Phrasal verbs and verb expressions. Verb expressions with "Come" and "Go"


I. "Maximizing students interaction"

.1 The communicative classroom

.2 Using English in class

.3 Communicative activities

Chapter II. "The ways of learning phrasal verbs"

2.1 The importance of teaching phrasal verbs

.2 Phrasal verbs and prepositions

.3 Guessing and explaining meanings of phrasal verbs "come" and "go" literature


is the most important area in language learning. The importance of vocabulary changes and it depends on teaching aims. Nowadays, the ability of effective communication is the main aim of teaching, so teachers try to develop students communicative competence and vocabulary are the key to it. Communication is strongly conditioned upon the level of vocabulary. When it is limited, it distorts or even sometimes it blocks up communication. With a wide vocabulary, a person can communicate effectively even though he or she may be very weak in grammatical knowledge. It means that teachers must pay a lot of attention to constant, regular work on enriching students vocabulary. Very important and common feature of English language are phrasal verbs.topicality of my diploma work is: The current study hasnt any arguments in its address, because there is considerable interest today in the notion of motivation to learn a second or foreign language. Learning another language involved intelligence and verbal ability. Concepts like attitudes, motivation and anxiety were not considered to be important at all. Today, much of this has changed, and one sometimes gets the impression that affective variables are considered to be the only important ones.main purpose of the diploma paper work is to discuss the roles of the student, the teacher and the language researcher in understanding the motivation to learn another language. In order to guide this discussion, attention is directed towards the social-educational model of second language acquisition. Although this model considers the motivation to learn another language from the point of view of the student, it is clear that other contributors include the teacher as well as the students and the students Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners a phrasal verb is a verb formed from two (sometimes three) parts; a verb and an adverb or preposition. Most are formed from a small number of common verbs (such as get, go, come, put and set) and a small number of adverbs and prepositions (such as away, out, off, up and in). The number of verbs that can form phrasal verbs in English is limitless. But the number of short adverbs: about, across, around, down, by, in, off, on, out, over, through, to, aside, away, back, together and prepositions: about, across, around, down , by, in, off, on, out, over, through, to, at, for, from, of, into that can accommodate this structure is much smaller. They include more or less the words in bold, most of which serve as both adverbs and prepositions.novelty is the using of the phrasal verbs in another way as possible. To make it more understandable for students.verbs are an important feature of English. Their importance lies in the fact that they form such a key part of everyday English. Not only are they used in spoken and informal English, but they are also a common aspect of written and even formal vernacular. Understanding and learning to use phrasal verbs, however, is often problematic and there are many reasons for this. The meaning of a phrasal verb, for example, often bears no relation to the meaning of either the verb or the particle which is used with it. This means that phrasal verbs can be difficult both to understand and to remember. Neither does it help that many phrasal verbs have several meanings, nor that their syntactic behavior is often unpredictable. Phrasal verbs have roots back in the earliest Old English writings, where verbs with short adverbs and prepositions were used in a very literal sense showing mostly the direction, place, or physical orientation of a noun in the sentence, such as in the following example: The boy walked out. (Direction); The boy stood by. (Place); The boy held his hand up. (Physical orientation). Like short adverbs, prepositions also indicated direction, place, or physical orientation; but they also specified a relationship between the verb and an object in the sentence: The thief climbed out the window. (Direction); The painter stood by the house. (Place); Hang it over the fire. (Physical orientation).the centuries, the combinations of verbs with short adverbs and prepositions increased. Their meanings diversified by imperceptible degrees. Eventually, they came to be the most productive means for the creation of new verbs that exists in Modern English. To illustrate this diversification of meaning, below are presented some of the nuances that the short adverb out acquired over several centuries. In the ninth century, it had the literal meaning of moving toward the outside such as in walk out and ride out. But by the fourteenth century, out had added the idea of making something audible such as in cry out and call out. By the fifteenth century, it had added the idea of bringing something to extinction such as in die out and burn out. By the sixteenth century, it had added the idea of apportioning something to everyone such as in pass out and parcel out. And by the nineteenth century, it had acquired the idea of removing the contents of something such as in clean out and rinse out. Whats more phrasal verbs can have different syntactic patterns. The possible syntactic patterns that accommodate phrasal verbs are varied, but the following five are considered basic: Verb adverb (VA): wash up; Verb adverb object (VAO): take off your hat; Verb object adverb (VOA): take your hat off; Verb preposition object (VPO): work on a project; Verb adverb preposition object (VAPO): come up with a teaching phrasal verbs happen very often because they are the aspects of English that is not as straightforward to teach as other aspects are. Many teachers avoid or put off teaching phrasal verbs until students are at a higher advanced level.practical value of diploma work is to use phrasal verbs in classroom, to create very good communicative, useful activities with phrasal verbs.the first chapter we will deal with maximizing students interaction in class. Here are given characteristics by Carl Rogers for creative and effective learning environment. The purpose of this chapter to inform teachers how to make students talking time more effective. The next is communicative classroom. The purpose of this task to inform teachers for basic principles of communicative classroom. This theme provides the means for teachers to create the conditions in which learning can take place. Our purpose is to offer guidance, on how this might be achieved. The next theme is how to use English in class. Here we deal with two ways of learning English. The next theme is the communicative activities. Here we can look at what does the word communicative mean? There are some tips for using communicative activities. Here is given ways to create opportunities for simple communication in English lessons. It will help to motivate student in order to build and increase stock of chapter is devoted to the ways of learning phrasal verbs. Here are given four types of phrasal verbs which will help you to understand and differ them. The next theme is devoted to the ways of teaching phrasal verbs. Here is given some tips for active teaching phrasal verbs. One of the ways of encouraging your students to learn more and make their language expressively colorful. The next theme presents what phrasal verbs are, how many meanings they have, verbs and their use in every day live. A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition. The next theme is guessing and explaining the meanings of phrasal verbs "come" and "go". Here are given strategies for better understanding and guessing the meanings of phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs are devoted for development of vocabulary. The major of this work is to provide stock of vocabulary of a learner and make his or her vocabulary colorful, expressive.idea of these chapters is to help to think about issues that have been raised in each theme and also to help to personalize what you have read by relating it to each situation. There is a great opportunity to use them very practical.

