking suppliers and intermediaries Cove, benevolent authority contact ay tors.of the main ways of measuring the level of rice industry is getting Single P-factor industry (beta coefficients that) `.coefficient c ient determines the level of hesitation or deviation tions results Comrade activities and specific industry in relation to the results of the entire market economy country. Obviously, for the analysis of the level of industry risk is needed is a vast database of macroeconomic indicators for dormancy and sufficiently long period of time, just e no.with exponent coefficient n ienta above unity has bo higher level of risk than the industry with a coefficient below unified boundary. Typically, this analysis is carried out using regression models or about the methods of factor analysis.addition, the level of industry risk is dynamic and it is necessary to analyze the level of not only static, but in the din and omy.Level of risk for banks in isimosti ra s measure of clienton the size of the enterprise customers are classified into three groups - IU l Kieu, medium and large.and medium-sized loan ni iki more flexible, faster, can Autret ligated to market needs of the client. Their structure is more lightweight, allowing them to quickly change the direction of our business activities, get high pr and profit. Recently in the U.S., for example , the government gives subsidies dissipa Well completely average before facturing engaged in active research, new trends, etc. Get results faster.small and medium enterprises are usually small own equity capital, which leads to bankruptcy in the face of fierce competition, some unexpected changes in the political and economic nature (risk of force majeure). Cha one they have a small amount of n Clieu Comrade, do not control large market windows, niches and / or segments., the number of bankruptcies higher for small and medium-sized enterprises. According hundred statistical analysis of American economists usually about 50% of newly established small and medium-sized enterprises go bankrupt C. for a first of s x two years, and ka to rule, no more than 10% of them continued to exist zhayut 7 years after its created and I `.enterprises, on the contrary, are more inert. They do not react quickly removed the changing needs of the market and the specific con sumers. They do not often th e nyayut direction of its business activity STI, but they have significant equity and can "relive" some adverse economic situa tion as well. They have the ability to perform all types of warranty and post-warr tion service, spend more on different kinds of advertising. In other words, they almost always are providing a high profit and profitability. Such enterprises have impact opportunity to create subsidiaries, affiliates, expand their ry knock, turn it in people's Intl.relationship between the level of risk to banks and clients belonging to different types of propertybelonging to different types of property produce whether can be divided into the following u s groups - public, private, cooperative in ITATION, stock. The latter two can be compatible (for transnational tional) and Monona n ionalnymi. Depending on the different types of ri with Cove acquire greater or lesser importance in the course of their activities. Objective of the bank is to choose a portfolio of their clients so as to have the most optimal balance between active and passive operas governmental and governmental organizations, to maintain its level of liquidity and cost required to return on to the smooth operation of the level.this purpose it is necessary, in our view, to conduct regular analysis of the level of all types of risks, determine their optimal values ??for each of the district to specifically points and use the full range of ways to manage them.


.3 CONTROL TECHNIQUES RI With WRC

important component th generation part strategy ri ska is a bit processing measures to reduce or limit Prevention identified risk. In about society, to describe the action of consequence, to minimize financial risk, used the term hedging.is in the development of the main approaches to risk assessment, determination of admissible invertible with its level of development and corresponding sponding strategy is the main cottage and control s ri Scoma.the most common activities on the Board to reduce the department s tion of species at risk.of the main ways to reduce external risks is the selection of the best forms of exercise of their export-import operations u s bank or other banking institutions it.practice, the most common are two main forms carried schestvleniya and iCal for External operations:) direct, which can be attributed directly th export-import, carried schestvlenie foreign economic relations through various types of intermediaries and corder or through subsidiaries (banks Cove) and a branch in , Investments n ITATION opera u s carried out in this period of business activity hozyays t sponding subject;) indirect, including the sale and purchase face n diffusion; implementation tion francheyznyh step d ; conclusion of those n iches com, management of maintenance and service used, the purchase of new technologies and / or "know-how". These forms of e carried interregional and foreign relations are recommended for banks carried stvlyayuschih its activities in high country, the currency (in their home country and the partner country), credit, port felnogo with ri ka.the impact of these risks on the banking institution is only possible by timely informing each other of changes in circumstances.techniques translational currency risks de divisible by outside of w and internal. They can use in atsya as to define a strategy and tactical programs to develop the activities of banks and bank uchre Well deny.external methods include acceleration or deceleration board Jay in foreign currency as of strange to external customers and counterparties, and in respect to t of monopolistic education authority; regulation boards e Jay between the parent bank and its financial AFFILIATES, selecting a more stable currency otfakturirovaniya n about a hundred wok etc.strategic plan of protection against currency risk is closely related to the active pricing policy views and the cost of insurance of, the degree of reliability of the insurance companies of both the bank and its counterparties and customers., almost all the major banks are trying to create a portfolio of their communication currency transactions, balancing assets and liabilities by currency and maturity. in basically all external methods management of currency risks are focused on their diversification. For this purpose, the most widely used such SROs h ITATION currency transactions as forward, futures with ITATION, optional (and in the inter bank market, and on the exchanges). Currency sold on an "spot" (with immediate n nym or two-day calculation), "swap" (spot / forward, spot between different banks) or "forward" ("outright" between the bank and the customer);. Methods to reduce the currency riskminimize currency risk the bank may use the following as e we:

. The loan in one currency with the condition of repayment in another subject forward rate recorded in the loan agreement. Such measures on Call, lyayut insured bank vatsya from possible devaluation of the currency and that cred.that the bank gives a loan of 100,000 francs. At the same time, calculated in th weaken the franc against the pound sterling, the bank agreed with the customer can lock in the loan agreement in ka as a condition of the loan repayment in pounds at the forward rate of 10 francs for 1 pound (ie the borrower to repay the loan will require 10,000 lbs.) In this case, the impact of variations are possible three district development that I events:) if at the time n of extinguishing the debt on the loan rate and availab vit 10 francs for 1 pound, the bank n about their will obtain the 10,000 pounds, and none of the art of the Parties no losses;) if at the time of loan repayment rate will be equal to 12 francs for 1 pound, the bank will receive 10,000 pounds again, while in the case of s gates loan in francs he would with 100,000 francs, which amounted to only 8333.33 pounds ( 100,000 / 12);) if at the time the loan rate with 9 puts francs for 1 pound, the bank would be at a loss on how many people were back again 10,000 pounds, while the repayment of the loan in francs he would have 100,000 francs or pounds 11111.11.

. Forward foreign exchange contracts. This is the main method of lowering the exchange rate risk. Such operations require for Turning term agreements between the bank and the customer on the purchase and sale of foreign currency at a fixed in a transaction amount and agreements forward exchange rate. The mechanism of action of forward currency contracts is similar in principle to that just described. Forward foreign exchange transactions happened w t fixed or option. The term "fixed" means that the transaction must be with vertices in strictly defined n tion day. Option before the same choice client believes the date of its p Board decision: either any day from the date of signing the contract and to the definition of n tion deadline or within kako of any particular period in the bud u u eat. An important condition forwarders d tion contract is bound by its use complements.himself forward exchange contract associated with definite l ennym ri with whom. For the bank it is that the client may not be able to s n o lnit its obligations under the contract, in this case, the bank would not FPIC nym sell the currency used by the client in accordance with the contract had to buy or vice versa, to buy currency , which Rui client had to sell. In this purchase (sale) of the corresponding amount of currency in the market can Ober nutsya decreasing t kami for the bank.

. Currency futures n s contracts. As well as forwarders dnye exchange contracts, futures pre d constitute a with agreements to buy or straight on to det e divided amount of foreign currency at a certain date in the future. About Dr. however unlike forward contracts their conditions may be enough to rev le g of friction. In addition, these contracts can r y t free- on the bottom of the exchange-traded financial futures (eg, Uffe - London Inte rn ational Financial Futures Exchange - London Internat d tion Financial Futures Exchange). However, currency futures n s contracts have not yet received wide ra with the space of f.

. Currency options. Despite the similarity in name with Fourway p dnymi in Lute and contracts with an option, they are a tool that gives them the right errand, and is (not the obligation) to buy a certain amount of strange wa Institute rency at any particular rate within a limited pe riod of time or After this period. Currency options are of two types:) Option "call" gives its buyer the right to buy the currency, specifies n ing contract at a fixed rate (the seller of the option will be to sell the corresponding currency sponding this ky su p).) Option "put" gives its buyer the right to sell the currency, Ogove of Rennes th contract, at a fixed rate mu (the seller of the option to buy l wives will respec t sponding currency at this rate).

. Currency swaps. A currency swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange future payments in lots of different shaft th minute.swaps can be divided into the following two types:

* Swaps liabilities (obligations);

* swaps assets.swap liability - this exchange of promises to pay proce n Comrade maturity and wasps n ovnogo debt in one currency for such obligations in other currencies. The purpose of such a swap, in addition . reduce long-term foreign currency When ska, is also reducing costs in connection with the direct and involve tion funds.swap assets enables parties to the agreement to exchange cash income from an asset (for example, investment) and in one currency to similar to moves in other currencies. This swap is aimed at long-term decline of the currency risk and increase profitability ak tives (investments).

