The history of development the science of translation in the countries of studied language


Studies as an academic discipline highlights the history of translation and translation theory. Translation is the process of transferring text from one language into another. And do we know everything about translation? Do we know about history of translation study? About how the theory of translation was developed and how it came to us?history of translation - is an academic discipline designed to provide the necessary information on how this art of sending information from one language to another was evolved over time. When we discus history of translation we must think of the theories and names that emerged at its different periods. Actually, each era characterized by exact changes in translation history, but these differ from one to one more. Translation played and plays an input role in the growth of world culture. It is ordinary to think of culture as general and totally separate. If we start to look at the impact of fictional translation, the option of communication clear of anything so restricted by geographic part is clear.

The authors which concerns in their works the theme of my thesis are: I.A. Chistovich, Gorbovskii N.K., Semenec O.E., Panasev A.N., Komissarov V.N., <#"218" src="doc_zip1.jpg" />1. Population in Canada

this period, at the behest of the French king Francis I explorer and traveler seafarer Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) is sent to the eastern shores of North America to colonize new territories. In 1534 he was being captured two Iroquois Indian tribe Stadacona (now Quebec). Indians - House Agay and Taynyaoni - follow him to France. Cartier intends to teach them the basics of the French language there, to be used in the future to travel as interpreters dealing with the Indians. Indeed, in the next journey in 1535, these Native American interpreters helped him in getting new and useful information about life in New France.the XVII century French explorer Samuel de Champlain in North America, founded Québec City in 1608, and continues to develop new lands and expanding contacts with the local population. In 1610, he directs to the Algonquin Indians also lived on the territory of present-day Canada, Etienne Brule with a task to learn their language and act as an interpreter. Brule is the first official translator in the country. In subsequent years, the Champlain creates, so the whole institution of translators who had to "live with the Indians and the Indians" to master all the subtleties of culture of local tribes for their successful colonization [22, p.1515].the period of French rule the translation in the languages ??of Indian tribes gets fairly widespread: there are a group of court interpreters, military, commercial, etc. the beginning of the XVIII century judicial and military interpreters are necessary and have to communicate with the Dutch and the British.the XVIII century, when it starts inning of New France by the British, the French, opens a new stage in the modern history of translation in Canada. Since 1710 and the fall of Port-Royal and the British capture of Acadia (now Nova Scotia) the local French-speaking population forced to live under the rule of the British government. The last run the country through regulatory documents, writing in English and translates then into French. The central figure of the Anglo-French translators becomes Paul Mascari, Huguenot, won the 1706 British citizenship 1710 and came to Canada. [23, p. 54-55].this period the birth of Canadian bilingualism however, the translation in the official sphere is too early to say exactly according to its established tradition in Mascarene make texts governing documents directly in French. The official name is "translation" the French version of the governmental document gets only 6 February 1769, when a French version of a published document shows a postscript: "Translated by order of His Excellency François-Joseph Kuehne. SF. "Kuehne from 1768 was the official translator of the Governor of the Province of Quebec and performed administrative and editorial functions. [24, p. 67].present translation activities in the official sphere begins only after the whole French North America by the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763 goes to English in Quebec and settles civil government. Since 1764 there begins to come out the first official bilingual organ - La Gazette de Quebec / The Quebec Gazette. Articles in this newspaper are written mainly in English, but are accompanied by a French translation. From this period, according to a Canadian researcher Pierre Davio already there has been some distortion of the French language. At the initial stage of the Anglo-French bilingual French texts of official documents were excellent, although written in the vernacular. Translation and editing of translated or compiled by the French official texts carried emigrants old Canadian families. Later, when Kuehne, especially the moment when he began to charge transfer competent enough in French to people who have received an English education, the French language is beginning to suffer. Kuehne himself does not always know how to properly relate the position of the French legal documents and their English counterparts, which often led to a complete nonsense in translation.

.3.1 Translation development in 20 centurythe XX century translation activities in government continues to grow and strengthen. In 1934 at the suggestion of Secretary of State Kaan created the Federal Bureau of translations, designed to serve the entire federal administration. The role of the public authority in the development of translation in Canada is enormous. Chronology of events in the history of translation given in the book of G. Delisle "Translation in Canada, 1534-1984," provides a picture of the activities of this organization for over fifty years. [25, p. 65-120].is the creation of local (provincial) Translation Bureau, the organization of training courses and professional development of translators, the creation of the study and systematization of terminology, recurrent publications on Language and Terminology organization of scientific and practical conferences, the introduction of new means of transfer, the study of issues of organization translation work, their wages, objective way to evaluate the quality of translations, the nature of relations between translators and their clients, and much more. One of the key aspects of the Federal Bureau of translation development and publication of the transfer and in the interests of the translation. In 1995, he developed a French-English-Spanish dictionary Road Transport and 1996 - "Guidelines for Editors," and in 1999 - CD-ROM with a French-English vocabulary. [23, p. 378].merit of this part of the country is the fact that the French language is officially recognized as a second, equally important, the official language of Canada. In 1969, that through there after the Act of Union declared official only the English language in the country, accepted fact, it meant that the parliamentary debate, where everyone chooses has the legal right to speak on any of the two languages should be provided with translation, all legislative acts of government, archives, records parliamentary hearings must be developed and published in two languages?, and later in two languages and legal proceedings underway. It is hard to imagine what an enormous amount of translation involves the law, which the army of translators to ensure its implementation! In 1997, Canada had about 12,000 officially registered professional translators. Translation activities evolved in this industry sector the country with all the characteristic of this socio-economic phenomenon attributes.we should not assume that the translational activity in Canada is actively conducted only in the formal sector. The industrial character of translation activity in Canada is reset by the fact that in Quebec - the largest by area and second in population highly industrialized province in the country - the main language is French since 1977, when it adopted the Charter of the French language, it is the main official language of the province. This means that the French language is not only an administrative, but also all production activities. It is easy to understand that in the English-speaking Quebecers environment need to take a lot of effort in the field of translation, to ensure normal economic relations with its neighbors.of the Charter made active complex and continuing process « Fransizaton » the enterprises of Quebec, begun in 1971 « Fransizaton », i.e. transition to the French language in all industrial area, could not, certainly, with advantage without active participation of translators. On them, apparently, the basic weight of this process as the most complex and labour-consuming during « Fransizaton » manufactures was to process the engineering specifications, being basically in English also has laid down, to translate it on other language. It seemed, that the period of mass translation, so important at the beginning, having prolonged by some time, inevitably will pass, as objective «Fransizaton » was elimination of the old contradiction existed in Quebec between English language - language of manufacture, and French - language due course the demand for a translation service for Quebec did not become less. On the contrary, only for ten years - with 1985 on 1995 - their number has increased more than in one and a half time (with 7450 up to 11 790 person) 1. Transition to the French language in сфе¬ре manufacture has given a new impulse of translational activity: now for dialogue with English-speaking neighbors from others Canadian provinces, as well as with partners from the United States it was necessary to translate the documentation on English language. Thus, translational activity was not reduced, has changed only its orientation: from intraeconomic it has turned in external economic. Translational activity of the enterprises English-speaking provinces Canada, interested in attitudes with partners in Quebec has external character also.such ways, Canada seems and feels similar to America. Their big, extensive cities, sports stadiums, shops, and the same unique sense of liberty and novelty found all through the U.S. But while speaking about translation, it is a whole different world. The explanation is simple: in Canada there are two official languages, English and French. Why does that make a difference? make up in your mind for a second if Spanish were the major language of the six New England states, plus New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, and both Virginia and West Virginia. Imagine other if English remained the major language in other states. makes the U.S. relating to as Spanish as Canada is French. If there were the case, do you think U.S. businesses would go on to communicate only in English? Would restaurants in Boston translate their menus for tourists from the southern and western states? What concerning the central government? When one-quarter of the whole people speaks a alternative language and is geographically concerted in a single region, all have to be translated: administrative documents, public signs, quad decisions, manufactured goods packaging, and promotion-the whole thing! A Bilingual Country Full of Unilingual People unexpectedly few Canadians in fact speak both English and French. In actuality, 7 of the 10 provinces are so especially English; you possibly will go days or weeks exclusive of hearing a word of French. Consider this: Canadas easternmost region, Newfoundland and Labrador, is house to in relation to half a million people. In the 2006 poll, 494,345 of them claimed to speak only English at home, versus 650 who claimed to talk only French. About 4.7% of the provinces inhabitants supposed they fluent in French. In Canadas westernmost region, British Columbia, 3,341,285 scheduled English as their house language opposed to only 15,325 who listed French. In fact, for every person who spoke French at home, more than 41 spoke a nonofficial language such as Cantonese or Punjabi. About 5.2% of British Columbians claimed to be simple in French. The picture is totally different in Canadas popular French province, Quebec. There, slightly more than 6 million citizens out of a whole population of about 7.5 million speak French at home, compared to a number of 745,000 who use English and 520,000 who speak a another language. , like the speech of money, rule, and worldwide trade, is extensively spoken by Quebecers, who have the improvement of living in close proximity to English Canada and the U.S. In international Montreal, house of a vast migrant population, many citizens are in fact trilingual; there are speaking Portuguese, Chinese, or other languages at home, and English and French in public. Above four million Quebec citizens dont speak English at all. In Quebec, 95.3% of people are national French speakers and two-thirds unilingual. Native English stand for less than 1.5% of the whole population and in fact outnumbered the third language groups, stand for 2.8% of the inhabitants. The outstanding 0.4% claim English and French like mother tongues. In general, only 18% Canadians fluent in English and French, there are francophone Land of Translation These demographic realities made Canada an universal head in translation. it is only 0.5% of the world population, occupies completely 10% of the worldwide translation advertise. The major manager of translators is the national government. Its Translation government department has 1,200 paid translators, interpreters, terminologists, and localization specialists. Not simply act these professional translate reams of documents, typically from English into French, they also provide a collection of another language services, such as Termium, the Canadian free trilingual (English, French, Spanish) terminology databank cover almost areas of all human doings. Translation Bureau is a regular source of work for hundreds of freelancers too. The local government also interpret, but to extensively changeable extents. Only one region New Brunswick officially bilingual a following choice then well-established in the foundation. It at the present has a legal compulsion to translate all it does for the advantage of its one-third French-speaking inhabitants. Manitoba also should translate all laws into French and offer guarantee of the levels of French-language teaching according to a 1985 Supreme Court decision.most full of people province, Ontario, while non-officially bilingual, makes general use of translation. French Language Services Act requires it to offer government services in French in 25 elected areas (non-urban areas where francophones stand for at least 10% of the inhabitants and town centers with at slightest 5,000 francophones).Ontario there are about 500,000 native French speakers out of a whole population about 12 million, mainly clustered in the central of Ottawa or close to the Quebec edge. Quebec is the only region is formally unilingual (unilingual French). Its bond of the French Language, planned as a bulwark next to the violation of English, requires businesses to control in French and deal by means of the French government, and requires non Canadian populace (immigrants from the U.S.) to propel children to French-language schools. The description doesnt, though, be relevant to the bench or to personal nation in their confidential transactions with the government. Means for Translators the most obvious difference among the translation business in the U.S. and Canada is the chance for paid employment. In addition to the thousands on the Canadian payroll government, thousands and more work for personal employers. large banks as Royal Bank or the Bank of Montreal have extensive in departments of house translation. Translators labor for chartered accountancies, store chains, grocery, law firms, big retailers airlines, telecoms, and many other. Actually, students graduating programs of translation are three times more likely to establish careers in salaried positions than as freelancers. pays enormous dividends in conditions of specialized development. Many adolescent translators get every day response on their work from older editors (revisers in Canada), who also translators. These continuing relations boost their self-assurance and the excellence of work. According to studies, paid translators in Canada receive more on standard than self-employed translators, and amongst freelance translators, those who work first as paid translators earn more on standard than persons who did not. Dissimilarity-of exacting profit to freelancers-is the widespread need for translation in Canada. Since everyone who do business in the state is a possible client, nearly all freelancers can farm business associates and direct customers among people in their families and public. it is easier for them to call possible customers or grows their customers by presence local commerce function. Most of freelancers didnt work for agency. There are probable 15,000 translators, terminologists, interpreters, and narrow action specialist in Canada. What It Means for Translation Agencies an arresting dissimilarity among Canadian translation agencies is their use of translators in-house? When each day brings certain work in a solitary language couple, it is more gainful and better for superiority manages to include an in-house team. The Canadian translation market is grown-up and has a lot of confidence buyers who wait for, demand, and recognizes lofty excellence. Subpar work is not tolerated. Even suitable superiority labor is a difficult advertises while customers wait for exceptional. Organizations There is no solitary association of translators in Canada like ATA. A state organization exists for agencies and language schools like AILIA. It is a tone for the business benefit of the Canadian language business. A subsequent state body, the Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council (CTTIC), is a confederation of nine regional and protective organizations. One of CTTICs major actions has been to put into practice normal guarantee events, in accord with its purpose to offer consistent principles for the occupation and to make sure the capability of the members of the organizations it represent. CTTIC handle translator guarantee in all parts of the state except Quebec. It has also lately conventional administration backing to get better professional preparation for translators athwart the country. In adding to AILIA and CTTIC, translators have entity associations in each region. These relations are comparable to ATA, but devoid of commercial members. They grip normal conference and offer education opportunities.