Chapter I. Maximizing students interaction in class

Everyone should remember the characteristics by Carl Rogers for creative and effective learning environment. Be as honestly yourself as you can be. Respect the learners. Work on seeing things from their perspective as well as your own. Encourage a friendly, relaxed learning environment. If there is trusting, positive, supportive rapport amongst the learners and between learners and teacher, and there is a much better chance of useful interaction happening.questions rather than giving explanations. When you want students to discuss something, ask "open" questions (eg. where, what, who, why…) rather than closed questions (eg; verb-subject questions that require nothing more than yes or no). For example, instead of "Is noise pollution a bad thing?" (Answer=yes or no) you could ask "What do you think about noise pollution? " Allow time for students to listen, think, process their answer and speak. Really listen to what they say. Let what they say really affect that you do next. Work on listening to the person, and the meanings, as well as to the language and the mistakes.thinking time without talking over it. Allow silence. Increase opportunities for student talking time. Use gestures to replace unnecessary teacher talk. Allow students to finish their own sentences. Make use of pairs and groups to maximize opportunities for students to speak. If possible, arrange so that students can see each other (eg; circles, squares and horseshoes rather than parallel rows).interaction between students rather than only between student and teacher and teacher and student. Get students to ask questions, give explanations to each other than always to you. Encourage co-operation rather than competition. In many activities you may encourage students to copy ideas from others, or "cheats". Allow students to become more responsible for their own progress. Put them in situations where they need to make decisions for themselves. If a student is speaking too quietly for you to hear, walk further away, rather than closer to them! (This sound illogical- but if you cant hear them, then its likely that other students cant either. Encourage the quiet speaker to speak louder so that the other can hear). you will follow all this rules, it will help you to encourage students interaction in class. The language classroom is rich in language for learners, quite apart from the language that the learners and the teacher may suppose they are focusing on in the subject matter of the lesson.learn a lot of their language from what they hear. Their teacher says the instructions, the discussions, the asides, the jokes, the chit-chat, the comments, ect. It would be unsatisfactory if the teacher dominated the lesson to the exclusion of participation from as many learners as possible.arguments for language learners usually grow from the idea that the teacher knows more of the target language and that by listening to her the learner is somehow absorbing a correct picture of the language, that by interacting with her the learner is learning to interact with a native speaker or an experienced user of the language, and that this is far more useful than talking to a poor user. Thus, by this arguments, time spent talking to another learner is not particularly useful ok as far as it goes, but there are a number of challenges to such views. Some are to do with available time: if the teacher talks most of time, how much time will learners get to speak? If the only conversation practice learners get is one to one with the teacher they will get very little time to speak at all. In a class of twenty-five learners, how much time will the teacher have available to speak to individuals? Divide a one-hour lesson by twenty-five and you get just over two minutes each. That doesnt sound very much.could maximize learners speaking time at certain points of the lesson by putting them into pairs or small groups and getting them to talk to each other. This instead of two minutes speaking time in a whole lesson they all get a lot of speaking practice within a short space of time. The teacher could use this time effectively by discreetly monitoring what the students are saying, and using the information collected as a source of material for future feedback or other work.

1.1 Communicative classroom

Here are some of the basic principles that inform teaching:

Language is a tool for communication.

Learners need to practice using the language, in as realistic and authentic ways possible. Grammar study, gap fills, etc are only steps along the way to developing the ability to use language for real tasks. Classroom language is an important Source of input and practice. are individuals; they learn in different ways and have different needs.need to be aware of our individual students needs, and cater to them as much as possible. We need to vary our ways of presenting and practicing language to appeal to different learning styles. There is no "right way" to learn, and we need to respect the different needs and wants of our students. We should try as much as possible to get to know our students as people, on a normal human level.learn best when they feel comfortable and relaxed.must try to create an atmosphere of trust and mutual respect in our groups. Learners should feel that their opinions are valued. Learners should feel that they can make mistakes without fear of ridicule; we should not emphasize or exploit the imbalance in the teacher-learner power relationship. Teachers and learners should be on a first name basis. Tasks should be challenging but achievable.should be involved in the learning process.should elicit learners input regarding course content. We should give them the opportunity to evaluate our lessons, and to let us know what they do and do not enjoy about them. We should as much as is possible react and respond to learners' input. Learners should be made aware of their progress and encouraged to set their own goals.need to learn how to learn.should expose learners to a variety of wavs to organize their learning. We should make our learners aware of the learning strategies they use, and expose them to other, possibly better, more important than grammar.

We should not focus on grammar at the expense of vocabulary. New vocabulary should be introduced in almost every lesson.

Fluency is more important than accuracy.should be selective in our correction of learners. We need to plan lessons that allow students to speak freely as well as speak with restrictions and correction. Learners should be made aware that ''getting the message across" is just as important as "getting the English right".is more important than teaching.should pay more attention to what the students are doing in a lesson, and less about what we are doing. Student talk is more useful than teacher talk. Learners should get the chance to answer questions. We should plan our lessons with an eye to what learners will be able to do that they couldn't do before. all your students to speak English in class can be a challenging task for any EFL teachers. It is necessary to organize a communicative activity which achieves maximum participation of the learners. In order to overall my students English Language skills, I often use the Morning Discussion as a Communicative makes the class more active and the students can exchange their opinions and the main thing is everyone can participate. Learners need to practice using the language, in as realistic and authentic ways possible. Students learn best when they feel comfortable and relaxed. We must try to create an atmosphere of trust mutual respect in our groups.Discussion helps our students to share their opinions on different themes and encourage group mates to join the discussion. Different short stories and topics are selected for MD by themselves. Volunteer student selects short stories or an article presents them to the class, encouraging group mates to join and take an active part in the discussion. The discussion would take different forms. Sometimes it was an interview using the main topic with some key questions.other times it was Class Debate, students are divided into several mini-groups and each group is given a statement. They have to brainstorm reasons why it is true ready to defend their argument against their opponents.discussion requires the teachers to play multiple roles e.g. to be as negotiators and to give positive and detailed comments on the performance of both hosts and the participants. Teacher's next role is a manager, which gives instructions for students to get into groups and as counselor advices students how best to approach a task.Discussion improves students express ability and speaking skills and they enjoy it. They choose and select for discussion, which covered social, cultural, educational, ecological and emotional issues. Other topics which include science and technology, business English, events in other parts of the world, public relations, American History and geography, interesting facts, Kyrgyz culture and traditions and everyday a list of some MD topics: The Role of the English Language in the 21st century; Computers and Human Brains; getting education in abroad; Problems of youth today; My Dream House; My Future Profession; if I were the President I would...; Educational System of G.Britain;English Meal with your National Meal; Compare two holidays; Compare two powerful people; People are the same everywhere; There can be no happiness without money; Medical care should be free for all people; Meeting Internet friends; Electronic Communications…ect.Discussion creates opportunities for students to communicate using a variety of strategies. We should expose learners to a variety of ways to organize their learning. We should pay more attention to what our students are doing at the lesson, and less about what we are doing. Student talk is more useful than teacher talk. Learners should get the chance to answer questions and share their opinions on different themes. Teacher must remember that it is not necessary to be at the front of the class, and takes one seat in the circle.we consider the teacher's role in a communicative classroom we must also come to the conclusion that the teacher is not in any sense attempting to teach conversation. Perhaps the teacher simply arouses interest in a topic, pre-teaches vocabulary, sets a task, monitors performance and gives feedback on the use of structure and the term discussion class is more satisfactory as it gives a much more accurate idea of what happens during class time. It suggests that the class as a whole will be involved in the discussion of a single topic which is chosen by the learners or by teachers. Teacher uses open questions and increases opportunities for STT (Students Talking Time), as for the students, they ask questions, give explanations & definitions, in short they enjoy getting more opportunities to talk and having fun and through discussions that many teachers provide their learners with opportunities to improve their fluency skills, the swift recall of appropriate lexis the fluid formation of correct tenses and the main thing is the effective use of communication strategy.format and the structure of MD are not fixed, but rather developed by the students to suit the topic and their presentation preferences. Usually, after the teacher-student morning greetings, the student host would present the material she had prepared for discussion. As usual, before the discussion, some necessary words and phrases are presented, which were prepared by the students and teachers..g. Topic "Educational system of Great Britain": an impressive complex of modern teaching and residential accommodation; the well equipped multimedia classrooms; the Queen's Building ; a swimming pool and fully equipped sports center; Oxford, the famous university city and seat of learning; the modern classrooms; the latest teaching methods; unique and motivating program up to date course books; to have access to E-mail and Internet facilities; an intensive computer course; full day Excursions; a homely atmosphere; the beautiful red brick mansion; the most prestigious university.