. Acceleration or delay of payments (leading and lagging). Or h acceleration and support payments used for the implementation of the operations of the foreign shaft w. The bank, in accordance with their expectations of future changes in exchange rates may require its debtors mustache Square or delay payments. This technique used to protect against currency risk or receive e of the gains from currency fluctuations. However, the risk of loss is still present, as it is likely 'wrong before directing legend e of exchange rate changes.

. Diversification of the bank in foreign currency. This method of e Redeye currency risk involves constant monitoring of yannoe foreign currency fluctuations. And as Mr. and predict likely to reign such oscillations is extremely difficult, the banks to reduce the risk of losing as a result of unfavorable changes in exchange rates have resorted to diversify assets denominated in foreign shaft u ter.

. Currency risk insurance. Currency risk insurance involves the transfer of theentire risk insurance organization Organization., we examined the basic methods of reduction of different rows and in the risk faced by banks in the course of their activities. Discharge and analysis of these events is an essential component of the Bank's strategy in the region used for risk .conclusion, it should be noted that all the listed above methods reduce ITATION w eniya or risk aversion are many variations used in z and depending on the spe p is tion situation and agreements with partners. This kind of operation the bank can carry out both for its own account (the pursuit of the goal of reducing the corresponding financial risk or income from th International Sites tained agreements in the case of favorable changes in the market for a conv about tions), and on behalf of customers (speaking with the mediator and getting behind this respec t sponding remuneration denie).to reduce the market risk

. Futures contracts on the sale of securities. They cautioned in lyayut right in their l hell l tsu to buy or straight on with dazhu about Twet Article sponding securities established in advance chickens su. Like other financial futures to n paths, these futures Call, about lyayut "play" on the market value fluctuations STI securities or reduce the risk of losses from such comments e oscillations .

. Stock options. Stock option - the right to buy or sell a stock (or other price n s traded in the stock exchange) within a specified period.

. Diversification of the investment portfolio. The most important means of PWM on defense and you impairment securities YaV it possible to diversify the investment portfolio.reduce the risk of leasing transactions must develop accelerated depreciation rates or use them early accrual.reduce the risk of factoring transactions should analyze the solvency of borrowers, to study the nature of economic relations and mutual mootnosheniya and suppliers, the structure of payments, the competitiveness of direct induction, the number of cases e her return, etc.purchasing department factoring bank bills at suppliers pojavl I quired risk of acquiring bronze bills . ( Bronze in e kc e miles - ve ks e miles without them e yuschi th commodity and I covered . )prevents the risk of treaty conditions tions and their possible rupture termination payment of bills and the bill at the receivable factoring from ITY e elu with in yshe 3 days after the expiration of the bill. Cha with partially compensation that occurs at higher risk of commission in awarding s bank for such operas as tion.of the main ways to measure the level of risk is e analysis of head and pendent and independent, external and internal factor s, which affect in a particular situation, with n of the power method and expert evaluations.the board consists of interest rate risk management assets (loans and investments I s) and liabilities (borrowings).the reign of assets depends on the liquidity of the banks and Portf e ka la his clients of securities, as well as the degree of su exists competition (price and non-price), and pass control sivami - the availability of funds for the grant of loans. There are several concepts of interest rate risk management:

. Than the bank's interest margin is higher, the level of interest rate ri ska below. In other words, the margin between the interest d oho d s of assets and interest expense on liabilities should be positive s tion.

. The concept of "spread", in which analyzes the difference between the weighted average rate earned on assets and the weighted average rate of Noah, and EXECUTE chennoy of liabilities (liabilities). What is the difference between these two values and E is, the uro Wen percentage of risk below. Data for the analysis is usually used e Ruth smiling father of statistical t of a bank.

. The concept of "gap" (a gap), which is placed on to the analysis nesbalan ing of the bank's assets and liabilities with fixed and melt guide tons per cent on the interest rate. Take the excess of assets with variable u s interest in a hundred Coy over liabilities with a fixed rate in a static or over a lane and no one time e.Level of interest rate risk depends on:

* changes in the portfolio (structure) of assets, including the ratio of the values of loans and investments, fixed assets and plans colliding rate dynamite and matches their prices in the market;

* Changes in the structure of liabilities, ie gearing, time and savings deposits, deposits tov "to On demand of a";

* Interest rate dynamics.order to monitor and control the level of interest rate risk, pa s oped specific strategy of the bank, depending on the concrete situation to n n s (see Table. № 1).to control the level of interest rate risk

bank economy risks operation

Table number 1

SituationRecommendations1. Expected to increase sufficiently accurate low percentage tion Art and wokEnlarge terms borrowed funds; Reduce loans with fixed interest hundred in Coy; Reduce the time of investment; Sell ??part of the investment (in the form of securities); obtain long-term loans; Close some risky lines of credit.2. Interest rates rise, Waiting and etsya dos tizhenie their peak in bl and nearest-bud at presentStart shortening borrowed funds; start lengthening the investment; to begin preparing for an increase in the share of loans with fiksirova Mr. Noah hundred in Coy; prepare for an increase in the share of investment in securities boom and gah; consider the possibility of early repayment of the STI with fi densed to interest rate;3. Expected pic voltage sufficiently high interest rates Shorten the period of borrowings; increase the share of fixed rate loans; increase the timing and size of portfolio investments; open new lines of credit;4. Interest rates fall, close to m and minima start lengthening the terms of borrowings; start reducing the time investment; increase the proportion of floating rate loans; reduce investments in securities; selectively sell assets with a fixed rate or Doh on the house.method of hedging, thus allowing separation pour risk linked with Mr. tion fluctuated and it interest rates kl and entom.

. Interest futures contracts. They are fixed-term contracts, which are used to play on interest rates. Pr denote like about Futures, interest rate futures are used for speculative functions on I to about le baniyah market interest rates, as well as to cover percent t ri tion with ka.

. Interest rate options. Interest rate option - with this chapter w ix, which provides the holder of the option the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell certain financial sovy Institute of Art rument (short-term loan or deposit) in financial costs to densed before or upon the occurrence of a specific date in b y duschem.

. Interest rate swaps. Under the interest rate swap realize exchange of interest payments in E s (but not payments to foundations Nome debt) credit obliga t you concluded on the same amount, but on different terms. Eg Prospect of interest rate may be floating or fixed rates landmark in different markets loans tion sprinkles and fishing.to reduce the interest rate riskrate risk can be reduced through the application of the following equation m e ods:

. Insurance interest rate risk. As well as insurance tion of credit risk it assumes complete transfer of appropriate risk insurance on p Organization.

. Granting of loans with floating interest rates, Such measures allow the bank to make appropriate of changes in the interest rate on this loan in s in accordance with fluctuations in market interest rates. As a result, the bank is able to avoid potential losses in the case of n Vyshen market rate loan of cents.

. Term agreements. This method of protection against interest rate risk associated withmagnify the terms of borrowings; reduce loans with fixed interest on the interest rate;the time and invest Nations, pro d amb of the investment (in the form of securities);long-term loans; close some ri with kovye credit linesshortening borrowings; start lengthened ting investment periods, start training to increase the share of loans with fixed Comrade hundred in Coy, to prepare for the increase in the share of investment in securities boom and connecting rods;in the Possibility of early redemption Sheni I Zadoya l fixed intensity of c entnoy ratethe period of borrowings; increase the share of the loan and then in a fixed in the luxuries of a hundred in Coy;the timing and size of port f ator investment Nations; open credit l and SRIlengthening the terms of borrowings; abbr start and u ix timing Institute in estitsy; uv e lichit share of loans with floating ing hundred in Coy;investments in securities Act; selectively direct about giving assets with fixed income or the interest rate of concluded between the Bank and the customer spe cial forward agreements to provide in th Vorenus day loans in a certain amount and under the mouth of a new lenny percent. Thus, pre-fixed date, the size of future credit and charge for using it. Concluding such an agreement, the bank and the ogre firmed by themselves from the risk of loss in case of a fall at the time the loan market interest rates. With increasing rates of these same wins undermines customer floor at foreclosing the loan for more Kuyu s no fee.to reduce credit n th riskare five main ways Redeye e of credit risk:

. 's credit rating. Workers usually give credit limit d this respect it met about do , because he sound of it possible to prevent the practical e ski fully all possible losses associated with bad loans. To determine a borrower's creditworthiness, there are many different approaches. However, in the village l ednee in the practice of foreign banks all used on occupations are spread n s gets a method based on tion point evaluation ssudop ol teach e la. This method assumption proposes the development of specific scales to determine the re st Thing climate e -coagulant criteria by which Mfr about ditsya rating of the borrower, and n is strictly vidual for each bank and are based on his practical experience. These criteria peri about cally is reviewed V?yu t camping, ensure that REMARK ivaet increase efficiency analysis to effec kreditosposo used completely.of the creditworthiness of the borrower lities begins with an examination of the following aspects of his de yours elf:

Analysis of the factor C 1 . In social marketing concepts that represent an opportunity factor enterprise-manufacturer their wares Satisfactory e doeth the interests of consumers. In other words, there are tons of manufacturers if and only if their product needs consumers. Through tion methods differ h rows factor (including regression) analysis identified are:

* Correspondence between supply and demand e tion;

* The ability to manufacturer certain social groups interested potential and / or actual consumers;

* Optimal choice of market segment (window niche), etc.