. 4. percentage of speaking languages in Canada

Quebec organization, the Ordre des traducteurs, terminologies et interprètes agréés du Québec (OTTIAQ), is single in that it is a predictable specialized sort whose main assignment is to defend the public alongside bad translations. It is alike in numerous ways to relations of registered nurses or chartered accountants or engineers. There are the right to examine a translators professional perform and can arrange a translator to get corrective preparation if it deems this essential. Only specialized translators might fit in to OTTIAQ, and only OTTIAQ members may call ourselves specialized. There is no qualifications examination for each se, but relatively an accurate procedure planned to distinguish proven skill and knowledge. To be an OTTIAQ associate, you have to have a academia degree in translation and, depending on how many years of labor experience you have, present a mentorship below the direction of a specialized translator or propose a corpus of translations for assessment by a commission. If you dont have a bachelor degree, you may also ask for certification by proving that you worked intended for five years or more as a full-time translator and through submitting a quantity of translations. All told, there are more than 2,000 members of OTTIAQ.

2.4 Translation studies development in USA

comparison I would like to consider the development of translation study in USA. Everyone knows that USA its international country and there are so many different nationalities. So lets consider how the translation study was developed, how people become to translation., despite of centuries-old history, modern translation study was generated as independent scientific discipline only in second half XX centuries to that in many respects were assisted with expansion of the international contacts in all areas of human dialogue that has in turn caused a sharp increase of demand, both for translations, and in translators, became powerful spur and in growth of theoretical researches of translational activity. It is necessary to note especially such version of translation as synchronous which has appeared only in XX century, as well as machine translation, which occurrence became possible owing to progress of cybernetics. In second half XX century scientific publications on problems of the theory and practice of translation are so numerous, that hardly gives in to a review and so diverse, that classifications quite often simply do not give in. second half XX centuries prompt progress of linguistics is marked: there are new linguistic disciplines and areas of research: cognitive linguistics, psycholinguists, sociolinguistics, biolinguistics, linguistics of the text, the theory of speech certificates, neyrolinguists. The Linguistics has turned to original macrolinguistics '. In sight linguistics have got also problems of translation. The comparative analysis of several translations of the same texts can be considered as natural experiment on comparison of language and speech units in two or several languages in actual certificates interlingual communications. Studying of translations allows detecting in each of compared languages important features which, however, by monolingual comparisons often remain not revealed. In this case translation represents itself as a litmus piece of paper, specifying on basic differences between language and speech units of multiple languages. Among the subjective factors which have rendered essential influence on progress of the linguistic concept of translation, we shall note following. it was already spoken, in second half XX century there is a sharp indispensability in interlingual dialogue consequently and demand for mass preparation of professional translators. At linguistic faculties of universities and colleges numerous translational schools and branches were created, both philologists and linguists alongside with translators-experts have appeared in a role of teachers of translation. And if by comparison of translations of scientists went from translation to revealing specific features of this or that language, that, having appeared in roles of teachers of a rate of the theory and practice of translation, scientists went from specific features of compared languages to the translation text.linguistic orientation of translational concepts in XX century is connected also by that language is considered as a basis of national culture, thinking, and attitude.with linguistic concepts of translation others develop also. , the known American theorist of translation Eu.Nida allocates four basic approaches to translation: philological, linguistic, communicative and social semantic.philological approach to translation is based on a principle of parity between the original and translation, i.e. in the center of attention of theorists and experts of translation there are problems of adequacy and equivalence. This direction uses basically methods and achievements of linguistics of the text. At the linguistic approach the translator always deals with two languages, thus the basic attention is given not to conventional attitudes between the original text and Translation, and substantial. Nida considers that the big contribution to progress of the linguistic approach was brought with many philosophical and psychological works.a basis of the communicative approach to translation the theory of the communications lays. Characterizing this approach, Eu.Nida speaks that on progress of this approach dramatic effect was rendered with sociological works of Labov, Haimz and Gumnerc.Social semiotic approach concentrates the attention on social aspects of interoperability between various sign systems in actual certificates of the verbal communications. Already in antiquity the term ' translation ' is used in two values: for a designation of translation process and for a designation of result of translation, i.e. the text of translation.XX century the important seat in theoretical translation study borrows the analysis of the translation process, cogitative operations of the translator, its strategy and techniques. Such operations are inaccessible to direct supervision, indirect methods of studying of translational process therefore are developed the method of computer modelling, in particular, is used, as well as various psychological experiments are spent. The leading tendency of translation in the Europe and in the USA during all XX century became translation mastering, natural, semantic, i.e. translation should be read through ' easily ', to make impression of original work, translation literal breaks reader's ' horizon of expectation '. American largest theorist of translation already mentioned above Eugene Albert Nida, follower Martin Luther, consistently proclaims a priority of content in relation to the form.huge impact on the development of linguistic theory of translation, not only in the U.S. but around the world has had a distinguished American linguist Eu. Nida. Eugene Albert Nida was engaged in many languages, both classical and modern, has published a number of important works on the syntax and semantics. He became interested in the problems of translation because of its many years of activity in the American Bible Society where he served as Executive Secretary and scientific consultant of the Department of translations, which were created under the direction of translations of the Bible in 200 languages ??and seventy-five countries. on the experience of the work of Eugene found written a number of books and articles, which dealt with many of the important aspects of the translation work. The most important role in the development of linguistic translation studies has played his book "To translate science", published in 1964. The book deals with the problems of the Bible, as well as a number of organizational issues related to the selection of the team of translators and consultants interpretation of "vague" places in the Bible, the special requirements for the piety of an interpreter, the need for him to receive "divine blessing" of his work, etc. However, most of the book contains a review of the fundamental aspects of the theory of translation, far beyond the specifics of the of Eu. Nida- this is the first serious attempt to develop a proper linguistic approach to translation issues. Back in 1959, in the article "Principles of translation as an example of the Bible" Eu.Nida clearly postulated that the bases of the translation are the main characteristics of language systems, namely:

) the systematic linguistic signs

) the arbitrariness of the sign in relation to the called subject,

) the arbitrary division of reality language and speech marks,

) the difference in how different languages ??organize signs into meaningful expressions. [26, p. 54].

alone shows that the main problem lies in the translation of the language semantics. This idea has received all-round development in the book "To translate the science."the content of the reporting labor Eu. Nida is divided into three unequal parts. The first two chapters are devoted to formulation of the problem and a brief review of the history of translation of concepts in the "western world". In the next four chapters that are purely linguistic in nature, analyzes various aspects of the matter. And finally, the last six chapters are reserved indiscriminately proper translation problems, both theoretical and organizational. These issues are grouped under the heading: "The role of the translator", "Principles of conformity", "types of correspondences and differences", "Technology changes," "The translation" and "Machine Translation".on semantics, the scope and content are central to the book. The linguistic approach to the content of the original text, which should be reproduced in the translation, it allows you to refine the concept and get a set of semantic components that can be compared to the original and in translation, and to draw conclusions about the degree of equivalence. Such components are considered by Eugene and found in each of the three types of values of linguistic units: linguistic, referential and emotional. [27, p. 125].the specific nature of the translation on the study which it was based, on translation School Eu. Nida has played an important role in the overall formation of the linguistic theory of translation. It is anticipated the development of many branches of modern translation studies, especially research in semantics and pragmatics of translation. Of course the work of Eu.Nida and his followers do not exhaust the contribution to the development of the U.S. translators of translation science. American linguists published a number of other studies have not created such a large scientific school, but contain interesting data and concepts on certain aspects of translation. We have already mentioned some of the work from the collection "On Translation". Except it came out in the U.S. a few collections of works of translation, of which the most famous was a collection edited by R. Brislina, which along with the American authors participated and well-known European translators Seleskovich D. and B. Vilss.

American translation studies in the 80-ies of XX centuryTranslation Studies 80s is characterized increasingly broad approach to translation issues. If in the previous period, many works were carried out in a kind of theoretical isolation, without taking into account the experience of other countries translators (primarily European), now translators U.S. is increasingly based on the works of foreign authors (with the exception of works of Russian scientists tend to obscure the ocean) shall enter into a discussion with them, give an estimate of their theories. The most serious work of beginning this period can be considered the book S. Bassnett-Makgayr "Translation Studies".main attention of the researcher is paid to problems of a literary translation. Considering a big complex of theoretical and practical problems of translation, the researcher widely uses works of other translators, agreeing with them or entering discussion. For example, after R. Yakobson Bassnett-Makgayr allocates three types of translation: rephrasing, actually translation and transmutation. Describing procedure of translational activity, in the key provisions Bassnett-Makgayr accepts Eu.Nida's concept, supplementing it with the detailed description of actions of the translator at a choice of a variant of translation. On the contrary, in treatment of translational equivalence the researcher disperses from the concept of dynamic translation of Nida, thus positively estimates classification of types of the equivalence, offered by A.Popovic. in Anglo-American theory of translation interest to "alienating" translation, the translation, urged to reveal a strangeness of a form, syntax - figurative thinking - the translated text amplifies. Translation is considered as a way and means to enter the reader into the world alien to it. Such installation is connected first of all with the German tradition of translational thought - with Goethe, Shleyermakher, Gelderlin, George, Benjamin's names. [28, p. 50-63].great interest causes recently at modern translators become in many respects Walter Benjamin's classical essay "Task of the translator" where as one of requirements of "good" translation the principle of exact copying of syntax of original work is declared. Benjamin recognizes that translation is intended actually not for the "ordinary" reader, the purpose of translation consists in revealing relationship of languages, their ratio among themselves. If for Nida "spirit" of work consists that is, that, according to Benjamin, it is covered in syntactic structure, i.e. in shape. Today's researchers of theory of translation are involved by an originality and dissimilarity of foreign language and thinking that, certainly, is reflected and in syntactic level. Modern researchers more than ever, are anxious with the relations the author - the translator - the reader, understanding and preservation of an individual originality of each of participants of this quite often difficult communicative chain. Among the most influential researchers who polemize today with the concept and practice of "natural", "semantic" translation, it is necessary to call J. Stajner, L.Venuti, D. Robinson. Recognizing all dissimilarity of the approaches offered by these authors, it is possible to notice that all of them challenge the status and tasks of the translator in the modern world challenge the idea which has developed by eyelids of the translator as about transparent glass between cultures that the translator acts as the translator nothing introducing "from himself" that each translator "suppresses" himself in translation. Venuti and Stajner accuse natural translation of a cultural narcissism, that translation of this sort is somewhat useless as in the center of attention of such translation - not foreign culture, not others originality, and own idea of what has to be "foreign" culture. D. Robinson polemizes both with alienating, and with mastering translation. Robinson notes that in the field of theory of translation the unsoluble gap between the theory and translation practice is observed. Robinson suggests considering the translator as the personality creative, conceiving, i.e. to recognize that any translator, carrying out any translation, introduces - he wants it or not - in work something and from itself (himself).

.5 Translation studies development in England

V century AD the population of Britain was Celtic. Despite five-century Roman occupation (lasting from I to the V century AD), the Romanization of the British Isles in a little considerable degree didn't occur. From V century migration to Britain of the German tribes (English, saxophones and yuts), substantially pressed Celts begins. Though the first penetration of Christianity on this territory refer to the II century, the original Christianization of the country is dated the end of the VI century when father Grigory I sent to Britain mission from forty monks led by the well-known Augustine who has become the first archbishop Canterbury and based first monastery.about the beginning translational (and literary) activity in England, mention usually a name of monk Kedmon (VII century), shifting poetically in Old English language some plots of the Scriptus. A bit later the largest author of that era of Bede (672(673) - 735), written in Latin "Church history of the english people" and some compositions, made an attempt to translate the Gospel from John, but because of death didn't manage to finish it (translation didn't remain). In the VIII century poetic retellings of separate bible books, processing of church anthems, and also a free translation of the Latin poem about a Phoenix, attributed to poet Kunevulf were created. But original blossoming of Old English translation belongs to the end of the IX century and is connected with activity of king Alfred (849 - the beginning of the 900th). By the time of its accession to the throne the situation in the country was the extremely adverse. Continuous invasions of Danes led to decline and destruction of many monasteries - the centers of medieval culture. Strongly level of the education identified during that time with knowledge of Latin went down. According to Alfred, by the beginning of its board it was difficult to find the person capable at least to translate the letter from Latin of English. On the other hand, the king well realized that the knowledge best of all extends in the country when it is stated in language of people, it occupying. From there was a program of translational activity: "To translate in language which all of us understand, some books which are most necessary for all people" [29, p. 54].

performance of this task Alfred collected round himself the scientific circle which members became the bishop of Wales Asser - future biographer of the king, bishop Worcester Verfurt who has become subsequently the archbishop to Canterbury, Pleglmund and other persons. Alfred also wrote the letter to France to the archbishop Rheims in which reported about a lack of educated people of own country; in reply the archbishop sent it scientist Grimbold.In general it is possible to assume that the idea of creation of the circle mentioned above was to some extent cast to the English monarch by the similar circle existing almost by century earlier at court of Charles the Great. However the last was a stronghold of Latin education whereas in the center of attention of Alfred was educationally - translational activity in the native language.the king, though was trained in Latin, didn't get a systematic school education, the question of extent of personal participation of the English monarch in transfers executed by members of a circle can't be considered solved up to the end. However Alfred's most important role as inspirer and the organizer of the grandiose work which didn't have analogs in Europe of that time, remains indisputable. The following works were translated

)"History against pagans" bishop Orozy, written in the V century. The author inspired by some ideas of Augustine, created work in which sought to justify Christianity from charges that the Roman Empire through his fault fell. Orozy's book was in the middle Ages very popular and authority that probably and determined a choice by her Alfred as a peculiar textbook of history for compatriots. In translation there are a lot of omissions and changes; seven books of the original were consolidated to six. Besides, data on those countries in which it is widespread "Teutonic" (i.e. German) language are added, and the story of two travelers who have told Alfred about the scene is included.