Words & phrases "Electronic Communications": electronic mail; transfer information; an entree to libraries, research institutions....etc; a universal community; Internet participants; to pass information back and forth; an electronic network; the Benefits of the Internet as a research and teaching tool; a personal computer; a connection to a central computer; to join electronic discussion forums; to send messages to the other side of the world; Internet connected; to develop Internet access for the public.

Topic "The Role of English in the 21st Century", Words and phrases: social, economic and demographic transition; the global and International economy; to be the world standard language; International development; to open joint-ventures and companies; the global spread of English; to have the official status; English usage in science; English usage in technology and commerce; to negotiate in English; the information revaluation; to get more native speakers; to pay more attention to international developments; to sell more products outside the US; to conform to a global market place; an economic modernization and industrial development.Communicative classrooms allow students to experience speaking English on their own. It shows them that they can speak and share opinions and understand English without written materials. The students can speak to whomever they wish, to students they know well or to those they may not often get a chance to speak with. They are working at their own place and at their own level of ability. They can take time to relax rest and think about what they are doing. Students soon begin to add and create to the topics for discussions their own oral language teaching goals to enable students to learn by using the language in meaningful, interactive situations. We must develop communicative activities ranging from controlled or guided practice to free production such as role-playing, simulations, quessing games, information-gap, critical thinking and problem-solving activities.of English as a foreign language need to create and motivate a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom and awaken students interests. As the MD, I have used the following activity, which makes all the students to be very active and feel comfortable and it gets them involved in thinking about the beautiful and costly things in life. At first some unknown words and phrases are explained and after a brief class discussion, the following poem "Passion for Life "by Mother Tereza has been presented.

"Passion for Life"

Life is a challenge, meet it. Life is a struggle, accept a duty, complete it. Life is a tragedy, confront it.

Life is a game, play it. Life is an opportunity, benefit from it.

Life is costly, care for it. Life is beauty, admire wealth, keep it. Life is bliss, taste it.

Life is mystery, know it. Life is a dream, realize it.

Life is love, enjoy it. Life is an adventure, dare it.

Life is a promise, fulfill it. Life is luck, make it.

Life is sorrow, overcome it. Life is too precious, do not destroy it.

Life is a song, sing it. Life is life, fight for it.

Always we must remember that teaching is the most important job in the world, we are shaping the future and are a model for our students.want our students to be able to communicate with each other and people outside the classroom, in socially acceptable ways. A great attention should be paid to a student-centered classroom. Student-Talking Time, in which all the students interact with each other in pairs or mini-groups. It is very necessary to provide them a suitable environment and materials they need, they have to learn on their, own. The main idea of this article is Getting our students to talk in the target language and to create a learner-centered classroom, it means organizing a class so that students are more involved in the teaching and learning process and the teacher is less likely to dominate classroom or TTT (teacher talking time) is characterized by the teacher's speaking most of the time and leading activities.for teacher's role, she is an advisor, a facilitator and a manager, during communicative activities. The teacher moves from one group to another group offering advice and answering questions. As for the students are communicators. Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among students.are actively engaged in negotiating meaning, in trying to make them understood. They learn to communicate by communicating. Students interact a great deal with one another. They do this in pairs and small groups, and they are given an opportunity to express and share their ideas and opinions. Role-plays are very important in the Communicative Approach because they give students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles. Many classrooms were teacher-fronted, with immovable desks facing the front of the room, several years ago.teacher standing at the front of the class "teaching" and the students sitting in rows listening. In this classroom the teacher probably does most of the talking and is by far the most active person. Many of us are familiar with this kind of situation. If students are to engage in communicative language learning activities, they need to be able to see each other and the teacher needs space to move around the classroom to be able to interact with students and hear what they say. For example: circles, squares, and horse shoes rather than parallel rows.a circle or horseshoe, learners can make eye contact with everyone else in the group and thus interact much more naturally, and the teacher doesn't always need to be at the front of the class, for example: teacher takes one seat in the circle. Encourage interaction between students rather than only between student and teacher and teacher and student S-S, T-S.Encourage a friendly, relaxed learning environment. If there is a trusting, positive, supportive, rapport among the learners and teacher, then there is a much better chance of useful interaction happening. In the result of cooperative learning the students have the opportunity to interact with their group mates, they get more opportunities to talk, hear more English, to get a chance to be a leader, have more fun and relaxation, they learn to respect different ideas and opinions, have to really think in order to solve the problems, see other points of view, learn and enlarge their stock of vocabulary, get more information about different topics, improve their oral speech.