Analysis of the factor C 2 that welcomes interests sa direct proi s driver, ie its ability to make profits and to dispose of it. This analysis is done by e next blow u them on the boards:

* The level of costs of the producer;

* "Solidity" producer, ie timely payments to earlier on the floor at chennym cred and there, its capital base as a borrower;

* His reputation (rating), his desire and determination to meet their on I zatelst in a;

* possibility of lien from the TS alive its banks and banking institutions.must always control the quality of the collateral, uro Wen to whether its visibility, but t wo w ix its market value with time example of the loan.between so-called hard (fixed) and floating conductive deposits. To the solid collateral relates property which may be granted a loan and the borrower in case of impossibility tori Oplan tit its obligations. In this case, the entity (the borrower) has no more rights and dispose of them. Most often fixed mortgage vannomu include a mortgage on real fixed capital, at least - receivables, value stocks, bonds and other securities used in the magician on the property.floating charge are primarily stocks of inventory and finished goods. Sometimes it can be extended to all the property of the borrower, except providing lennogo already TBE p Dy bail., the decision to adopt a rigid or floating charge secured creditor taken most often by the bank. This is a way to protect the borrower from pr e Tenza other creditors on its property in case of violation of its financial stability.

Economic and statistical analysis of creditworthiness and ability to transfer e cl and STE in the chosen methodology.our view, once a year (half, quarter) when establishing relative w eny between the bank and the new borrower and / or the active Macroeconomic dynamics and kinetics necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of the creditworthiness of lys lities.more often necessary to carry out the so-called ex -press analysis, through which the bank becomes aware of the current financial condition of the client present.analysis of creditworthiness and solvency of the borrowers bank ka n e ff e necessity following information:) annual, quarterly, monthly finance statements about Vai;) detailed structure Inventories c ennostey, p tion debtors and accounts payable, at least in the last 18 months of e m;) the company's business plan;) marketing plans, production and management in tion;) analysis of the industry to which the z and borrowers;) cash flow forecast loan ni ika with its customers and counter agents for the period and absorption sheniya loan.

. Reducing the size of granted loans to one borrower. Cn This applies to own, the bank is not entirely sure enough kreditosposo used completely client. Reduced weighted loan size reduces the value of n losses in the event of his return.

. Credit insurance. Credit insurance assumed full before Gaeta and its risk of default chu organization dedicated insurance. There are many different varieties of credit insurance, but the costs associated with their impl e stvl e or e m, usually refer to ssudopolu breakers.

. Attracting sufficient collateral. This method is almost full of Stu bank guarantees issued to refund the amount and the receipt of interest. An important point is the fact that the size of the loan provision should cover not only the amount of loans, but also the amount of interest on it. However, all the same priority with protection against credit risk should otdavat s smiling not attract sufficient cheniyu software designed to for covering losses and analysis of the borrower's creditworthiness aimed at nedopusch ting these losses as the loan is not issued in the hope that it absorption and sheniya have to sell assets as collateral, and that it will be returned in accordance with the loan of dogs rum.

. Issuance of discount loans. Discount loans only to a small extent can reduce credit risk. Such a method of lending and g tees at least receive fees for the loan, and the question of its return remains smiling t open if not used other methods of protection against credit risk of.the practice of commercial banks in developed market economies is widely used banking system ha safeguards. Depending on the number of banks participating in garantsionnyh operations, distinguish , direct, and to a governmental intermediaries nical operation., the basic elements are the sum of bank guarantees, cond tions and duration of payments. The following types of bank Minkowski r and safeguards:

. Guarantee performance of the contract or guarantee of delivery (perfor Mance Bond, delivery guarantee). They cautioned in lyayut businesses that need to make the delivery of a particular commodity, provide a service or perform a chit engineering work. The object is to guarantee the fulfillment of contractual obligations, about Otherwise the bank is obliged to pay a certain amount of pur Patel (consumption and Tieliu). Modification of this warranty is ha welt level of performance (performance guarantee, performance bond), which is used only in ful l nenii builder tion, installation and other specific engineering work for production purposes. In this case, the bank is obligated to pay det e dividing the amount in full or in part is non contractual Liabilities and complements ments.

. Bargaining guarantees (bid bond, participation bond), providing that lyayutsya uch ticipants and trades to ensure the availability of price lists, the fulfillment of its obligations. In the case of non-degenerate fulfillment of the condition of trading bank also must pay determined lennuyu sum to the aggrieved about not Sided.

. Guarantees advance (advance-payment guarantee) used when performing large orders: construction of buildings, structures. Since the order is carried out in te over an extended time periods or, artist must be sure that at the end of the consumer does not change his mind and will not give up and you make EXECUTE. For its part, the consumer should be sure to get the ordered goods in the right quantity and quality and on time. Liabilities at default and the bank must pay ments determined lennuyu amount to the injured party. John always about the amount of guarantees author cally decreases as the performance of some stages and Liabilities ments.

. Guaranteed no bill of lading (letter of indemnity) envisaged for provisional mismatch between the transport of goods and supersaturated L Coy accompanying documents. With her ??help schyu reduced payment for removal of additional storage on premises, payment for idle vehicles, reducing the risk of delivery of defective goods, goods which are not responding to all of the agreed advance Heat demand and tions, etc.

. Warranty incomplete (incorrectly drawn) document p s (guarantee in respect of inconsistent documents). The Bank provides consumer and / or Mfr about DESTINATION means necessary to continue normal activities regardless of the specific situation unfavorable tion u s related to improper execution accompanying document and tion.

. Guarantee for Customs authorities (guarantee towards customs authorities) expressed in the obligation to pay all the banks that Maugenet formalities associated with a reall s Coy goods.finally, we can note a few ways to control the level of risk of banks and banking institutions. These can be rel e STI:

* Preliminary assessment of potential losses using forecast tion met on analysis of available rows of static and dynamic reliable information on the activities of the banks themselves, their cus tomers, contractors, their suppliers and entered via e nicknames competition comrade and various contact groups aud and thorium. For this purpose, com mercial banks should create departments dealing with the analysis of the level of risks and develop measures for the control of e NIJ in the marketing system;

* Dynamics of interest rates, which increase with the degree of risk uv e increment a, and vice versa, ie rates freely formation u ayuschimsya tools below rates for instruments with limited reversibility bounded; rates nym versatile operations and operational talkies in the interbank market are usually lower rates and to against nym opera n iyam and credit transactions with customers; than a hundred meters BEATER zae crate, the lower interest rates, long-term change more smoothly (with the account that e temporal smoothing) than short-term, interest rates on loans to ensure e cheniem and briefly urgent opera n iyam lower than the rates on unsecured and short kosrochnym op e talkies;

* Risk diversification, representing his rassredoto chenie. It can manifest in lyatsya in different types:) lending to smaller amounts to a larger amount of clients with a total storage of credit;) provision of loans konsortsionalnoy basis when to issue a large amount of the loan together several banks forming consortium to n;) attracting deposits, securities of smaller amounts from the larger chi la with depositors.one way of banking risk management is insurance. Insurance is one way to protect against emerging in the banking business risks. With the help of insurance covered by the two major categories of risk: economic and political.states (mostly western) to promote exports through state insurance agencies carry out export credit insurance against political risk. Private insurers such insurance is usually not carried out.its core credit insurance to reduce or eliminate credit risk. Credit insurance facilities usually serve commercial loans (loans, provided by the supplier to the buyer), bank loan supplier or buyer. Commitments and guarantees for the loan. Long-term investments and other defense interests of the seller or bank lender that in the event of insolvency of the debtor's failure to pay a debt or for other reasons repayment on the loan incurs insurance organization.international practice, credit insurance as a specific type of insurance arose in the 19th century and was bred by economic crises and instability. Modern forms of this type of insurance accepted only after the Second World War. In domestic practice, credit insurance began in 1990.is provided on a voluntary basis in two forms:

Liability insurance for borrowers for non-payment of loans;

Insurance against the risk of credit default.the first case, the insured is the borrower, the insurance object is his responsibility to the bank that issued the credit for the timely and full repayment of the loan (including interest on credit). In the second case the policyholder bank and insurance object-responsibility of all or individual borrowers to the bank for the timely and full repayment of the loan and interest on loans.the conclusion of the contract of insurance (insurance certificate) the policyholder to the insurer provides a specific set of documents. The list of documents is the insurer. The main purpose of providing documentation, to determine the degree of risk and insurance payment on the basis of the amount of its insurance premium (fee).most significant moments in insurance are:

The amount of liability accepted by the insurer;

Determination of the insured event;

Procedure for damages;

The size of the insurance rate and premium;of compliance with each of these points are specified (set) individually. However, the weakness of insurance supervision in Russia gives rise to various kinds of abuse. Excessively high premiums lead to obtaining insurance companies "unearned" income, increase in production costs due to insurance payments is unreasonable increase of prices of goods and services.the most important fact is that commercial banks can not today without fear for themselves to use credit insurance as a form of protection against risks arising in the course of banking activities. The virtual absence of insurance audit and wide media coverage balances insurance companies questioned the solvency of the latter. Given these shortcomings, the process of credit insurance in Russia is developing very slowly.experience shows that in Austria issued a loan to one borrower may not exceed 50% of the shat and capital to the bank.Ireland, one investor should not be placed in the bank de positive, pr e exceeds 10% of total bank deposits in , and one of the largest contributions 0 d sors should not keep in the bank more than 40% of its deposits.the UK, commercial banks must inform the Bank of England on every deposit bonus is 5% of all de positive.the USA the so-called law Johnson (from 1 934), for providing loans to countries prohibits not repay its debt obligations ne ed by the U.S. government and is not be members of the International Monetary Fund., the regulation of bank risk is not based on an assessment of the fi nancial position of the borrower, and the establishment of a certain ratio between the amounts of e loans and equity of the bank, that is supposed to create a reserve for potential banks to cover possible losses tion w busted case of clients.

Chapter 3. Analysis of banking risks and methods of control (On materials of Samara AK Bank SB RF)

makes a profit, performing various operations and providing certain types of services. Lending a long time and is widely regarded as a classic, one of the basic services. Lending provides a major share of bank profits. Is no exception and Samara AK Bank SB RF., as any active operation is the operation risky. According to the Statistical Service of Samara AK Bank SB RF approximately 98% of all bank risk is in the credit risk. Thus, it can be concluded that the latter is the main bank risk. Therefore, it is advisable to focus all attention on it.the credit transaction subjects the credit relationship is always act as lenders and borrowers. Creditors are individuals who provide their temporarily free funds available to the borrower for a specified period. In this case, the creditor stands Savings Bank (SB). Borrower-party credit relations, receiving funds for use (as a loan), and obliged them to return within the prescribed period. In the example that will be discussed below, the Borrower acts specific entity.lending in Samara AK SB RF is based on five principles:

) urgency;

) serviceability;

) repayment;

) security;

) the intended use.- the risk of loss. When a customer comes to the bank, wanting to get a loan, the probability of incurring losses in case of default of the loan and interest is estimated to be equal to 0.5 (or 50%), ie chance to make a profit and stay in loss-equal., in the process of gathering information from the client, the likelihood often changes one way or another. The information helps to decide on the issuance or non-issuance of credit. Thus, the bank will or will not assume a certain level of risk. If the latter value is high, then the loan is issued. On this basis, we can conclude that the collection of information itself is inherently one of the methods of regulation of banking risks.Samara bank AK SB RF for each borrower (if a legal entity) is going to the following documents:

. A copy of the memorandum of association notarized.

. A copy of the Charter (the Regulations), and approved by the founder of registered in the prescribed manner, notarized.

. State registration document.

. Document certifying the notification of the tax authority of the intention to open the Borrower with the Bank loan account.

. Permission to engage in economic activity, with the term of operation (from entrepreneurs carrying out their activities without forming a legal entity).

. Card with signature and seal (Form 0401026) notarized.

. Annual report, balance sheet with applications for the last reporting date, certified by the tax inspectorate, indicating off-balance sheet accounts for warranties.

. Auditor's opinion on the reliability of the report.

. List of creditors and debtors with a breakdown of payables and receivables, indicating the date of its occurrence.

. Account statement for the last month with the bank about the account balance and the presence of claims to the bill.

. Business plan showing planned for the loan term income and expenses.

.Tehniko feasibility study loan, reflecting the economic efficiency and cost recovery during the period for which he claims credit.

.Kopii contracts (agreements) for the event, which is requested under the credit, with specific addresses of possible buyers.

. Documents to ensure timely fulfillment of obligations of the Borrower under the loan received: bail bonds, Bank letter of guarantee, which maintains the Borrower's account or other bank, a copy of the letter of the Borrower to the Bank, the borrower of the right of the creditor bank to withdraw funds from an undeniable mark on the Bank's borrower receipt of this letter for execution.

. Help about opening a bank account in other banks. (Internal Revenue Service).

. Documents establishing ownership of the borrower's collateral (the pledge of real estate - Act evaluation Russian Society of Appraisers or territorial its branch).

. Other documents requested by the bank.importance is the borrower's credit history. If it is already credited to the Savings Bank and at one time put out the principal and interest thereon, then the probability of incurring losses reduced. Likely loan and investment committee will make a positive decision on granting loans to this borrower. However, in any case, a lot of attention among the gathered information given accounting client. Track the dynamics of financial and other indicators. Let us see how analysis of the balance sheet and its annexes and to reduce the risk in Samara bank AK SB RF. (Reporting borrower number is contained in annex 1).Samara bank AK SB RF has its own method of analysis.method of analysis of credit risk in the bank Samara AK SB RF.determine the creditworthiness of the Borrower held kollichestvenny (assessment of the financial condition) and qualitative risk analysis.purpose of risk analysis is to identify the opportunities, the amount and terms of the loan.

.Otsenka financial condition of the Borrowerof the financial condition of the Borrower is made taking into account trends in changes in financial condition and the factors influencing these changes.this purpose it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of the estimates, the structure of balance sheet, asset quality, the main directions of economic and financial policy of the company.calculating indicators (ratios) used the precautionary principle , that is, the asset balance restatement of items downward based on expert assessments.

.1. To assess the financial condition of the Borrower uses three estimates:

Ø? liquidity ratios;

Ø? ratio of debt to equity;

Ø? turnover ratios and profitability.

1.Liquidity ratios.

Characterize the security company working capital for business activities and timely repayment term liabilities.liquidity ratio K1 (instant liquidity) describes the ability to service debt momentary and defined as the ratio of cash and highly liquid short-term securities to the most urgent obligations of the company in the form of short-term bank loans, short-term loans and various payables:

+ Short fin.vlozheniya= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------times. "Current liabilities" - (Income Funds bud.periodov + consumption + Provisions for liabilities and charges)

the highly liquid short-term securities in this case refers only government securities, and securities of Sberbank of Russia.coverage ratio K2 (critical liquidity) describes the ability of the enterprise quickly release their economic turnover cash and repay debt. K2 is defined as the ratio:

.sredstva + short fin.vlozheniya and calculations= ------------------------------------------------ --------------------------term liabilities

calculate this factor is assessed pre groups of articles "short-term investments" and "accounts receivable (payments are expected within 12 months after the reporting date)." These articles are reduced by the amount of investments in illiquid securities and corporate insolvent enterprises and the amount of uncollectible receivables, respectively.ratio (overall coverage ratio) K3 is a general indicator of the company's solvency, a calculation which the numerator includes all current assets, including tangible (total balance of Section 2):

section "Current assets"= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------section "Current liabilities" - ("Deferred income" + "Consumption funds" + "Provisions for liabilities and charges")

calculate the adjusted pre-K3 already named group balance sheet items, as well as "accounts receivable (payments are expected in over 12 months)," "stocks" and "other current assets" in the amount of uncollectible receivables, respectively, illiquid and difficult to be realized and reserves costs and deficit balance "Deferred income".

2.The ratio of debt to equity K4.

Is one of the characteristics of financial stability and is determined by:

section "Capital and reserves" - Total, "Losses"= ------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------- ----section "Long-term liabilities" + Total section "Current liabilities" - ("Deferred income" + "Consumption funds" + "Provisions for liabilities and charges"


3.Turnover ratios and profitability.