) "Church history of the people" mentioned above Troubles Venerable. Here already freedom in relation to the original gives way to aspiration as it is possible to retell more precisely its matter, bringing sometimes to literalism.

) "About a consolation philosophy" Boetion (VI century). This work "last Roman" wrote in a dungeon waiting for execution. Boetsy's book was respected huge respect in the middle Ages, and in her author saw the Christian martyr who was injured for belief. As the text is very difficult for understanding, Alfred as report sources asked in the beginning one of the associates - Bishop Asser to explain him the original, and already then shifted it in English. The address with the original rather free: its structure changes, many places are excluded, Christian color whenever possible amplifies. Some hints and the hints not familiar to contemporaries of Alfred are replaced with clear examples for his compatriots.Boetsy's style the combination of prosaic and poetic statements is characteristic. Two variants of translation one of which is entirely executed by prose remained, and in the second attempt to apply characteristic for Old English an alliterating verse is made.

) "Duties of the pastor" father Grigory I (VI century). This translation more carefully and strictly follows the original, than all the others and though in it also enough paraphrases often meet, it isn't necessary to speak about a liberty. The choice of the called work representing something like the textbook for clergy probably spoke not only its general meaning for medieval culture, but also a special role of the author in a Christianization of England: at it the group of monks-benedicts led by Augustine for the organization of church life in the south of the country was sent. As in Gregorys I work it is spoken about what ideal of the Christian priest has to be, Alfred considered necessary to extend its translation as it is possible more widely among English clergy and dispatched copies of the last to all bishops. In the preface the king speaks about the happy past of England, opposing former prosperity "in war and sciences" to the sad present: before foreigners came here to look for wisdom, because of decline of education it is necessary to go in its searches abroad. Nevertheless Alfred considers necessary to note undoubted progress in the education development, observed in years of its board. Urging church hierarchs to be released from word affairs and to be given to comprehension of knowledge, the king states a wish that all freeborn young people learned to read well in the native language and those who will study Latin, were appointed to higher posts.

) "Dialogues" of the same author (т. е. Grigory I), on a content representing conversations of the daddy with the friend about a life and acts of Italian. This book became a source for set of hagiographical compositions of the Middle Ages and also enjoyed the big popularity, than and its choice was defined.of fragments from compositions of Avgustine "Monologue" and « About vision of the God » are attributed to Al'fried also. Besides it by tradition consider sometimes and the translator of the book of Psalmov David and even the Bible. However the precise information on these translations it was not kept.death of king Alfred translational activity in England proceeded, though with smaller intensity. In particular, the Gospel from Matfey was translated and glosses (attributing of the corresponding English equivalents over each word of the Latin text) other three Gospel are made. There were also transfers of medieval ekzegetic and didactic literature. About methods which adhered Alfred and its associates by transfer of latin originals, it is spoken and in the forewords left by them. So, in the foreword to « Duties of the pastor » it is informed, that the English version passes the original sometimes word for word, sometimes - according to sense; in the foreword to « to the Consolation philosophy » - that king Alfred, being the translator of the named work, translated it at times a word behind a word, at times sense behind sense so neatly and clearly, however was able.of huge volume of work performed under its management, the English monarch well realized, that its successors should make much more. In the foreword to translation of "Monologue" of Avgustin, where the translator assimilates to the builder who has gone the big wood to prepare a necessary material and to deliver therefrom all necessary, it is spoken: « But I did not intend at all to bring from a wood everything even if and was able to do it. In each tree I have seen something useful; and consequently I advise any, having such possibility and possessing necessary number of vehicles, to direct the way to a wood where I have prepared logs. Let it will add to them new, will load with them the vehicles and will create what I have not made, - will construct set of fine houses and will erect fine city in which will live cheerfully and pleasantly as in winter, and in summer » [30, p. 3-4].Elfrik (955 - 1020) who has become subsequently the abbey of a monastery in Oxford was considered as the largest figure of this period. With it begin history of creation of the English Bible as it was noted above, Alfred's version (if it really existed) didn't reach us literature. The particular interest is represented by prefaces to translation in which Elfrik stated the principles of translation of the Latin text. And the characteristic detail attracts attention: almost all of them (except for the preface to bible "Genesis") are written in Latin. Thus, if translation intended for those whom in the Middle Ages called the term "idiot", addressees of prefaces were first of all scientific "litterati", i.e. those church circles which, based on the theory "threelingua", in general opposed translation from the Bible on local languages. , Elfrik also had doubts concerning legitimacy of the work and several times assured that won't be engaged in many translational activities that "a pearl of the Christ", having begun to sound in "English language", it wouldn't be trampled. Even in the preface mentioned above to "Genesis" it is possible to read the statement that his author never won't dare to translation anymore any book from Latin on the native language (that, however, didn't prevent Elfrik to carry out subsequently translation of all Pentateuch and church sermons, also having accompanied them prefaces). about rules of translation of the Latin text, Elfrik emphasized need to translate not word for word, and sense to sense, allowing any reductions, the explanation and change. On the one hand, it is explained by need to reckon with audience for which transfer is intended. Elfrik recommends to the translator to use simple style and words clear to all as often the original contains any rhetorical figures and the jewelry, capable to push away the unsophisticated reader and to cause in it boredom. On the other hand, Elfrik stated the fears, as though any fool, having got acquainted with books of the Old Testament, wouldn't began to imitate characters of the last in all details, thinking as if it is possible to live and now as lived at patriarchs and Moisey. Therefore, translating "Genesis", he considered necessary to resort to "reasonable admissions" where it was a question of polygamy of bible patriarchs. , transferring Latin sources where the Eastern Roman Empire was mentioned, Elfrik avoided speaking about board of two emperors not to confuse the compatriots who submit to one king and got used to see at the head of the country of one monarch, instead of two. Especially Elfrik emphasizes existence in sacred books of the highest spiritual essence, stipulating that he retells only their external matter. Besides considered above works deserves attention and made by Elfrik in English Latin grammar where he entered some parts of the well-known grammar of Prussian relating to the VI century.