.2 Using English in class

is one of the most useful tool we have as humans. With it we could not think thoughts expressible to others, nor could we engage in the activities that commonly take place in the societies we build for ourselves. Most students tend to ignore the importance of listening comprehension skills, for their attention is fixed so completely on reading and writing that they fail to recognize the need for developing functional listening comprehension skills as a prerequisite. to related statistics, second-language learners, in order to learn the language, must first learn to understand the spoken language they regarded as a receptive skill, in that the listener is receiving messages from a speaker. The main resources received by students come from the teacher who may use English as a communicating skill for instructions. Thus, from the viewpoints of language learning and communicating in real-language situations, it benefits students in learning English for teachers to use English in class.the teacher uses English most of the time in class, it will give students more practice in listening and responding to spoken English. This will help them "pick up" words and expressions beyond the language of the textbooks. Besides, the language used, in the lesson itself, is often unnatural and artificial. The situations that occur in the classroom, however, give opportunities for real and natural English to be used. Also, if the teacher uses English to say real things to the class, it will give students the feeling that English is not just a language that belongs to the textbooks, but a real language used for communication. It is pretty certain, of course, that teachers should not use English all the time. There are many occasions obviously when it can be useful to use the students own language. How much a teacher uses English depends on the level of the class and the teachers own language ability.are two main ways, in which English can be used in class:

(1) It can be used in teaching the lesson itself: introducing a text, asking questions, giving examples, etc.

(2) It can be used for activities which surround the teaching, but which are not actually part of the teaching: checking attendance, chatting to students, controlling the class, etc.the beginning of a lesson, the teacher can spend a few minutes chatting to the class about the topics.

  1. The teacher can talk and ask questions, but get the students to give only short responses, which would be a good technique for a large class or with low level students.

T: Did you enjoy the weekend?: Yes.: And I went to the movies with my friends. Did you go to the movies?: Yes, I did.: Whom did you go with? (and so on)

  1. The teacher can prompt every student to talk more about things they have done.

T: What did you do yesterday? Did you go out?: Yes, I went to a party.: A party? That's good. A birthday party?: Yes, my friend's birthday party.: OK, tell us what happened there. What did you do at the party?

(and so on)

  1. The teacher can get students to talk and ask questions.

T: OK. Peter went to a party yesterday. Ask him some questions about you want to know?: How did you go to the party?: Were there many people there?: What did you eat? (and so on)English to chat with students in this way creates not only an opportunity for real language practice but also an English atmosphere in the class. More importantly, it establishes contact with the class and helps students to feel relaxed and ready to learn.the class, a teacher has to say many things to organize the lesson, such as starting or stopping an activity, getting students to do or not to do things, etc. Much of this consists of simple commands and instructions, which are repeated lesson after lesson. Therefore, if the teacher says them in English, students will learn what they mean quickly. Following are some examples,

Stand up, please. Open/Close your book.

Sit down, please. Come here, please.

Repeat after me. Be quiet, please.

Listen carefully. Pay attention.

Who would like to clean the blackboard?

Could you please close the window?

Now practice the dialogue in pairs.

Raise your hand if you have any question.

Open your book and turn to page 72.

Using English in class is worthwhile if it can be done successfully and without too much difficulty. There are some occasions, however, when it is best to use the students own language. An explanation in English could be very confusing, especially when the word is unfamiliar to students. It would be better to give examples in English and then to give a translation of the word. An advantage of using students own language is that the situation or the lesson can be explained more quickly and easily, leaving more time for practice. As to using English in class, it provides useful listening practice and helps students by giving them some of the words they need. Most importantly, it is probably best to give explanations in clear and simple English, and repeat some parts in students own language to make the meanings clear.

·Teachers have been encouraged by the Ministry of Education to use English in the secondary EFL classroom as much as possible. However, classroom English is important for students as well as teachers. Students can learn how to use English in functional situations in class: e.g. asking the teacher for help; saying that they don't understand; asking for repetition; checking for comprehension; working with a partner; etc. This course investigates how teachers can use English in class, and how they can encourage their students to use English in class.


·It is easy to forget that classroom procedures have to be verbalized in the classroom, whatever the methodology. Instructions have to be given, groups have to be formed, time limits have to be set, questions have to be asked, answers have to be confirmed, discipline has to be maintained, etc. The role of this interaction is one of the least understood aspects of teaching, though it is clearly crucial to the success of the learning environment.

·All teachers need specialized classroom competence and need training in this field. Foreign language teachers in particular require linguistic training aimed at the classroom situation, since they need to use the language being taught both as a goal of their teaching and as the prime medium of instruction and classroom management. Foreign language graduates are seldom prepared for the seemingly simple task of running a class in the L2.

·The classroom situation is a genuine social environment, which allows meaningful situational use of the language. This is real interaction.

Details: The course focuses on theoretical justifications and practical solutions: Why should we use English in class?

1.It helps the teacher to model the language and its use.

.It gives meaning to the language.

.It provides authentic learning situations.

.It provides familiarity with common phrases.

.Students can use the language in real situations.

.Students gain confidence and motivation through successful communication.

7.Students learn the language by using the language.

8.It allows learners to control and evaluate their own successes.

9.It allows learners to respect the learning styles of other learners.

.It encourages learners to learn from their peers.

11.It helps learners control the learning environment.

12.It encourages pair- and group-work.

13.It helps learners access information and resources.will be many things to do, and many things to talk about. However, please remember that education is aimed at students, and the students are the most important people in this course and in every course. There will therefore be a continuous focus on learner training, self-assessment, goal setting, reflection and evaluation. This course is for you, and you will therefore be helping to make it and evaluate it!

.3 Communicative activities

'Communicative' is a word which has dominated discussions of teaching methodology for many years. Although in a monolingual English language classroom, 'real communication' in English is impossible; in 'communicative methodology' we try to be 'more communicative'. That is to say, even though it may be impossible to achieve 'real communication', we should attempt to get closer to 'real communication' in our classrooms.does it mean?methodology includes a number of different (and perhaps interconnecting) principles.

1.The primary aim of foreign language learning is communication with users of the foreign language.

2.Students study the foreign language as a system of communication.

.Students learn and practice the foreign language through 'communicative activities'.as primary aimthe past the 'primary aim' of language learning seemed to be mastery of the grammatical system. The only practical task was translation and that was usually translation of 'great literature' rather than letters to the bank manager. The methodology for teaching modern, 'living' languages was identical to the methodology for dead, classical languages like Latin and Ancient Greek. Today, we see our primary aim as teaching the practical use of English for communication with native speakers and others.English as a system of communicationcontains many 'systems', one of which is the system of grammar. Mastery of grammar is still important but only as a means to successful communication.long have you been here? How long are you here for?are less concerned with the grammatical difference between these two questions than with their difference in meaning. We are less concerned with grammatical errors of form than with errors of meaning because these will lead to a breakdown in communication.are communicative activities?its purest form, a communicative activity is an activity in which there is: a desire to communicate; a communicative purpose; a focus on language content not language forms; a variety of language used; no teacher intervention; no control or simplification of the material. Let's examine each characteristic in turn.