Turnover different elements of current assets and accounts payable is calculated on the basis of their days in daily sales volume (day sales revenue).volume of daily sales is calculated by dividing sales revenue by the number of days in the period (90,180,270 or 360).(for the period) current assets and accounts payable are calculated as the sum of half units to the start and end dates of the period and the total values ??at interim dates, divided by the number of terms, reduced by 1.of current assets:

cost of current assets (line 290 on the balance sheet)

------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------sales volume

receivable turnover:

value of trade receivables (on line 230 240 + sheet)

----------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- -----sales volume

turnover:

price of stocks (balance on p.210)

------------------------------------------------- ------------------sales volume

, when necessary, can be calculated turnover ratios of other elements of current assets (finished goods, work in process and raw materials) and accounts payable.are defined as percentages or fractions.profitability (or profit margin) K5:

Profit from sales lines 050 form number 2

-------------------------------- Or K5 = ------------- -------------.from sales line 010 form number 2

on investment in the enterprise:

income p.140 form number 2

--------------------------- Or -------------------- -------.total balance str.699


.2. The main performance indicators are the coefficients K, K2, K3, K4, K5 and. Other indicators of turnover and profitability are used for common characteristics and are additional to the first five indicators.of the calculation five coefficients is to grant the Borrower categories for each of these indicators by comparing the values obtained with established sufficient. Next, we determine the amount of points for these indicators according to their weights.

breakdown of figures into categories based on their actual values:

OddsCategory 1Category 2Category 3K10.2 or higher0.15-0.2Less than 0, 15K20.8 or higher0.5-0.8Less than 0.5K32.0 or higher1.0-2.0Less than 1.0K4Except trade1.0 or higher0.7-1.0Less than 0.7For Business0.6 or higher0.4-0.6Less than 0.4K50.15 and aboveless than 0.15Nerentab.determine the rating of the borrower along with other factors, the value S. The formula for calculating the amount of points S has the form:

= Weight indicator * Weight Category K1 + K2 * Category Indicator Indicator weight * + Category + K3 * Weight Indicator Weight Category K4 + K5 * Category index.

the rest of the third group of indicators (turnover and profitability) are not installed, or the optimal critical values due to the high dependence of these values on the specific company, sector and other specific conditions.of the calculation of these indicators is based mainly on a comparison of their values in the dynamics.Samara AK Bank SB RF counting all the necessary coefficients produced by computer. Accounting statements entered in a special program that calculates various indicators. On their basis a computer determines the ranking of the Borrower. Credit Department inspector shall make appropriate calculations and print the data is stored in on this kreditozaemschiku. (Annex 2.3)

. Qualitative analysis based on the use of information that can not be expressed in quantitative terms. For this analysis uses information provided by the Borrower, security and database information.this stage, the risks are assessed::

Market conditions in the industry;

The trend in the development of competition;

The level of state support;

Importance of the enterprise within the region;

The risk of unfair competition from other banks;:

The risk of redistribution of share capital;

Consistency positions of major shareholders;of business:

Subordination (external financial structure);

Formal and informal regulation of the activity;

Licensing activities;

Benefits and risks of their removal;

Risks of fines and penalties;

Enforcement risks (the possibility of changes in the legislative and regulatory framework);and upravlechenskie:

Technological level of production;

Resupply infrastructure risks (price change of suppliers, supply disruptions, etc.);

Risks associated with banks, accounts are opened;

Goodwill (accuracy in the performance of obligations, credit history, participation in major projects, the quality of goods and services, etc.);

Quality control.

. The final step is to determine the credit assessmentof the Borrower or class.3 classes of borrowers:- lending is not in doubt;class-lending approach requires any suspended;class lending associated with increased risk.is based on the scores on the five main indicators, assessment of other indicators of the third group and qualitative risk analysis.total score S affects the rating of the Borrower as follows:= 1 or 1.05 - Borrower may be assigned to the first class credit;greater than 1, but less than 2.42 - corresponds to the second class;is equal to or more than 2.42 - corresponds to the third class.thus defined a preliminary rating is adjusted for other indicators of the third group and qualitative evaluation of the Borrower. When the negative impact of these factors can Ratings lowered one class.grouping allows to control the identification of possible losses from outstanding loans and their prevention., the class is defined by efficiency and risk group (respectively, ascending). Next (depending on the client extinguishes the principal amount and interest thereon) risk group may vary.

number 2loan classification based on the formalized criteria for assessing credit risks

Group RiskFeature loansThe reserve amount (in% to the amount of debt "1 Standard loans1) Current loans regardless of ensuring the absence of overdue payment%% except for concessional loans and current insiders 2) Secured loans : - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% to 5 days inclusive; - If the arrears of principal up to 5 days or less; - Rescheduled once without changing the terms of the contract 1%2 Substandard loans1) Secured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment% 6% up to 30 days; - If the arrears of principal from 6 up to 30 days; - Rescheduled twice without changing the terms of the contract; - Reissued once changes in the conditions of the contract 2) Insufficient secured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% to 5 days inclusive; - If the arrears of principal up to 5 days or less; - Rescheduled once without changing the terms of the contract; 3) Feed- current loans and current loans to insiders in the absence of overdue payment%% 20%3 Doubtful1) Secured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% from 31 to 180 days, inclusive; - If the arrears of principal from 31 to 180 days, inclusive; - Rescheduled twice with changing conditions of the contract; - Rescheduled more than two times regardless of changes in the conditions of the contract 2) Insufficient secured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment% 6% up to 30 days; - If the arrears of principal from 6 up to 30 days; - Rescheduled twice without changing the terms of the contract; - Reissued once changes in the conditions of the contract 3) Unsecured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% to 5 days inclusive; - If the arrears of principal up to 5 days or less; - Rescheduled once without changing the terms of the contract 4) Preferential loans and loans to insiders at any overdue payment of principal or%% to 5 days inclusive 50%4 Bad loans1) Secured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% over 180 days; - If the arrears of principal in excess of 180 days; 2) Insufficient secured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% over 30 days; - If the arrears of principal more than 30 days; - Rescheduled twice with changing conditions of the contract; - Rescheduled more than two times regardless of changes in the conditions of the contract 3) Unsecured loans: - Current in the presence of overdue payment%% More than 5 days; - If the arrears of principal over 5 days; - Reissued at least once with the changes in the conditions of the contract; - Reissued more than once regardless of changes in the conditions of the contract; 4) Preferential loans and loans to insiders at any overdue payment of principal or%% More than 5 days 100%our example, the borrower LLC "Tamara" should be attributed to the first risk.order to maintain stability and sustainable functioning of the Russian banking system, commercial banks are required to create a reserve for possible loan losses. Allowance for possible loan losses is used only to cover the outstanding clients (banks) loan principal debt.division of Sberbank of Russia and its affiliates produce monthly (as of the first of the following month) risk adjustment of all outstanding loans and debt equated to the loan, taking into account the change of the actual loan or other similar loan debt, loan risk (changes in the duration terms of overdue debt payments equated to loan), the official currency exchange rate set by the Bank of Russia on the last day of the reporting month (for a loan or debt to loan in foreign currency) per table number 2 "Table loan classification based on the formalized criteria for assessing credit risks . " (Application number 4)reduce the possibility of incurring losses as a result of the credit relationship Samara AK Bank SB RF uses a form of security for the repayment of the loan (mortgage, guarantee, surety, etc.). In our case, as security was granted bail.level of risk attached. And the methods of its regulation now have to add control over the use of credit and periodic inspection of the mortgaged property., giving credit for one another, Samara AK Bank SB RF generates its loan portfolio. There is a need to analyze and assess specific risks the Bank faces in any form operations. Here it is a question of the risks within the population of borrowers.type of risk assessmentstage involves the calculation of estimates of risk by determining the probability that the bank will incur a certain amount of loss. In other words, based on a risk assessment is to find the relationship between specific dimensions bank losses and the probability of their occurrence. This dependence is reflected in the curve being built specifically probabilities of occurrence of a certain level of losses. Construction of the curve - an extremely difficult task, requiring of employees dealing with risk, sufficient knowledge and experience. To construct the curve of probability of occurrence of a certain level of losses, or so-called risk curve, various methods, among which are:. Statistical method.. Method of expert assessments.. Analytical method.. Statistical methodessence of this method lies in the fact that for the calculation of the probability of loss analyzes all statistics relating to the effectiveness of the Bank of the transactions. In order to increase the accuracy of calculations necessary to use statistical sampling more, which would allow to make the assumption that the frequency of occurrence of a certain level of loss is, or rather is the probability of their occurrence.

incidence of a certain level of losses is as follows: SP= ---------------- where

With

- frequency of a certain level of losses;- The number of occurrence of a particular level of losses;- total number of cases in the statistical sample.should be emphasized the fact that the denominator of this fraction - the total number of cases in the statistical sample - must represent not just the number of failed operations conducted by the bank, and the total number, including still and successful implementation of this species. If not, the value of the frequency of occurrence of a certain level of losses and, consequently, the risk of the type of transaction would be considered unreasonably inflated.determining the frequency of occurrence of a certain level of losses should find its value as much as possible in a larger number of points (ie, at different levels of losses). Usually do it is quite difficult, then you should try to determine the values of this indicator at least four main points which will be discussed below.describe these points, we need to introduce the concept of risk areas.the area of risk understand zone within which losses do not exceed a certain level. The figure number 2 shows the main areas of risk that should be taken into account for the risk managers..2risk areas

loss

Critical risk areaUnacceptable risk areaRegion Assumption of RiskRisk-free regionB-1 B-1 A-1 0 A B

size-estimated earnings and A-1-value equal to the size of estimated earnings, B-size calculation proceeds, B-1-value equal to the size of the settlement proceeds, B-size bank's own funds, B-1-value equal to the size of their own bank funds.can be seen from the figure, providing 4 main areas of risk:

Risk-free area;

Region of acceptable risk;

Unacceptable risk area;

The critical area of risk.us consider the characteristics of each of them.