This book contains also translational supervision (for example, about existence in each language of own interjections which are difficult giving in to transfer on other language).If Alfred and Elfrik, choosing texts for translation, were guided mainly by educational and didactic reasons, during the considered period appear already and translate of such works which were intended for entertainment of readers. Here "Alexander's Letter" and "East Miracles" where it was told about any fantastic beings and the phenomena, and also a fragment of translation of the Latin version of the Greek novel about Apollonian Tirsk belong to the story about adventures of the Syrian monk Malkh, adjoining literature, but possessing many lines of the adventure antique story., by XI century already there was a tradition of translations into the Old English language, playing an important role in formation of English culture. However in 1066 there is an event which had the major consequences for the country and further development which has in many respects changed it, - a gain of England Norman duke Wilhelm. Already to the middle of the XIII century signs of strengthening of a role of English and gradual replacement of French began to be observed. In 1258 king Henry III addressed for the first time to the population with the appeal written in English. The specified tendency especially amplified a century later. In 1362 capital legal proceedings were translated to English and it began to sound for the first time in parliament. Approximately the statement of English belongs to the same time as language of school teaching. By the end of the XIV century to domination of French there comes the end though separate remnants of the last remained still long time. "English, - it was noted in special literature, - it was accepted as language of oral communication, but it should win still recognition as to the best means for creation of written works. French and Latin were still considered as the most suitable languages for literary expression; thus, XIV and XV century became witnesses of huge popularity of translational activity. In the similar way British expected to give to English translation part of that prestige which original language" possessed. [31, p. 15]., it is possible to call translations of the composition of this sort only conditionally. Rather a speech has to go about development of foreign-language literature and assimilation of the artistic touches used then at creation of original works.XIV century was marked by also important events in the sphere of bible translation. In the middle of the century there is Psalter Richard Roll from Hempoll (county Yorkshire) was which founder. On different dialects glosses and translations of separate parts of the Scriptus were made. However the central place here belongs to the first full reconstruction of the Bible in English, connected with John Uiklif's activity (1320-1384) - one of the largest religious thinkers of the time, dared to throw down an open challenge of church hierarchy and spread by it any more one century of the notorious theory "tthreelingua".about translational tradition of the XIV century, mention usually and a name of the largest medieval author Jeffrey Chaucer (1340-1400), the author of glorified "The Canterbury Tales". Peru Chaucer possesses translates processing from the French, Latin and Italian languages (including some works of Boccaccio with whom the English poet was personally familiar, and also Boetsy's well-known composition "About a consolation philosophy").the XV century John Lidgeyta's translational activity (1370 was allocated? - 1451? ) whose compositions took place and at Chaucer represented a peculiar synthesis foreign-language (Latin and French) sources and original creativity. At the beginning of the century appeared (some decades later after Chaucer's version) the new translation of the book of Boetsy, executed by John Walton. English first printer William Kekston (1422 was engaged in translation also? - 1491? ) whose method of transfer of the foreign-language original wasn't always free from literalism (though in prefaces and epilogs it didn't hide own doubts concerning results of the work). The generous patron was found by translators of antique classics in the person of John Giptrof, the column Uorchesters (1420-1470) which and translated Cicero and Caesar., it is possible to note that by the boundary separating the Middle Ages from Renaissance, in England there was the rich translational tradition which has passed in the development a big and difficult way.development of world culture from the perception of translation reveals a stable group of thoughts and forms, of cultures continually fascinating new influence for the reason that of the labor of translators. It dispels the supposition that the whole thing starts in the West and undermines the thought of rigid limitations flanked by East and West. India, China, Iraq and Spain have in dissimilar ways wrought European culture. India shaped ties with the Mediterranean in the sixth century BC and medicinal theories establish in Greek thinkers like Plato and Galen which came from India. In 9 and 10century Baghdad, the technical and theoretical works of Ancient Greece were translated into Arabic and this knowledge spread to Europe via Spain which was practically a Muslim state from the early 9 century 400 years. programs reached it climax from side to side the School of Toledo where translations were made from Arabic to Latin and afterward to Spanish and helped the technical and scientific development for the European Renaissance. A narration of translation charts these intersections. They may be entrenched in aggressive historical disagreement and regal expansions but it is not at all a easy procedure of translation for misuse.number of of the history of translation is well-charted - the translation of the Bible, the work of missionaries, the Orientals translators in India - but present remains huge unidentified territories. Scholars contain lately begun to mark about the role of entity translators. Translators as Constance Garnett in England or Gregory Rabassa in the United States have been answerable for transforming inscription in English by their individual translations of Russian and Latin American fiction. Come around of new subsequent freedom in Eastern Europe have come translations of best-selling American and English authors. The history of translation is the history of the fundamental but often imperceptible intersections in world culture.was a important activity in Britain in the Eighteenth Century, and the field was separated into two distinct areas: translation from classics (focus on Latin and Greek authors) which was a male-dominated territory, and translation from contemporary languages (French, German, Italian and Spanish) which was one of the few fictional genres. Yet, there were some important exceptions in the area of the classics. As well as in many other things the countries, in England the first attempts of hypothetical generalizations in the ground of translation have been undertaken by translators amongst whom there were many protruding writers and poets. of them accompanied with the translations by widespread commentary in which they proved or necessary move toward to the choice of a variety problems of translation, tried to state some system and main beliefs of translation. In XVI and XVII centuries when translational activity in England has got especially wide scope, practice of similar translational comments has received significant propagation. More fundamental works under the theory of translation have appeared in England only in second half XX centuries. Here it is possible to note, first of all, T.Sevori's book « art of translation ». In it the author, tried to consider the broad audience of translational problems. Though the linguistic basis of this research was obviously insufficient, the author managed to state is glad positions which have received the further progress in works under the linguistic theory of translation.structure of the work of T. Sevori in many respects follows tradition. Here still there is no statement of the general principles of construction of the theory of translation; the subjects of sections and their sequence are substantially any. First of all it is offered to distinguish 4 types of translation. Offered classification reflects at the same time distinctions in a range of accuracy and in character of translated materials. Terms which are used at classification, are not always successful, but the author in sufficient detail opens their content. V.N. Komissarov's opinion «T. Sevori allocates following types of translation:

The perfect translation - translation of cleanly information phrases-announcements.

Adequate translation - translation of subject works where the content and as it is expressed is important only, insignificantly. In this type of translation the translator freely lowers words or the whole offers, which sense it seems to it unclear, will paraphrase sense of the original as to it will like. (T. Sevori believes, that so detectives, books Dyuma, Bokkacho, as well as, strangely enough, Servantes and L. Tolstoy should translate.)

The third type of translation which are not receiving the special name, is a translation of classical works where the form as is important, as well as a content. The qualitative characteristic of this type of translation is given by the indication that not maybe "accomplished" and that it requires so long time and such major efforts that it brings to nothing commercial value of translation.

The fourth type of translation is defined as close to "adequate". It is translation of scientific and technical materials, whose occurrence is caused by a practical indispensability. It requires good knowledge the translator of subject matter about whom there is a speech in the original [32, p. 6]., that the essence of translation always reduces to a choice, T. Sevori specifies, that at a choice the translator should answer 3 questions consistently:

) That the author has told?

) that it wished to tell it?

) How do you say it? , T. Sevori alongside with content and the form of the original allocates as object of translation and that now would name communicative intention of the author.and their labor engage a essential hole in translation theory: in current years translation studies has been more and more sketch attention to their vital intervention. Skopos theory is a case in top. In spite of the reality that the outgoing point of translation behavior is the middle preoccupation of this come up to, Hans Vermeer has brought attention to the amount of liberty, on the one hand, and of liability, on the other hand, bears on language mediators (Vermeer 1998: 54). Translators are presented as experts who ought to aim and realize those strategies which allow them to get their purpose, i.e. their scopes. This column of consideration takes translators to the centre of the phase, and yet it involves a certain total of risk too: the concept of accountability is the other side of the coin, as translators might be considered answerable for the consequences of their performance. Thus, it is no accident that proper debates are successful in translation studies

3. Prospects of the theory of translation development

.1 Schools in Canada

th of 20 century are regarded as a decade of teaching has got hoarse. Educational institutions on preparation of translators existed in Canada and before. At University of Ottawa for professional translators have started to prepare in 1934 the Pioneer translation in Montreal there was George Panton, the person from mind and the rare general culture, passionately keen the literature and art. In January, 1942 under its initiative the College of translation which in 1944 is a part of university of Montreal is looked for. In 1945 Platon - the president of College of translation - represents at philological faculty of University of Montreal the dissertation first in Canada about translation. [23, p. 27].

its have published entitled « Transposition and type of translation ». But, as will write about it of its colleague, Platon thought after itself not one work, it has created tradition, which continues in works of its disciples and on activity of the college created by it. To 70th training to translation is developed countrywide. The most fruitful it appears in provinces Quebec and also where preparation of translators gets special scope. Now in these provinces it is concentrated 75 % of universities of the country leading training of translators. Almost at all universities of these provinces programs on training open to translation, new teaching materials are developed. Textbooks also protect dissertations under the theory of translation. Z.Denil cites following statistical data: with 1968 on 1984 Every year any new program of training opened To translation, each two years - the new program of a level of the bachelor And each four years - a level of the master.[23, p. 28].preparation of translators is carried out at 11 Canadian universities. These are the basic educational establishments where preparation on the given speciality is conducted, multilevel curriculums are developed. Training to translation assumes six levels of preparation accordingly and diplomas which are shown in three cycles: the first cycle of training allows to receive the certificate (le certificat) the bachelor's degree of the first degree (la mineure), as well as the bachelor's degree of the second degree (la majeure) or the bachelor-expert (le baccalaureat specialise); the second cycle assumes reception of the diploma about higher education (le diplome d'etudes supericun the diploma of the master (la maitrise); the third cycle brings to reception of a doctor's degree (le doctorat)., as it is marked in the new report of Branch committee of the Canadian industry of translators, experts-translators with university diplomas cannot provide completely demand for the given activity yet. At annual release of 300 and 320 translators with diplomas of the bachelor-expert and the master accordingly the demand for experts of the given qualifications is made annually by 360 and 400 person. The usual bachelors, who are not having special preparation, cannot compete to professionals any more. The raised demand from businessmen on the licensed experts-translators shows how much has increased in a society a level of that understanding, that in translation professionalism is necessary, that translation is not simply mechanical recurrence of that has been already told or written up to that, and the most complicated process of interlingual the intermediaries, requiring solid vocational training. This position puts before universities new problems in preparation of qualified personnel in the field of translation. The interesting form of preparation of professionals-translators accepted at some universities (the University of Ottawa and University " Concordia " in Montreal), a little reminding system of preparation of engineers existed in a soviet-era and factories-high schools, is the program « combined educating-(programme cooperatif) when training alternates with practical work.of professional translators has demanded development of such curricula in which the general disciplines and disciplines special harmoniously would mesh. The big merit of the Canadian teachers is a rational area of expertise in training translators. In the beginning of 70th one of the most outstanding Canadian researchers in the field of history and theories of translation, wrote: « the Problem of the translator - to translate the text from-one language in another, trying as far as possible to pass the message which it contains. But as well to translate, it is needed to know area of translation. It is impossible to require of the translator, that it was the walking encyclopedia, the trade of the translator, similarly too many assumes some area of expertise. Therefore there are art translators, technical, legal, translators of advertising, etc. » [33, p. 75]. So, the curriculum of preparation of the expert in the field of translation on 1999/00 at University Lavalja (Quebec) alongside with the block of mandatory disciplinesprovides the block of disciplines special-purpose, including such janr-thematic differences translational activity, as commercial translation, biological, sociological, medical, legal, and art.University of Montreal where training to translation is conducted now at faculty of arts and special-purpose rates of translation (scientific and technical, commercial and economic, legal and administrative, medical and pharmacological, as well as art translation, translation in a cinema, translation in area of the information) mesh with rates of studying of sublanguages of separate specialities (language of commerce and economy, language of the right and dialogue, language of medicine and pharmacology, etc.).