.A desire to communicate.a communicative activity there must be a reason to communicate. When someone asks a question, the person must wish to get some information or some other form of result. There must be either an 'information gap' or an 'opinion gap' or some other reason to communicate.

. A communicative purpose.we ask students to describe their bedroom furniture to their partners, we are creating an artificial 'communicative purpose' and making the activity more artificial by asking them to do it in English.also create artificial 'information gaps' by giving different information to pairs of students so that they can have a reason to exchange information.

. A focus on language content not language forms.real life, we do not ask about our friend's family in order to practice 'have got' forms. We ask the question because we are interested in the information. That is to say, we are interested in the language content and not in the language forms.

. A variety of language is used.normal communication, we do not repeatedly use the same language forms. In fact, we usually try to avoid repetition. In many classroom activities we often try to create situations in which students will repeatedly use a limited number of language patterns. This is also artificial.

. No teacher are buying a ticket for The Lion King at the theatre, your teacher is not usually beside you to 'help' or 'correct' your English. Teacher intervention in classroom communicative activities adds to the artificiality.

. No control or simplification of the material.the classroom, we often use graded or simplified materials as prompts for communicative activities. These will not be available in the real world.can we make classroom 'communicative activities' less artificial?we have seen, there is no real possibility of real communication in English in a monolingual classroom. Learners must 'pretend' that they need to communicate in English. However, we can reduce the artificiality by looking at the features mentioned above. We can easily reduce teacher intervention, we can use more authentic materials, we can encourage a wider variety of language use, and we can create more natural communicative purposes.

Activities to encourage Englishare more ways to create opportunities for simple communication in English lessons:

·Start each lesson by asking students about their week, weekend or previous evening. Talk about yours in a natural way: "Did anyone see that funny film on TV last night?"

·Ask students about their area or information you may need to know. Simple requests for help, such as: "Does anyone know if there is a bank open on Saturday here?" Ask for suggestions for places to visit. Even with beginners, opportunities can arise: ask for the time, the date, how to get to places nearby etc.

·Ask for explanations in English whenever students are able. This stretches students.

·Involve students in board work, asking them to spell aloud a word you are writing, inviting younger learners to complete a summary, write a question or correct a mistake on the board.

·Avoid asking "Do you understand?" Try to get more comments with questions to check understanding: "Why is there ans on this verb?" or "Can you pronounce this word?"

·Get students to refer to an English-English dictionary (take your own if necessary). Play games involving definitions (e.g. Guessing a described object; animal, vegetable or mineral?; or Whats my line? With job descriptions.) Do simple crosswords with clues.

·Play games where use of the mother tongue loses points for the team.

·Practice and encourage all common classroom requests: "Can I have another piece of paper?" or "May I go to the toilet, please?" - Students may not use English requests amongst themselves but insist they do with you.

Encouraging students can eventually pay-off. If they enjoy your lessons, their attitude to speaking English will improve over time.

Chapter 2. The ways of learning phrasal verbs

complains about phrasal verbs. It doesn't help that in books they're referred to as 'phrasal verbs' and 'multi-word verbs' and 'prepositional verbs' and whatever other name may be fashionable or grammatically correct at a particular time.know what they are, and so do I. They're verbs followed by what is sometimes called a 'particle'. This 'particle' is either a preposition or an adverb, or possibly one of each. Most people think it's a preposition. Personally I don't think it matters whether or not you know it's a preposition or an adverb. The word is a preposition by seeing which type the verb is. If I don't know immediately, then I don't expect people who are learning the language to know. It doesn't help you to remember the verb either.don't worry about prepositions and adverbs. Call them whatever you want. The most important thing is that you should understand as many phrasal verbs as possible and be able to use them. English people use them all the time.there's no easy way of learning them.are four types of phrasal verbs. It might help you to know this, but equally it might not. If you find it confusing, don't worry too much. There are various ways of learning phrasal verbs, and knowing the specific type is not necessary. However, knowing what type a verb is can be useful for two reasons. Firstly, it shows you the grammatical construction, and secondly, some verbs can be more than one type and change meaning accordingly. The four types do not correspond to the uses I mentioned above. Each particular type can include verbs with literal and non-literal meanings.

. These verbs don't have an object.: The plane took off two hours late.left his wife and children and went away.was a horrible smell in the fridge because the chicken had gone off.right, I don't know. I give up.there's no object, you don't have to worry about where to put it! The main difficulty is when a verb can be more than one type. For example, a plane can take off (no object), but a person can take off a coat (with object). This second example would not be a 'Type 1' verb.problem is when a verb can have more than one meaning but remain the same type. A chicken can go off, for example, which means it's old and bad and can't be eaten. But a person can go off, too, which means the same as go away.

. These verbs have an object, and this object can go after the verb or between the two parts of the verb.:must put up those shelves this weekend. I must put those shelves up this weekend. I must put them up this weekend. I must put up them this weekend.turned off the TV and went to bed. He turned the TV off and went to bed. He turned it off and went to bed. He turned off it and went to bed.council wants to knock down lots of old buildings. The council wants to knock lots of old buildings down. The council wants to knock them down. The council wants to knock down don't use a pronoun, it doesn't really matter where you put the object. We generally put the object where it sounds better.the object is very long - it could include a relative clause, for example - it will probably sound better after the use a pronoun, you have to put it between the two words of the verb.3 verbsverbs have an object, but the object must go after the verb. It doesn't matter whether it's a pronoun or not.:sister takes after my mother. My sister takes after her. My sister takes my mother after. My sister takes her after.'m looking for my credit card. Have you seen it? I'm looking for it. Have you seen it? I'm looking my credit card for. Have you seen it? I'm looking it for. Have you seen it?4 verbsare the same as Type 3 verbs, but they have three words instead of two. The object must go after the verb.:'m looking forward to the holidays. I'm looking forward to get on with your neighbors? Do you get on with them?on with your work! Get on with it!are a number of ways of learning phrasal verbs:can learn different meanings according to the main verb, for instance look up, look up to, look down, look down on, look into, etc.can learn different meanings according to the preposition or adverb, for instance let down, turn down, sit down, put down, write down, etc.can learn different verbs used for a particular subject or situation, for instance telephoning: put through, hold on, hang up, get through, cut off, speak up, etc.can learn the different meanings for one particular verb:new job didn't work out she's been working out in the gym all afternoon've worked it out and you owe me £75, I think trying to learn verbs from a list is boring and quite difficult. It's better to learn them for different situations, then there's more chance that you'll remember them.easier is to treat them as you treat any other vocabulary you learn. Don't think of them as a special subject that has to be learnt. They're only words! If you find a useful phrasal verb, learn it like you would learn the word for 'table' or 'ashtray' or anything else.make sure you write down the structure. It's useless to note down that turn off means apagar in Spanish if you don't know how to use it. The absolute minimum you need to note down is turn something off, because then you'll know where the object goes.better would be to note down a couple of sentences using the verb so that you have a context to remember it in.