Risk-free area.this area is the absence of any characteristic losses in the transactions and obtaining a minimum estimated earnings. The left boundary of the risk-free area passes through the point A - the size of estimated earnings, the right boundary is simply not available because the bank's profit is theoretically unlimited.

The area of ??acceptable risk.characterized by the level of acceptable risk of loss does not exceed the size of estimated earnings. In this area is still possible to carry out this type of banking operations, the bank risks because only in that as a result of their activities in the worst case it just does not get profit, and all costs incurred will okupleny. Under normal circumstances the same, that is, when I do happen to a slight loss, the bank may get a little less profit calculated level.

Area of ??unacceptable risk.the boundaries of this area are possible losses, the value of which exceeds the estimated earnings, but not more than the total size of the settlement proceeds. It is quite obvious that the level of risk is unacceptable, as the bank is in danger of losing all its revenues from this operation, and it would mean that he made pointless costs not only time but also cash.

The area of ??critical risk.is the most dangerous area in which possible losses threaten to compare with the value of the bank's equity. Critical area of ??risk associated with the concept of bankruptcy, and therefore under no circumstances be allowed a level of risk.the relation between the different areas of risk, you can see those same four points, which were discussed above. These points lie on the boundaries of the regions.action on the risk assessment, consider the following example.several years, lending in most cases short-term nature. We estimate the risk arising from the issuance of short-term loans from banks. To do this, first, with the corresponding statistics of the data bank operations for several years, we calculate the frequency of losses, the level of which can be regarded as the boundary of each of the four areas described. Assume that the frequency of losses in the implementation of short-term lending, the left boundary of the corresponding risk-free area, ie at 0 (see Figure number 2) is equal to 0.8, and the frequency of losses at points A1, B1, B1, respectively, equal to: 0.55, 0.2 and 0.05. If the statistical number of permits, and still be nice to define a series of intermediate values ??- it only to refine the results., having at its disposal such factors as the size of losses and their frequency of occurrence, can be plotted between these variables.resulting curve actually represents the ratio of the magnitude of losses and their probability of occurrence, ie, it will be the risk curve, which was discussed above. This curve is shown in figure number 3.. Number 3of losses


1 0.8A 0.55 In0.2 With0.05D0 A-1 B-1 B-1

the figure, it is easy to determine what portion AB of the curve will be in the region of acceptable risk, segment BC - in an unacceptable risk, and the section CD - in the field of critical risk. In the realm of critical risk and will treat portion of the curve beyond the point D, that is, beyond the level of a bank failure. Of course, if a more rigorous approach to this question, the point B1, indicating the magnitude of potential losses equal to the size of the bank's equity, can be transformed into some other point, reflecting the amount of loss for which there is a real threat of a violation of a bank's liquidity . But while there are difficulties with the choice of the appropriate measure of liquidity, however, if the bank over the years strictly guided by a certain measure of liquidity and corresponding accumulated. Figures, calculations of risk assessment will be logical to build through it.. Method of expert assessmentsmethod differs from the expert assessment method for collecting statistical information only for the construction of the risk curve.method involves the collection and study of assessments made by banking specialists probabilities of occurrence of different levels of losses. These estimates are based on consideration of all the risk factors, as well as statistical data. It should again try to get as much as possible starting points for plotting between potential losses and the average values of expert assessments (probability of loss). Also as in the above method the minimum number of points for estimating the risk to be not less than four, namely:

) The point corresponding to the zero level of losses

) The point that determines the size of potential losses, corresponding to the size estimated earnings.

) The point characterizing the magnitude of potential losses equal to the amount estimated revenue.

) The point corresponding to the losses, the size of which equal largest's own funds (or losses, for which there is a specific threat violations liquidity indicator bank balance).of the method of expert assessments much more complicated if the number of these estimates is small (it is similar to the reduced number of statistical indicators in which significantly decreases the accuracy of calculations). But anyway, even an approximate idea of the level of risk gives the bank in charge of the development of risk strategies, distinct advantages over banks not conducting such work.. Analytical methodmethod of constructing the risk curve banks almost never used, because the underlying elements of the theory of games too weakly developed to apply to the assessment of bank risk., the existing methods of constructing the curve of probability of occurrence of a certain level of losses is not quite the same, but somehow allow to make (even approximately) a risk assessment of committing virtually all banking operations.the risk curve and determining the allowable area, unacceptable and critical risk, marketing service worker Samara AK Bank SB RF should do more detailed analysis of these areas in terms of establishing the optimal level of risk for a particular type of transaction.level - is, of course, a relative term, since it turns on the basis of subjective evaluations of experts, but nevertheless he comes of the boundaries of acceptable risk resulting from construction of the risk curve. It is quite obvious that for a bank seeking to not "drown" in market forces, acting with the utmost care, the value of the optimal level of risk is lower than for the bank, which is not very worried about the security of the transactions.that the optimal level of risk - a very specific question regarding the individual characteristics of each individual bank., rising one more level above trace (in terms of risk) as Samara AK Bank SB RF generally provides loans for the last two or three years. What measures are taken to reduce the likelihood of loss. Try to objectively assess and analyze the above-mentioned.the year 199 9 units Samara Bank Savings bank loans granted to individuals and legal entities totaling 9,203,935 thousand rubles ( in 1998 - 7,273,152) , including :

Population ................................................ .. 789 933 thousand rubles,

Businesses, organizations ................. 8,276,746 thousand,

Banks ................................................ ........ 137 256 thousand rubles;to the population:

Long-term loans .................................. 8835 thousand rubles,

Loans for urgent needs ................... 224 530 thousand rubles.1999, the loans granted in foreign currency amounting to 12,336 thousand U.S. dollars against 37,175 thousand U.S. dollars in 1998.the balance payable at the end of 1999 increased to 2,132,621 thousand compared to 1,089,759 thousand rubles at the beginning of the year or 34.4% , including:

Population ..................................... c 89,780 to 101,762 thousand rubles,

By businesses, organizations .... c 913,486 to 2,013,679 thousand rubles,

On banks ........................................... c 86,493 to 17 180 thousand rubles.of arrears amounted at the end of 1999 134 053 thousand rubles, compared with 103,924 thousand rubles at the beginning of the year, including:

Population ..................................... 7 182 to 8 140 thousand rubles.

By businesses, organizations .... with 56,636 to 124 848tys. rub.

On banks ........................................... 40 106 to 1065 rubles., credit debt on banks by 65 % reduces to overdue and his characterization is hopeless to recover. So, in 1999, managed to extinguish arrears formed in 1998 and losing to the collection, worth 403,300 rubles.

of loans for 1999number 3.

Date01.01.99In%01.04.99In%01.07.99In%01.10.99In%01.01.00In%Only72731521006836762100752043810086485031009203935100is including:Population of500,3446470,3246500,4234655,3225789,9336pre- acceptance627350012589710019670025828779197947827674678Banks499,30882469,33875319,75767201 20248137,25616Past Chennai zadol- wives completely10897591414166861417000231321250281521326219this table it is clear that for 199 years there was a 9 loan portfolio diversification in terms of loans companies and banks.IBC Bank's loan portfolio for the year decreased from 82% to 16%, while the share of loans companies and organizations increased from 12% to 78%.share of loans to the population did not change significantly. Overdue loans increased from 14% to 9%.receivables changed as follows from 1999 to 01/01/2000:

..................................... Population from 8.8% to 8.1% ,

By businesses, organizations .... from 14.3% to 6.2%1999, the continued influx of legal entities for cash management services to institutions Samara AK SB Bank of Russia, which led to a further increase in the share of loans granted to legal persons on cash service institutions Samara Security Bank of the Russian Federation with 68.7 % to 87.5 % of the total outstanding loans of legal entities.main reasons for the growth of arrears is:

. Due to the severe financial condition of a number of industrialand organizations in the city and region, borrowers working in these enterprises are not able to timely and fully pay off the bank.

. Insufficient attention to the work of arrears on loans to the public.1999. employees of credit, legal services and security measures have been taken, will significantly reduce the arrears, namely:

. Work on overdue payments carried out mainly by the following methods:

The adoption of the redemption of securities, liquid at the federal and local level (VEB bonds, KO, government securities)

Contracts of assignment of claims

Contracts with banks borrowing on assignment of debt borrowers

Conclusion of agreements on compensation for tangible assets, including bank customers from borrowing and their subsequent implementation or statement on the bank's balance sheet.

. In parallel with the work on collecting arrears legal service carried out all the necessary formalities for the production of notary inscriptions refer cases to arbitration courts, seizure of property and other assets of borrowers, blocking correspondent and current accounts. This provides the necessary impact on the borrower in order to induce him to fulfill all the necessary measures to return the loans.addition, materials for a variety of borrowers in 1999 were referred to law enforcement authorities for criminal cases.