.2"Genre" specialization

"genre" area of expertise is distinctly shown and in the environment of professional translators. The list of branches to which those or other professional translators carry themselves, officially recognized translators of Quebec consisting in Board made by a "genre" principle, shows very interesting picture. All "market" of work of translators is divided into following areas of socioeconomic activity:

) art and the literature;

) the communications;

) economy, a policy, management;

4) the right;

) technics and the industry;

) the humanities;

) tourism and entertainments. [34, p. 101-194]., each of these branches is subdivided into fineer areas of the appendix of work of translators. So, the branch "right" includes such thematic areas, as the commercial right, criminal law, the immigrant right, international law, constitutional right, a notariate, the labour right. In total in the list it is named about 200 thematic areas as which professional translators of Quebec rank them., the Canadian teachers and theorists of translation for a long time have answered for themselves a question which quite often arises in Russia and in other countries when it is a question about training the translator to speak is better - the translator of the wide structure possessing fundamental linguistic preparation, common cultural knowledge and having an idea about methodology of translational activity, but unfamiliar with a specific character of the speech communications in specific social and economic area, or to shape translators of experts of the most various trades, training in their foreign languages? In the first case it is available insufficiency of special knowledge, and in the second rather weak language and translational preparation is inevitable. Canada branch an area of expertise of translators begins already within the limits of the first cycle of university training (preparation of bachelors) and then fixes during all professional work, being supported by participation of translators in work of numerous branch translational associations.other words, in Canada in the field of preparation by the translator there is no visible break between curriculums and inquiries of a labour market. However it is not necessary to forget, that translation in Canada many other things of the countries including Russia, substantially is activity interstate, instead of international. It is caused by internal language conditions - Friench-English bilingualizm. Therefore the vast majority of translators works with these two languages. The list of translators, Board of officially recognized translators of Quebec, than 1400 person from which less than 150 work with other combination of languages, rather than French and English totals more.such conditions the area of expertise of translators is quite natural and easily enough achievable.divisibility of translational activity reflects aspiration of the Canadian professionals to reach optimum results in the work, to finish translational skills in the narrow let enough narrow, thematic area to perfection. Certainly, such aspiration is maybe caused by requirements of competitive struggle in conditions of the market, high quality of production - a primary factor of success. But it is doubtless, even more important reason is the talent of the translator as any artist, completely taming material with which it works, to subdue the text, with words to force them to shine in other language environment so brightly, as well as the art text where a word - means of creation of forms and in the informative texts functioning in scientifically technical, economic or legal areas where it is the basic means of expression of concepts, from accuracy of a choice of a word depends success in a formulation of idea.area of expertise in preparation and in professional work of translators goes not only on a thematic line, but also in the steps translational activity, as well as on in what thinking translation is conducted: from French on English or to the contrary. Now in Canada four translational specialities are distinctly divided: the written translator, the translator of conferences (interprete de conference), the judicial translator (interprete judiciaire) and terminology (terminologue). The written translator - the expert in the field of the written communications - will transform the text written in one language, to the text in other language, aspiring at the most truly to pass a message occurring the text.translator of conferences -is the expert in the field of the oral communications - provides simultaneous interpretation (transfer of the message in parallel its expansion in speech on the source language by means of the electronic equipment) Or consecutive (oral translation after each performance) during the congresses, meetings, conferences, etc. the Judicial translator - the expert in the field of the oral communications - provides translation during judicial and administrative trials, translating or is consecutive, when readings of the person subpoenaed, or synchronously with use of the electronic equipment when in interests of one of sides it translates all course of judicial debate hearings.- the expert of area of the communications developing terminology of the certain field of activity. Leaning on documents and databanks, it makes lists of terms of studying of branch, gives them definition, finds equivalents in other language, defines norms of the use of terms in professional work and makes unification of terms.

.3 Translation and special terminology

Canadian translators, by virtue of a social specific character of activity more tempted in informative texts, art, already for a long time have addressed to problems of terminology. As early as in 1902 Jozeph-Evarist Prens has published in magazine « the Bulletin of the French speech in Canada » the first terminologic the research, devoted to terms of the railway. [23, p. 62].was published English-French and the French-English military dictionary. In 1953 director (superquartermaster) Feder the first bureau of translations Bob'en, having returned from headquarters of the United Nations in New York where it adopted experience of the organization servise of translation, initiates creations central servise terminology. In the end of the same year such service creates the Federal bureau of translations. It joins created hardly before Technological association of French language Leke the ecological center. Already in following year the Federal bureau of translations lets out the first « Terminological bulletins » and « Terminological instructions ». In 1960 at University of Montreal is created the first of its kind bank of terminology. In 1978 г within the limits of the Society of translators of Quebec the Section of terminologists - the first-ever association professional terminologists is created. Thus, in bowels of translation the new speciality -terminologist which the uniform objective - unites with translation maintenance interlingual communications was born.area of expertise in preparation of translators is marked and in an orientation of training at this or that university. Four leading universities of the country preparing translators - University of Montreal, University of Ottawa, University Lavalja in Quebec and University «Concordia " - have distributed « areas of influence » as follows. At University Lavalja mainly prepare for written translators in different areas of professional work. University " Concordia " gives much attention to art translation. The University of Montreal appears the leader in preparation of oral judicial translators (consecutive translation). University of Ottawa while unique university where prepare for simultaneous translators (translators of conferences)with two categories of oral translators traditional for Canada (the translator of conferences and the judicial translatoris necessary to note one more - a so-called category interprete communautaire. It is a question of professional translators who are called up to provide the oral communications in conditions when in contact there is one of official languages of Canada and foreign or languages of national minorities of the independent population of the country.given category of translators has arisen after immigrants politicians of Canada easily enough accepting workers from other countries. The quantity of translators of this category while is insignificant, but in recent years they starts to use escalating demand. Their number, as well as division on languages varies from one province to another depending on national structure of the population and size of immigrant communities.