.1 The ways of teaching phrasal verbs

read the text and underline all the phrasal verbs, then re-write the article replacing each phrasal verb with a single-word verb.small groups write a short skit containing six phrasal verbs to act out in front of the whole class.maybe its just the funkiness of the language itself; wolf down, potter around, chill out, sex up. Whatever it is, and no matter how geeky it might sound, I have to say that phrasal verbs - I love you!to do it - not!are definite 'do's and don'ts' for teaching phrasal verbs. Strangely, the most widely accepted 'don't' is the most common way most textbooks actually present and practice them. Grouping phrasal verbs according to the verb in the phrase is the big 'no'. Get on, get up, get over, get through, get round, get out, get by, get at, get in with, get out. Take on, take up, take through, take over, take down, take out, take in, take back, and take off. Break in, break out, break up, break off, and break through.

McCarthy, M., ODell, F. (2004) English Phrasal Verbs in Use, CUP.

Just looking at these lists makes my eyes sore; you probably didn't even bother to read all the phrasal verbs listed. For our students, presenting phrasal verbs grouped in this way is a learning nightmare. There's nothing for them to mentally latch onto. All the verbs are the same so the only difference between them is a small particle, which learners from many language backgrounds find difficult anyway. Meanings are easily mixed up and the learning experience quickly becomes approach phrasal verbs in the classroom

. Phrasal verbs can be introduced at the same time as other lexical items, which are all connected to a particular theme or topic. Indeed, at beginner's level there's often no choice but to do it in this way. For example:

·Daily routines - wake up, get up, wash, eat breakfast, go to work

·Airport vocabulary - take off, land, check in, flight attendant, pilot, immigration

·Other vocabulary groupings such as synonyms - get over = recover, curious = inquisitive, stubborn = obstinate, break up = separatethis way phrasal verbs are presented and practiced without drawing attention to them as a separate language feature.

. Work specifically on phrasal verbs as a distinct language area is possible with students at pre-intermediate level and above. This can be done either with sets of phrasal verbs, which are unrelated in terms of meaning and topic and which do not share the same verb, or with sets of phrasal verbs, which are connected in terms of topic. For example

·Crime - break in, get away, get away with, catch up with, bail out

·Relationships - split up, make up, make up for, get on with, ask out

·Health - come down with, come round, knock out, stitch up, pull throughphrasal verbs in this way helps our students to learn and memorize the language and allows us as teachers to fit work on phrasal verbs easily into a wider scheme of study and course syllabus. So, over and above this most of the usual rules of presenting language apply.

·Do - present the phrasal verbs in context, providing examples of the target language in reading or listening texts or example sentences.

·Don't - overload your students with too many phrasal verbs at one time. The general rule of thumb is to present a set of ten lexical items at any one time.

·Do - focus on the meaning and phonemic features of the vocabulary in the presentation stage.

·Don't - overload your students with information about the 'grammar' of the phrasal verbs - are they separable or inseparable, transitive or intransitive, prepositional verbs or phrasal verbs using an adverb. Going into explanations regarding these features is time-consuming and confusing. Better to allow your students to engage with the language and work things out for themselves and when or if they make mistakes be ready with error-correction exercises and feedback.

·Do - provide lots of practice of the target language. Error-correction exercises are great to focus on the 'grammar' of the phrasal verbs. Transformation exercises are great to focus on synonyms and help to reinforce meaning. Gap completion exercises are great to focus on dependent propositions and collocating nouns. The more practice your students do the more familiar they'll become with the vocabulary, how it is used and how it works.

·Don't - reinforce the mistaken idea that there is something mystical or impossible about phrasal verbs. They're just verbs like all others and there main function is to convey meaning. By telling our students that phrasal verbs are difficult or 'tricky' we establish a mental block in our learners.

·Do - encourage your students to learn and extend their knowledge of phrasal verbs. Encourage them to keep a vocabulary book and to read authentic texts and extract the phrasal verbs.

Phrasal verbs are a very common feature of English, they are expressive and rich. By encouraging our students to learn and use them we will help our students to become expressive and linguistically rich - and that is the essence of what teaching is all about.

2.2 Phrasal verbs and prepositions

verb (First used in print by Logan Pearsall Sith, in Words and Idioms (1925), in which he states that the OED Editor Henry Bradley suggested the term to him), also verb phrase, compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction (VPC), AmE two-part word/verb and three-part word/verb.type of Verb in English that operates more like a phrase than a word, such as go up (as in the balloon went up), put off (as in dont put it off any longer), and take down (as in thatll take him down a peg or two). Such composites derive primarily from verbs of movement and action (go, put, take) and adverbial particles of direction and location (up, off, down). The base verbs are mainly monosyllabic and may underlie a range of phrasal verbs: for example, get underlying get up, get down, get in, get out, get on, get off, get away, and get back. The combinations are used both literally and figuratively, and are often idioms or elements in idioms: to get away with murder, to get on like a house on fire, to get back at someone, to get up to mischief.