. If all the above measures failed to repay the loan due to lack of funds or assets of the borrower, the legal service on the basis of a forensic artist refer the matter to Court for an act of uncollectible and written off against the allowance account., in 1999, offices and OPERA Samara Bank SB RF AK was written off against the allowance for possible loan losses loans totaling 34,109 thousand rubles, including:

Corporate loans .............................. 17 641 thousand rubles

Loans to the population .................................... 183 000 rubles.Department of the Office of the bank lending Samara AK SB RF data based on monthly statistical reporting form number 18 and database departments and OPERA placement credit - ARM "loans "analyzes the issuance and repayment of loans, and if necessary, the employees of Lending field visits to verify performance and help employees credit services departments.offices in Samara 12.09.1995 AK Bank SB RF operated ARM "loans" which allows accompany each loan from the date of issue until its maturity, including the maintenance of the account of the borrower. Information on all loans granted, which has offices in the communication lines for each state change the account and the credit agreement is transmitted to the control of bank lending and thus provides a database on corporate loans. In the future, the lending bank service task is to go to the daily updating of the database on corporate loans and population. Based on a database ARM "loans" organized analytical work on the loan portfolio of the bank of Samara. All this increases the efficiency of work of Samara bank.impediments in 1999. more efficient use of credit resources and increase the risk of credit, we can assume the following:

Due to the presence of high levels of arrears (especially in the third quarter of 1999) Samara AK Bank SB RF to reduce the risk of loan default is preferably carried out loans proven highly reliable clientele under lower interest rates to ensure minimal risk of non-repayment of credits.the statistical data on the size of loans provided for 199 9 (Table number 4).

number 4of loans in 1999.

Size of a loanNumber of borrowersAmountu% Of totalthousand rubles% Of total12345100026538, 971127 660.24561000 - 500021231.18523 556,54265000-1000010114.85161 094.32810000-500008312.21120 820.74550000-100000131.9160 410,373100000-50000060.8820 136.791In total6801002013679100seen from the table, most of the borrowers received loans that do not exceed the sum of 1,000 rubles, 56%.the size of loans arranged in the following sequence:

) 1000 to 56%

) 1000 - 5000 26%

) 5 000-10 000 8%

) 10 000 - 50 000 6%

) 50 000 - 100 000 3%

) 100 000 - 500 000 1%of this suggests that there has been some improvement in the economic climate, reduced riskiness of lending to certain industries, companies solvency slightly, but increased. Therefore, entities can afford to request a larger amount of loan, and the bank can afford to its issuance (in more cases).now consider the terms of lending. Not always the period for which the client requests a credit equal to the period for which the loan issue this borrower. (As a rule, the term can only be reduced). This is done to reduce the risk of losses. The vast majority of loans issued entities for the year 1999, 92.56% are short-term. And this is justified, because such issuance least risky loans., during this period in 2000 the share of long-term loans increased slightly (from 5.44% to 8%, ie 1.5 times) by reducing the short-term. This is again due to some stabilization of the economy.has become a smaller lending banks, the share of 01.01.2000 amounts to 1.7%. Of enterprises accounted for the majority of loans associations and joint stock companies.desirable (in terms of reducing the likelihood of incurring losses for a large sum) to diversify its loan portfolio by industries. Here's how it makes Samara AK Bank SB RF (see table number 5).

number 5structure of credit investments by industries in 1999

thousand rubles% of total123Industry886,01944Construction443,01022Transportation14,0960.7Agriculture26,1781.3Trade463,14623Other181,2309Total:2013679100becomes clear that most of bank capital injections made in the industry. Next, in descending order of densities (in 1999) are: trade, construction, and other industries, agriculture and transport.very important point in a security issued by Credit loan. In the case of non-repayment of principal and interest on the bank can make a claim to the guarantor (surety) may implement the mortgaged property (on consignment basis), etc. As a result, overdue loan interest m can be covered completely or partially. Thus, security is one of the most powerful operating leverage, avoiding large irrecoverable losses of bank resources. It can help you reduce the risk to zero. Analyze the forms of collateral loans to legal entities on the basis of number of tables 6.

number 6on the forms of securing loans to legal entities in 1999

Category of borrowersBalance payable on 01.01.2000%123Only2132621100including: BANKS341 219.3616including availability of security: - Guarantees 0 0-Property mortgage00-Pledged securities341 219.3616Other legal entities1791 401.6484including availability of security: - Pledge of property 1267 576.67 56.46- Pledged securities202 428.3911.3- Other types of collateral130 772.327.3- Unsecured190 624.268.94to the instructions of the Central Bank loan in arrears on principal or%% over 180 days, it is considered unsecured.MBC of software here often practiced against securities SB (as third-party securities issuers are not used in the design of collateral). This deposit is the most liquid. In second place, the security of property.legal entities in 1998 and 1999. mainly used pledge of property (40.5% from 82.7% and 49.73% from 97.53%, respectively). Next in order of specific weights are: guarantees, other types of collateral on securities, loans without collateral (in 1999 there were more). On individuals most software provided guarantees (warranties).extension of the credit agreement increases the risk of non-repayment of the loan (short-term loans converted into longer-term), because in most cases it is caused by the insolvency of the client (less desire to extend the deal because of its profitability). Consequently, the greater prolongations, the more risky loan portfolio becomes.information table number 7.

number 7on the extension of credit agreements with the entities in 1999

Number of contracts (units)Amount of contracts (thousand rubles).Share of extended credit agreementsOnlyOf these prolongedTotal number of renewalsOnlyFrom her prolonged contractsOverall quantity of credit. AgreementsIn total loan. Agreements123456725,6543536129203935302,5602.265.12, in 1999, 2.26% of all contracts were prolonged. In the total amount of credit agreements proportion of renewals decreased to 5.1%. This indicates an increase in the loan portfolio quality.we can consider the dynamics of the specific weights of loans and arrears categories of borrowers.the 1998-1999 period. share of overdue debt population increased steadily and reached 8% (applies to the present). A similar pattern is observed in the MBC until March 1998 (an increase from 14% to 60%), followed by a smooth decrease (from 60% to 42%). For legal entities after the recession set stably low levels (1-2%).diagram (Fig. 4 number) shows the proportion of average trend of arrears in loan debt.becomes apparent that the percentage in question at the moment is reduced. This result is due to a large proportion of corporate lending. Interesting is that Samara AK SB Bank of the Russian Federation took into account the trend that we saw in the previous diagram, and began to increase lending to legal entities, while reducing the inter-bank lending. True, the granting of loans to the population and has not changed. This is illustrated in the diagram in figure number 5.loans Samara AK Bank SB RF creates them provision for possible losses (which we have already mentioned in this paper). Thereby Sat like "insure" themselves.exactly how much he expects at this, we can see from the table below and graphic explanations to her. To do this, consider a table number 7 and Fig. Number 6. Part of the loans was overdue. If we assume that they become overdue (it's the worst case), then throughout the 1998 reserve to cover them would not be enough. Part of the losses would cover "live" resources. And to divert resources, which previously counted Sat-very risky. This, apparently, was taken into account, and in 1999 the allowance for possible loan losses are almost always covered in arrears. The risk of this kind has been significantly reduced.

number 7of provisions for possible loan losses

DateBeats. Weight allowanceBeats. weight delayProvision forin morain loan debtUPU01.01.9556.9013.555307624001.07.9586.701 to 4, 311138488401.01.9689.1011.009577436601.07.96102.707.709918394801.01.97105.907.009319224001.07.9796.906.608589472001.01.98100.405.807811203601.07.98109.004.707297445401.01.9996.605.207403823201.07.99117.504.107459480601.01.0094.105.608218238205.05.00104.305.2089982450the dynamics of provision for possible loan losses, we note that the initial sharp rise was due to lack of accrual of this provision, then the arrears covered to create a reserve, we can conclude that the quality of the loan portfolio has improved (he became less risky). However, at the end of the first quarter of an increase in reserve. This was caused by the increase of the loan portfolio.1996, employees of the credit, legal services, and security measures have been taken to reduce the arrears due to its maturity by:

Adoption of the redemption of securities, liquid at the federal and local level (bills Samara Oblast Administration and the city of Samara, the Ministry of Finance Bills, Bills of Sberbank of Russia, government securities, bonds and other EBV-party issuers of securities with permission Rossberbanka)