.4 Professional associations of translators

leading role in professional work of translators in the country, in perfection of their preparation, and settlement of their relationships with clients, as well as in business of protection against poor-quality translation is played with professional associations of translators. Z. Delil has named Canada not only paradise for translators whereas possibilities to find work - working conditions of translators and the sizes of payment are regarded as one of the best in the world, but also paradise for translational professional associations. Since 1919 when the first translational association - « the Circle of translators of books » has been created, the next professional association of translators arises on the average each two years. [35, p. 23].set of operating translational associations the first seat borrows Advice of officially recognized translators of Canada (Conseil des traducteurs et interpretes agrees du Canada - | TIC), created in 1970 and being with the successor of the Society of translators of Canada (La Societe des traducteurs et interpretes du anada - STIC). Since 1975 Advice is engaged main in carrying out of the unified promotion examinations. The successful passing examinations allow receiving the status « officially recognized », i.e. the professional translator. The second important field of activity of Advice -is to represent translators on international scene. Advice assisted, in particular, to creation in 1986 regional North-American center, into which besides it have entered American (Amcru Translators Association) and Mexican (Asociation de Traducti » Profesionales de Mexico) associations of translators.basic corporate activity of translators develops inside of regional (provincial) associations. Among them quite considerable position borrow translation associations of Quebec.1940 in this province the first professional association of translators - the Society the translator of Montreal (Societe des traducteurs de Montreal - STM), played a key role in development of translation as trades has been created. Really, in 40th in translation at the enterprises the bilingual secretaries who are not had special translational preparations mainly were engaged. Translation of the industrial documentation often represented for them the hardest problem.of the enterprises did not reckon with that bilinguists- the people who are known English and French languages at a household level, were not ready to translation of the engineering specifications, sated by special terminology, had no skills translational activity, did not know receptions interlingual transformation Creation of the Society answered, thus, to a pressing need in rendering assistance to those bilingual secretaries and stenographers who, not having vocational training, has been compelled to be engaged by virtue of the industrial duties in translation.of the program of actions on improvement of their professional knowledge and skills has been declared as a primary objective of a new Society. At the first assembly of the Society three primary goals creation of curriculums to translation on February, 14th, 1940 have been stated; cooperation with employers, required services of competent bilingual secretaries and translators; improvement of economic working conditions of translators and bilingual stenographers. At the same assembly the first president of the Society -Jozeph Lariver has been selected - and the name is approved: the Society of translators of Montreal (Socieu des Traducteurs de Montreal / Montreal Translators Society). Creation of the Society is regarded as a birth of a new trade in Canada - trades of the translator.the same 1940 in Montreal rates of translation where employment are conducted under direction of George Pantona will be organized. These rates also became a prototype of College of the translation opened by Platon in two years. In the first year of existence there is also light the first number of the bulletin of the Society - magazine " Translator " (The Translator), the first special periodical, the translation devoted to questions. All materials were published in magazine symmetrically in two official languages of the country.the magazine could not exist and year - the edition has suddenly stopped in July, 1941, and only later five years, in 1946, there was its successor - magazine " Аргус ". In this periodical it was published not only the information on activity of the Society, but also results of researches in the field of the theory of translation and translational practice. The society was not limited only to a problem of association of translators and increases of a level of their professional competence. It aspired to draw attention of the public to a trade all possible means.1941 General meeting of the Society has accepted the resolution, addressed to Municipal council of Montreal, with the offer to name one of streetsof the known journalist and translator Lui Fran. Per 1965 the Society of translators of Montreal will be transformed to a society of translators of Quebec (Societe des traducteurs du Quebec) and becomes, thus, not so city, and the provincial organization.this period in Canada there are some more translational professional associations. In 1956 is created a society of translators of Canada (Societe des traducteurs et interpretes in Canada - STIC), in 1957 - Corporation professional in translators of Quebec (Corporation des traducteurs professionnels du Quebec - CTPQ), in 1958 - Association of judicial translators Asociation des interpretes et des traducteurs judiciaires - AITJ). Translator associations merge and changing the status and scales of their activity, there are new organizations, names old change.this period in Canada there are some more translational professional associations. In 1956 is created a society interestingly to track destiny of one of such translationalassociations. In 1946 the Association of graduates of College of translation of University of Montreal (Association des diplomes ik % rinstitut de traduction de l'Universite de Montreal - ADITUM) which in 1955 has received the national status has been created and was renamed in the Canadian association deplumed translators (Association canadienne des traducteurs diplomes - ACTD). (Association there was an edition with 1955 of theoretical magazine on translation - « Magazine of translators » (Journal des tra-ilucteurs) which with 1966 and on present time leaves entitled МЕТА. Per 1959 the Association will be transformed to the Society of graduates of College of translation (Societe des diplomes de rinsiiin de traduction - SDIT), and per 1965 - in the Circle translators (Cercle des traducteurs - CDT). In two years members of associations together with members of Corporation of professional translators of Quebec make a decision on dissolution of the organizations and about the introduction the uniform block in the Society of translators of Canada as occurs a year later.the book « Translation in Canada » Z.Delil divides the translational organizations of the country which all it is totaled more than two , into five groups: 1) provincial associations and National Advice; 2) professional associations of Quebec; 3) the Canadian associations; 4) the various organizations; 5) associations of the students trained translation.Quebec the most authoritative professional association of translators long time remains the Society of translators of Quebec. Per 1992 it has been transformed to Professional corporation of officially recognized translators of Quebec (Corporation professionelle des traducteurs et interpretes agio du Quebec - CPTIAQ). Since April, 1994 and on present time this organization refers to as Board of officially recognized translators of Quebec (Ordre des traducteurs et interpretes agrees du Quebec - OTIAQ). The board unites more than 1400 professional translators (all in Canada nearby 5000 officially incorporated translators now are totaled). The board sees the main task in improving quality and efficiency of the communications by perfection of knowledge and skills of the members, increase of their competence of areas of written and oral translations and terminology, as well as in protecting the consumer from substandard translational possible to notice, that in documents of translational associations widely economic terminology is used. It once again emphasizes that in Canada translational activity became branch of economy, the present industry with the laws and regulating documents, bodies of quality assurance of production and bodies of accreditation of new workers, with the periodicals and educational institutions., we have got acquainted with experience of predecessors and our contemporaries, colleagues from some foreign countries where the cardinal importance is given to translation. The analysis of this experience not only shows a role of translation in progress of a human civilization, in propagation of religious and scientific knowledge, among national languages and literatures, in maintenance between representatives of the most various cultures, helps to understand more deeply problems which face the modern theory of translation.of all we should ascertain, that a major part of outstanding issues of the theory of translation, for example, as questions about translation, about equivalence, about the creative beginning in translation and its borders, about transformations and distortions, about that, finally, what to consider as translation and a trade the translator, as well as many other things, discussed during more than two millenniums, till now have not received the final decision. But it at all does not speak, that these problems concern to a category initially unresolved, therefore to them and it is not necessary to address.testifies only that translation is the intellectual activity requiring multilateral profound studying, the new theoretical knowledge of those aspects of translation which from time immemorial are in sight theorists and experts of translation, is capable to add a picture of the most complicated process, named with translation. N.R. Barhudarov in the conclusion to the book about translation gives of a word of English philosopher I.A. Richards, « colourfully describing this type of intellectual activity: « very much maybe, that here we deal with the complicated process from everything which have arisen ever during evolution of space ». [36, p. 231].in USAthe USA 4 higher educational institutions which prepare for translators are known: Monterej institute of translators (California), New-York university, University of state of Iowa (specializes on art translation) and university in Washington. All of them enter in CIUTI.most popular for today is the Monterej institute. This unique educational institution in the USA where translation into foreign language is taught and where train in simultaneous interpretation. Oral translation is not separated from written. From entrants the knowledge of foreign language at a level of bilinguals and some practical experience of translational work is required. It is necessary to have also even some rates of higher education in other high school. Training lasts 2 years. On I a rate terminology accustoms to different areas (political, economic, legal); here are developed procedures of mastering of greater blocks of lexicon with conformity in an active stock (A.Falaleeva's procedure); students get acquainted also with management of in legal and economic texts to translate on I a rate, technical and political - on 2nd rate. Training of the shorthand translational record is not spent. A role of the theory in training weak, subordinated. In Monterey prepare for translators of the widest structure without restriction subjects, therefore at final examination the student can receive for translation the text of any subjects unprepared

Schools for Translation/Interpreting/Translation Studies

This list contains translation schools and universities throughout the world


Centre for Translation and Comparative Cultural Studies,

The Graduate School, University of Warwick, CoventryEnglish, English-Chinese Translating and Interpreting, MA/Diploma, Language Centre, University of Newcastlefor Translation and Intercultural Studies, University of Manchester Institute of Science & Technologyfor Translation Studies, University of Surreyof Modern Languages, University of BradfordApplied Translation Studies, University of North London - joint venture between the University of North London (United Kingdom), the Maastricht School of Translation and Interpreting of the Hogeschool Maastricht

(The Netherlands), and Institut Libre Marie Haps in Brussels (Belgium)in Translation Studies, Centre for British and Comparative Cultural Studies, University of Warwick, CoventryTranslation Studies (Linguistics), Centre for English Language Studies, University of BirminghamStudies (TRA), Middlesex University, Tottenhamof European Studies and Modern Languages, University of Bathof Diplomacy & Applied Languages (DDAL), University of Westminster, Londonof Languages & European Studies, Aston University, BirminghamCourses for the Diploma in Translation - University based/Distance learning, Centre for Language Studies, City University London

University of Salford, Manchester


Department of Linguistics, School of Modern Languages, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sidney


Université du Québec en Outaouais in Gatineau, Canada

Université de Sherbrooke

Concordia University

Université Laval

Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières

Département de traduction et des langues, University of Moncton

Département de linguistique et de traduction, Université de Montréal

French, Foreign Languages and Translation Studies, School of Continuing Studies, University of Toronto

School of Interpretation and Translation, University of Ottawa

Baccalauréat, certificat de traduction, certificat de traduction (cours par Internet), Faculté des arts, Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface, (Manitoba)of Translation, Glendon College, York University, Toronto, OntarioStudies - Centre for Continuing Education, McGill University, Montreal


The Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, CAfor Interpretation and Translation Studies, University of Hawaiifor Translation Studies, University of Texas at Dallas, TXLanguage Institute and Center for Translation Services, Florida A&M University, Tallahasseeof American Sign Language, Linguistics and Interpretation, Gallaudet University, Washington, DCProgram in Bilingual Legal Interpreting, University of Charleston, SCStudies, Graduate Center, City University of New York, NYTranslation Certificate Program, University of Pittsburgh, PATranslator Training Program, Institute of Applied Linguistics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio

Translation & Interpretation, Bellevue Community College, Washington State

Translation and Interpretation Institute, Washington Academy of LanguagesResearch and Instruction Program (TRIP), Binghamton University, NYResearch Group, Brigham Young University, Provo, UtahStudies, Department of Comparative Literature, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN Zealandand Interpreting, School of Languages, Auckland Institute of Technologyfor Translation & Interpreting Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Auckland


it was already marked, theoretically for the Middle Ages promotion on the foreground of three "sacred" languages (hebrew, ancient greek and latin), opposed "vulgar", it was characteristic. е. Alive of New Europe to languages. The actual life, however, has brought essential corrective amendments in the specified diagram. Hebrew language was initially alien to vast majority of the Christian world, and its knowledge during this period (as, however, and later) always was destiny of the few. The number knowing the Greek language in the countries of the Western Europe also remains during Middle Ages (unlike an antique epoch) insignificant to that estrangement between Catholic and orthodox churches to no small degree assisted, come to the end in 1054 the open break. Reflection of a similar state of affairs became a known saying: « Graecum est, non legitur "(" It is Greek it is not read »). Thus, unconditional superiority in hierarchy of languages undividedly belonged to Latin.ancient Rome the Latin language was dominated. At the same time, Greek literature, Greek verbal creativity in general, was the subject of admiration for the Romans and a role model. Write like the great Greek masters, and can whine and beat them in the art of rhetoric - that many Roman orators and writers have seen evidence of self-mastery.last, it is possible to point existence in Ancient Egypt and so-called "chronological" translation, i.e. translation of texts from more ancient forms of language to later. It was connected both with evolution of the language, and with change of system of writing - replacement of hieroglyphs with the demotic letter . So business, for example, with one of the largest monuments of Ancient Egyptian literature - "The book dead" was., existence in Ancient Egypt at various stages of its existence of rather intensive translational activity isn't subject to doubt, but, apparently from the material given above, it in absolute majority of cases carried out information and communicative tasks. Existence of a literary translation in an Ancient Egyptian civilization isn't established though separate observations were made about possibility of any contacts with foreign-language literatures.the same time, alongside with Latin, during this or that period enough key role could play and other languages. The example Old French which has received very wide international propagation not only in England (where after Norman gains is characteristic in this respect and down to the end of XIV century it borrowed dominant positions), but also in other countries. On it writings of Marco Polo and Rustichelo, creating the known book about wanderings the Venetian merchant; it the Florentine lawyer and diplomat Brunetto Latin at a writing of encyclopaedic work « the Book of treasures », including, that used this language - « the most pleasant and the most widespread among people » . It is natural, that Old French often acted and in a role initial while translating "fiction" - works where it was a question of military feats, battles.conversation on progress of translation and a translational idea in Renaissance, it has to be noted, that, besides questions of transfer from one language to another the secular literature, by attention of humanists there have not passed also the problems connected with translation of religious texts. First of all it is a question of versions of the Scriptus - and latin (in a counterbalance canonized Vulgate Ieronim), and in the certain degree "national", т. е. Created in alive European languages. However the given subject matter expediently to consider already in the section devoted Reformation. It has pushed into a problem of translation of the Bible the foreground, and in the approach to its permit was showed both continuity with actually Renaissance tradition, and significant enough divergences with it.practical activities of the Federal bureau of translations are not beyond the problem of service of federal administration established originally the theoretical and lexicographic development prepared by translators and terminology, concerning the Bureau, have general scientific value., the fluent review of history of translation in Canada shows, that the major factor which has affected so fruitful progress of translation in this country, as well as on feature of translational activity, about which else it is necessary to tell, constant opposition of the French language - language of the first Europeans who have occupied these territories, - to the English language dominating over the North-American continent is.of language policy to no small degree assisted in an economic and social-political life of Quebec to development of translation as to special branch of the industry. For maintenance of its normal functioning the branched out and multistage system of a professional training Is created, activity professional associations extends and becomes stronger, the area of expertise inside of branch becomes more distinct, the translational theory develops.Translation Studies 80s is characterized increasingly broad approach to translation issues. If in the previous period, many works were carried out in a kind of theoretical isolation, without taking into account the experience of other countries translators (primarily European), now translators U.S. is increasingly based on the works of foreign authors (with the exception of works of Russian scientists tend to obscure the ocean) shall enter into a discussion with them, give an estimate of their theories. The most serious work of beginning this period can be considered the book S. Bassnett-Makgayr "Translation Studies".Canadian translators, by virtue of a social specific character of activity more tempted in informative texts, art, already for a long time have addressed to problems of terminology. As early as in 1902 Jozeph-Evarist Prens has published in magazine « the Bulletin of the French speech in Canada » the first terminologic the research, devoted to terms of the necessary to note one more - a so-called category interprete communautaire. It is a question of professional translators who are called up to provide the oral communications in conditions when in contact there is one of official languages of Canada and foreign or languages of national minorities of the independent population of the country. this period in Canada there are some more translational professional associations. In 1956 is created a society interestingly to track destiny of one of such translationalassociations. In 1946 the Association of graduates of College of translation of University of Montreal (Association des diplomes ik % rinstitut de traduction de l'Universite de Montreal - ADITUM) which in 1955 has received the national status has been created and was renamed in the Canadian association deplumed translators (Association canadienne des traducteurs diplomes - ACTD)., we have got acquainted with experience of predecessors and our contemporaries, colleagues from some foreign countries where the cardinal importance is given to translation. The analysis of this experience not only shows a role of translation in progress of a human civilization, in propagation of religious and scientific knowledge, among national languages and literatures, in maintenance between representatives of the most various cultures, helps to understand more deeply problems which face the modern theory of translation.

We get acquainted with the translation history in Ancient timescan compare the development of translation study in Canada and U.S.A. considered the universities in Canada and USA the Ottawa's University professional translators firstly prepared in 1934

the Translation study takes place across the country.the translation training is at 11 Canadian universities.the USA 4 higher educational institutions which prepare for translators are known: Institute of translators (California), York university, of state of Iowa (specializes on art translation) in Washington. translation study, similarly to other scientific disciplines has developed thanks to efforts of the scientists of different countries.for translation, in our time translation theory is well developed and now has all the conditions to facilitate the task of the translator, such as a variety of dictionaries, tools for text recognition, electronic dictionaries and translators of texts. And I believe that the translators will be an important profession as it is now and a few decades later. Translators will always be needed as well as teachers and doctors.

List of used literary sources

1.V.N. Komissarov Общая теория перевода

2. Henri Van Hoof histore de la traduction en Occident Paris 1991 p.7

. N.K Gorbovskii Теория перевода p 12, [4. p 214]

4. A. Tytler Принципы перевода p 66

. A.B. Fedorov Основы общей теории перевода p 14

. Shweicer A.D. Теория перевода, статус проблемы, аспекты 1988 p75

7. G. Steiner After Babel Oxford 1975 p 224

8. Нелюбин Л. «Наука о переводе» Мировые религии и их роль в развитии перевода 2008 p 22

. Вопросы теории перевода в современной зарубежной лингвистике 1978

. M.T. Ciero «Три трактата об ораторском искусcтве» 1972 p 104 [12.]

11.Цит по книге Kloepher R. Die theorie de literarischen Uebesetzung 1967 P 22

. Plinii junior writes 1983 p 122

. Семенец О.Е. Панасьев А.Н. История перевода p 64

14.Nelyubin l.l. «наука о переводе» учебное пособие 2008 P 18

.Coutun L.S. указ. соч 10

.Bulanin D.M. Указ. Соч. p 48, [19.p 50] [20, p. 37]

. Sobolevskii A. I. Западное влияние на литературу Московской Руси 15-17 вв 1899 с 12-13

. Rijski I.M. указ. Соч. С 112

.цит по книге Буланин Д.М. указ. соч с 33

. Чин Миллера в соответствии c «Табелью о рангах»

. Винокур Г.О. «Избранные работы по русскому языку 1959» с 131

22 in several works of Shaplein Советский энциклопедический словрь 1980 с 1515

. Delisle J. Op. cit. P. 54-55. 41 44

. См.: Daviault P. Traducteurs et traduction au Canada // Mémoires de la Société royale du Canada. Troisième série, 1944. T. XXXVIII. P. 67 et alii

. Cormier M.C. Francoeur A. bibliographie(1988-1999) Lexicologie, lexicographie, terminologie et terminographie, traduction et interprétation, langues et linguistique, dictionnaires, cédéroms. Document de travail. Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie. Réseau LTT. Lexicologie , Terminologie, Traduction. Montréal, 2000

. Nida, Eugene A. Bible Translating: an Analysis of Principles and Procedures. N.Y., American Bible Society, 1947. P 54

. Nida, Eugene A. Language Structure and Translation. Essays. Stanford (Calif.), 1975. p 125

. Опубликована в сборнике статей №29 Московского государственного областного университета "Проблемы теории языка и переводоведения". М.:Изд-во МГОУ, 2006. - С.50-63.

. Melnikova E.A, Меч и лира Англосаксонское общество в истории и эпосе 1987 с 54

30. Amos F.R. Early theories of translation New York 1920 p 3-4

. Blake N.F. The English language in Medieval literature London 1978 p 15

32. V.N.Komissarov Общая теория перевода. Москва, 1999. P 6

. Horguelin P. La profession du traducteur. Société des traducteurs du Québec

1974. P. 75

34.Traduction. Terminologie. Interprétation. Répertoire 1999-2000. Ordre

des traducteurs et interprètes agréés du Québec. P. 101-194.

.«Синие книги» - сборники дипломатических документов. Delisle J. Op. cit. P. 23.

36. Цит. по.: Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод. М., 1975. С. 231.


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