The use of phrasal verbs.verbs are often informal, emotive, and slangy, and may contrast with Latinate verbs, as in They used up/consumed all the fuel; they gathered together/assembled/congregated in the hall; the soldiers moved forward/advanced. Putting off a meeting parallels postponing it; driving back enemy forces repels them; putting out a fire extinguishes it; bringing back the death penalty restores it. However, such pairing often depends on context and collocation. In some cases, one phrasal verb may match several Latinate verbs: bring back = restore (the death penalty), return (money to someone), and retrieve (a shot bird or animal from where it has fallen). In other cases, one Latinate verb may match several phrasal verbs: demolish matching knock down, tear down, and blow up as variants in destructive style. It is sometimes possible to match the elements of phrasal verbs and Latinate verbs: climb up with a/scend; climb down with de/scend.verbs and prepositionsis a continuum between the phrasal verb as described above and verbs followed by phrases in which the preposition may or may not be part of the phrase. A phrasal verb can be formed elliptically from a verb plus prepositional phrase (like He took the box up from He took the box up the stairs). A transitive usage may not be separable (like pick up the book/pick the book up), but may have distinct meanings depending on where the particle is placed (get round someone, get someone round). Particles may not be clearly either adverbial or prepositional, as with off in BrE get off the bus (compare widespread AmE get off of the bus). Some prepositions may be attached to verbs preceding them, usually for figurative reasons: where the sentence He came across the street is analyzable as (He came) (across the street), the sentence He came across an old friend makes more sense as a phrasal form: (He came across) (an old friend), come across glossed as meet by chance. Some grammarians and lexicologists call a usage like come across a prepositional verb, because the particle is not adverbial but prepositional. Such a terminology, if extended, should turn phrasal verbs proper into adverbial verbs, but has not yet done so. Other commentators call the usage a fused or non-separable phrasal verb, because the preposition has been stolen from its own phrase and fused with the preceding verb in an idiom. Others still consider some particles so equivocal that they are neither adverbs as such nor prepositions as such, but ad preps. Usages include: act for represent, bargain for expect, call for demand, come by obtain, get at imply, go for attack. The issue is further complicated by occasions when the fusion occurs between a phrasal verb proper and a following preposition, as with look down on hold in contempt, check up on investigate, go along with accept, face up to confront, look back on recall, look forward to have good expectations of, look up to admire, meet up with encounter.phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and a preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition, any of which are part of the syntax of the sentence, and so is a complete semantic unit. Sentences, however, may contain direct and indirect objects in addition to the phrasal verb. Phrasal verbs are particularly frequent in the English Language. A phrasal verb often has a meaning which is different from the original verb. According to Tom McArthur: the term phrasal verb was first used by Logan Pearsall Smith, in "Words and Idioms" (1925), in which he states that the OED Editor Henry Bradley suggested the term to him. Alternative terms for phrasal verb are compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction (VPC), AmE "two-part word/verb and three-part word/verb (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb (MWV).

Phrasal verbs in informal speech

Phrasal verbs are usually used informally in everyday speech as opposed to the more formal Latinate verbs, such as "to get together" rather than "to congregate", "to put off" rather than "to postpone", or "to get out" rather than "to exit".

Prepositional verbs

Prepositional verbs are phrasal verbs that contain a preposition, which is always followed by its nominal object. They are different from inseparable transitive particle verbs, because the object still follows the preposition if it is a pronoun:

·On Fridays, we look after our grandchildren.

·We look after them. (not *look them after)verb can have its own object, which usually precedes the preposition:

·She helped the boy to an extra portion of potatoes.

·With pronouns: She helped him to some.verbs with two prepositions are possible:

·We talked to the minister about the crisis.

Phrasal-prepositional verbs

A phrasal verb can contain an adverb and a preposition at the same time. Again, the verb itself can have a direct object:

·No direct object: The driver got off to a flying start.

·Direct object: Onlookers put the accident down to the drivers loss of concentration.

2.3Guessing and explaining meanings of phrasal verbs "come" and "go"

Learning a new language is hard, theres no doubt about that. Second language students who study where that second language is spoken can pick up about 2,500 words per year if they are motivated to do so. There are a couple different strategies that can be used when it comes to unknown phrasal verbs.dictionaries come in handy from time to time, many phrasal verbs can be guessed from context. Looking up words in the dictionary, called "stopper words," break the readers concentration. There are a couple of different things that can be done to help guess the meaning of these stopper words. First, as I previously mentioned, is context. By using surrounding words and sentences, many phrasal verbs can be correctly defined or come close enough that the meaning of the text is still understood. Another strategy is to look at the structure of the word. By learning the students try to guess what the word means. Students can also learn "high frequency" vocabulary., how important are phrasal verbs? Well, "Nattinger and DeCarrico (1992) have observed that a significant amount of the English language is made up of lexical phrases, which range from phrasal verbs (two or three words) to longer institutionalized expressions (Lewis, 1993, 1997). Because lexical phrases can often be learned as single units, the authors believe that the following principles apply to them as well as to individual words" (Hunt). Because English is so rife with prepositions and many of these prepositions seem to pop up with verbs, thus making them phrasal verbs, it only makes sense that they should be learned together, especially since on their own, they won't have the same meaning (Thanasoulas). For example, if you ask someone "What's up?" If you were to take these words individually, a person not familiar with this word might answer by saying "the sky" because, well, that is what is up, directly above us (assuming you're outside of course). Used together though, we know that the words "what's up" mean "how's it going". There is really no other way to learn these phrasal verbs since they many times they don't follow any sort of logical order, at least not anymore. A long time ago these phrases probably made more sense but over time, the original meaning is lost.I mentioned above if we will learn phrasal verbs in context and look at the structure of the words, it will help us to guess the meaning of phrasal verbs.

This table presents how many meanings phrasal verbs have, and their use in everyday live. Here is given an example of phrasal verbs with translation and with sentences which was written down from different kind of literature works.