Conclusion of contracts of assignment of claims

Transfer of the debt to creditworthy borrowers,

Conclusion of agreements on compensation for tangible assets and their subsequent implementation or statement on the bank's balance sheet.the case of uncollectible arrears legal service carried out all the necessary formalities for the transfer of cases to arbitration courts, seizure of property and other assets of borrowers, which contributed to the execution of the necessary measures to return the loans.all the above measures do not lead to repay the loan due to lack of funds or assets of the borrower, the bad loans on the basis of a forensic artist and the act of the court recognized the impossibility of collecting funds hopeless to recover. Resolution of the Board of Samara AK Bank SB RF such loans are written off against the allowance for possible loan losses.order to prevent the growth of arrears in Samara bank AK SB RF and reduce the risk of loan default is preferably carried out loans proven highly reliable clientele, located on the cash service at lower interest rates to ensure minimal risk of non-disbursed funds.

was without any drops and eventually marked a slight decline in this indicator.not ignore the distribution of loans by risk groups. Let us consider the dynamics of the past two years. It is displayed in the following table and chart her table number 8.

number 8of specific weights of risk groups in the total amount of loans

DateRisk groupIIIIIIIV01.01.9787.72.22.08.101.07.978821.58.501.01.9889.21.61.08.201.07.9888.31.90.98.901.01.9987.12.11.89.001.07.9988.22.11, 28.501.01.0088.82.21.27.801/05/0089.01.81.28.0is obvious that the majority of borrowers belonged and belongs to the first group of risk. Here, the peak occurred in the proportion of 01.01.98 (89.2%). He is the inflection point (growth was reversed). Densities of other groups are small. Thus, according to the second risk indicator varies in the range from 1.0% to 2.2%. The third group is the oscillation from 1.2 to 2.0. Fourth-risk group according to specific gravity is in second place, the highest rate falls on 01.01.1999 and was 9%.number 9 is a consequence of the table discussed above. We are talking about the dynamics of the specific weights of allowance for risk groups in the total allowance for loan losses.weight in the reserve has fourth risk group, for loans related to it, are the most risky. However, this figure is reduced. At the same time it increases the risk of the first group, which takes on the proportion in the second reserve.reduced figure for the fourth and risk increases with the third.number 9of specific weights reserve risk groups in the total reserve

DateRisk group123401.01.9824.13.518.454.101.07.9826.14.53.865.701.01.9930.77.26.25601.07.99366.87.549.601.01.0040.914.742.401/05/0041.311.36.241.2second group the proportion increased over the past six months and retains its value. Album trend is positive.now have the correlation and regression analysis.successfully and accurately it can be done in relation to indicators such as the proportion of at-risk groups in the total amount of loans, the share reserve in arrears, and the share of overdue loans in loan debt.this are taken for each indicator values ??on different dates from tables № № 7,8. Analysis is a necessary condition for uniformity time interval. Among all values set of indicators will be drawn up common table observations. On its basis, using complex mathematical processing can derive the equations of trends.

number 10equations trends

Indicator X tEquation1.Udelny weight of the first risk group in the total loan debtX t = 65,975 + 3,4050 x t2. The share of the second group of risk in the total amount of loansX t = 2,978 - 0,3333 x t3. The share of third-risk groups in the total amount of loansX t = 0,589 - 0,02 x t4. The share of fourth at risk in the total amount of loansX t = 23,347 - 2,325 x t5. Specific weight allowance arrearsX t = 115,25 - 10,3833 x t6. The share of overdue loans in the loan zadolzhennstiX t = -15,839 + 10,4033 x tThus, we have obtained the equations trends. Now, substituting the values ??of the time interval t, we can make a prediction for each indicator. Even if we apply these equations to the known series speakers, we see almost complete agreement between the forecast and the fact. The error in this case is only 0-5% (this is a very small value for the analysis of this kind).at the trends resulting equations, we can make the following predictions:

The proportion of arrears in loan debt in the near future will be reduced, but not significantly. Variation in will be small;

The reserve will cover the arrears in full;

Changes within the risk groups will continue to improve the quality of the loan portfolio. Riskiness of the latter will continue to decline. However, the pace of this decline will be wearing damped.the average level of loans to be written off because of non-payment, we have the opportunity to make another prediction (relatively accurate and not so complex) - a grouping of the loan portfolio on risk classes for 2000. The forecast will be made on the basis of foreign currency loans granted by the bank Samara for the first three months of 2000.the introduction of the new chart of accounts in Samara bank AK Security Code establishes new rates allowance for possible loan losses by risk groups: Group 1-1% 2-group 20%, Group 3 50% 4 100% group.: the diversion of bank resources in reserve for possible loan losses will be less elastic with respect to the degree of riskiness of the loan portfolio. Thus, contributions to this reserve will be more constant value. Range of variation of the last decrease.., summing up on the work done, we can say the following:entity (whether natural or legal person) in current market conditions its own rules (within the law). Purpose of its activities (in the end) is profit. However, at every step you have to risk. Generally, the greater the risk, the more likely to make a profit.of banking services is currently very high, so the range of banking risks arising every day expands. On the main factors of banking risks are divided into economic and political. The most difficult for the bank is to anticipate political risks as predict the political situation is difficult, especially in our country.risks are mainly associated with the policy of the bank and anticipate this risk group is entirely dependent on the competence of the staff of a bank.of the above applies to commercial banks as a whole, and to Samara bank AK SB Russia in particular. For the latter, the risk is the cost of the threat of losing some of their resources, revenue or work extra costs as a result of certain financial transactions. Anticipation of such risks is an important moment in the bank. There is a constant need to analyze the probability of losses. Here there are both conventional methodology and methodology developed by the financial-credit institution.important part of developing the strategy is the development of measures to prevent and reduce the identified risk.is in the development of the main approaches to risk assessment, determining the allowable level and its development of a strategy and is the main task of risk management.developed and became widespread measures aimed at reducing certain types of banking risks, such as currency risk, foreign risk, market risk, interest rate risk, credit risk. Just one way of banking risk management is insurance. But this method in domestic practice has not received wide acceptance.main type of bank risk is credit risk. It occurs when lending bank of its customers. In this situation, certain methods are used to reduce the risk. In Samara bank AK SB RF, as in many others, the following measures to reduce this risk: a provision for possible loan losses; deversifitsiruyutsya loans, the borrower is required to obtain the loan and its intended use. Lending principles must be observed in any case.the approach to each specific loan issued will depend on the level of riskiness of the loan portfolio. So, in Samara bank AK SB RF (based on work done) the level of riskiness of loans issued in the aggregate for the past two years, has repeatedly changed. The latest trend is to reduce the probability of loss. According to a regression analysis, it will continue on and on. Number of renewals reduced. This indicates an increase in the loan portfolio quality of true decisions on issuing loans. This is indicated by the following figures: 01.01.1999 year the amount of the loan portfolio amounted to 800,000 thousand rubles, and on 01.05.2000, 1.03 million rubles.the size of loans granted. Win MBC decreased, and the lending industry, construction, agriculture has increased considerably. Obviously, the economy revived, and by increasing investment attractiveness of certain branches of the bank AK Samara Russian Security Council has been actively involved in its lending. Courts for the most part still are issued for a short period, but the proportion of long-term loans is slowly starting to grow.prospect AK SB Russia will pay more attention to konsortsionalnomu lending, population, factoring, bank guarantee, overdraft loans. Planned to improve regulations on lending and reporting structure.is important not to take risks, so you do not "shaken" and undermine the confidence of its customers. After all, some of them may refuse service in the bank, and then lose the last opportunity to receive part of their income. Nice to know that Samara bank always adheres to the principle: "reliability - first".

REFERENCES


1.CBR Instruction number 1 of 30.04.1991 "On the order of regulation of commercial banks"

2.Application number 6 Guidelines for assessing the credit risk of the loan portfolio perensmotra "a temporary instruction CBR number 17 dated 24.08.1993 for developing an overall financial statements koimmercheskimi banks

.Letter CBR number 130a of 20.12.1994 on the formation and use of the reserve for possible loan losses arising from commercial banks

.Regulation 89-P dated 24.06.1999 "On calculation of credit institutions Market Risk"

.Regulations in the creation and use of RF SB and its affiliates reserve for possible loan losses 445-r dated 30yu10.1998

.Regulation № 285-r dated 08.12.1997 "Providing loans to legal entities of the Russian Federation Security Council and its branches"

.Bakanov MI Analysis of the commercial risk (Accounting uchei 1996 number 10)

.Efimova O. Banking risks and their control and prevention (Business and banks 1995 number 52)

.Lakshina OA Risks in export credit banks (banking 1995 number 1)

.Sevruk VT Analysis of the level of country risk (Accounting 1995 number 7)

.Sokolinskaya NA Credit risks and loan portfolio of commercial bankm) business and banks 1997 number 2)

.Chorin A. Is it profitable to insure bank loans (Business and banks 1999 number 16)

.Zhukov EF "Banks and banking", Moscow, 1997

.OI lavrushin "Banking", Moscow, 1999

.OI lavrushin "Money. Credit. Banks ", Moscow, 1999

.OI lavrushin Livshits I. "The banking system of Russia", Moscow, 1998

."Results of ARCO 9 meksyatsev 1999", "Money and Credit" № 1 / Year 2000


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