phrasal verb preposition come

Verbs, with definitions or synonymsExamplesTranslationcome about - to arise, happenHow did this question come about?возникнуть, случитьсяcome across - to be understandable, to get acrossThe meaning of his message doesn't come across. Did her poem come across to you?быть понятным, дойти до кого-тоcome across something - to find by chanceYesterday I came across an interesting article on vegetarian cooking.наткнуться на (информацию, статью)come along - to join someoneI'm going to the park. Would you like to come along?присоединиться к кому-тоcome back - to returnWe were away on vacation. We came back yesterday.вернутьсяcome by - to drop in / drop byCome by one of these days. заглянуть в гостиcome down - 1. to go down; 2. to fall1. She came down the stairs. 2. The tree came down with a loud crash.1. спуститься вниз; 2. упастьcome down to something - 1. to get to the core of the matter; 2. to go down in status, wealth1. It all comes down to the question of money. 2. I can't believe he came down to stealing!1. сводиться к (сути чего-то); 2. докатиться, опуститься до чего-тоcome down with (some illness) - to become illI can't come to your party; I'm coming down with a cold.заболеть чем-то, слечь в постельcome from (some place) - to be from some placeHe comes from a small town in France.быть родом из какого-то местаcome in - to enterPlease come in and take a seat.войтиcome into something - to enter (some place, position, state)Mary came into the room. He came into fortune when his aunt died. The military came into power in 1978. The law came into effect last month.войти в (какое-то место, положение, силу, состояние)come off - 1. to become detached (about buttons, handles, etc.); 2. to remove (stains); 3. to end successfully1. Two buttons came off my coat in a crowded subway car and I lost them. 2. I don't think these coffee stains will come off. 3. His plan didn't come off. Our dinner party came off nicely.1. отвалиться, оторваться (о пуговицах, ручках); 2. сойти (о пятнах); 3. закончиться удачно, удатьсяcome off it - (slang) stop kidding, lying, behaving in a foolish mannerOh, come off it, stop telling me tales. Come off it, give me a break!(сленг) призыв прекратить разыгрывать, придуриваться, врать: Прекратите это! / Перестаньте!come on - 1. Hurry! / Let's go! 2. Oh stop it! / Come off it!1. Come on, let's go, we're already late! 2. Oh, come on! Give me a break!1. Давай! / Пошли! 2. Перестаньте! Так я вам и поверил!come out - 1. to go out; 2. to be published (about a book); 3. to become known (about information, facts, secrets); 4. to result, to end in some way1. The door opened and Jim came out. 2. His new book came out last month. 3. The truth will come out one day. 4. I was serious, but my words came out as a joke. His plan didn't come out well.1. выйти (из какого-то места); 2. выйти (о книге); 3. стать известным (об информации, фактах, секретах); 4. закончиться каким-то результатомcome out of something - 1. to go out of (some place); 2. to result in something1. The door opened and Jim came out of the room. 2. I don't know what will come out of this.1. выйти из (какого-то места); 2. закончиться каким-то результатомcome out with (the truth) - to confess, to reveal somethingA year ago he came out with the truth about his role in that scandal.признаться, открыть правдуcome over - to visit informallyCan you come over for dinner on Friday?зайти, заглянуть к кому-то (неофициально)come through - 1. to appear, to be seen; 2. to complete something difficult successfully, to go on living; 3. to do what is expected or wanted (e.g., to help)1. His ignorance of these important facts came through at the interview. 2. He was between life and death for some time, but he came through. 3. He always comes through for us. Her father came through with a nice check.1. появиться, проявиться; 2. успешно завершить, пережить что-то; 3. сделать ожидаемое или желаемое (напр., помочь)come through something - 1. to appear, to be seen through something; 2. to complete something difficult successfully, to live through something1. The sun came through the clouds. 2. He was between life and death for some time, but he came through the operation successfully.1. появиться, проявиться сквозь что-то; 2. успешно завершить, пережить что-тоcome to - to regain consciousnessShe fainted, but came to very quickly.прийти в себя (после обморока)come to something - to reach (some place, result, position, state)She came to Moscow yesterday. The bill comes to $50. The struggle came to an end in July. The military came to power in 1978. He fainted, but quickly came to himself / to his senses. I came to the conclusion that I wanted a different job. It came to me that I had seen him before.прийти к (какому-то месту, результату, положению, состоянию)come up - 1. to go up; 2. to appear1. The prices are coming up again. 2. This information came up during the meeting. His name came up during our conversation. I'll tell you if anything good comes up.1. повышаться; 2. возникнуть, появитьсяcome up to someone - to come closer to someoneHe came up to me and asked my name.подойти к кому-тоcome up with something - to think up and suggest (an idea, a plan)Tom came up with a brilliant idea.придумать и предложить (идею, план)go ahead - to go forward; to proceed with something; to start (speaking)You go ahead, I'll join you later. The director allowed him to go ahead with his plan of changes. Go ahead, everyone is waiting for you to start.идти вперед; продолжить что-то; начать (говорить)go along (the road, street) - to go down (the road, street)He went along Maple Street to the center.идти вдоль, по улицеgo away - to leaveDon't go away, please wait here.уйтиgo back - to return (to some place, state, etc.)He went back to his hometown. Go back 3 pages. Go back to sleep.вернуться (к какому-то месту, состоянию и т.д.)go back on (one's word, promise) - to fail to fulfill a promiseHe promised he would help, but then he went back on his word.нарушить свое слово, обещаниеgo by someone or something - 1. to go past; 2. go by bus, train - to travel by bus, train; 3. go by the name - to pass by the name1. She went by me without saying hello. I went by the park and the church. 2. He always goes to work by train. 3. He goes by the name Smith.1. пройти мимо; 2. ездить каким-то транспортом; 3. жить под именемgo by - to pass (about time)Years go by, people get older.идти, проходить (о времени)go down - to become lower, to fallThe prices never go down. His temperature is going down. The sun will go down soon. He went down with pneumonia. Our sales have been going down for a long time.снижаться, опускаться, падатьgo down (the stairs, road) - 1. to descend; 2. to go along the road1. He went down the stairs to the train platform. 2. Go down this street and turn left at the bank.1. спускаться по (ступенькам); 2. идти вдоль, по улицеgo for something - 1. to go and do something; 2. to make an attempt at something; 3. to favor someone or something1. Let's go for a walk. Let's go for a drive. 2. He decided to go for the tournament. Go for it! 3. I'd go for Candidate #2. I don't go for this plan.1. пойти делать что-то; 2. пробовать себя в чем-то; 3. предпочитать, выбирать кого-то, что-тоgo in - to enter, come inThe door was open, so he went in. войтиgo into something - 1. to enter; 2. to examine in detail1. He went into that building. 2. I can't go into your report now.1. войти; 2. детально изучить или обсудитьgo off - 1. to give a sudden loud sound (about an alarm clock, car alarm); 2. to be switched off (about light, electricity)1. The alarm clock went off at 6 o'clock. 2. The power went off again yesterday.1. сработать (о будильнике, сигнализации); 2. отключиться (о свете, электричестве)go on - to continueGo on reading. Please go on.продолжать (делать что-то)go out - to go outside; to go outside for entertainmentHe went out to get a newspaper. Jim and Mary went out yesterday, they went to a restaurant. They don't go out often.выйти наружу; выйти в город, посетить места развлечений (кино, театр, ресторан)go over something - 1. to review, to look over something; 2. to examine something1. Go over these chapters again. 2. I need time to go over your report.1. перечитать, просмотреть; 2. рассмотреть что-тоgo through - to be accepted, approved or completedThe deal went through. His plan will never go through. He will never go through with his plan.быть принятым, одобренным или выполненнымgo through something - 1. to pass through something; 2. to live through something; 3. to look through something1. The refrigerator won't go through this narrow door. She went through the park. 2. He's gone through a lot of suffering. 3. Go through these chapters again.1. пройти сквозь, через что-то; 2. пережить что-то; 3. просмотреть что-тоgo to (some place) - to reach, visit, attend, travel to (some place)Go to bed. Go to page 9. He went to the bank yesterday. He went to Rome last month. Her son goes to law school. I have to go to work now. Does this bus go to the center?пойти, посетить, поехать куда-то, в какое-то местоgo together - 1. to match; 2. to accompany; 3. to date someone1. This scarf and this dress don't go together. 2. Kindness and generosity often go together. 3. Tom and Liz have been going together for a year.1. подходить друг другу; 2. сопровождать; 3. встречаться (о мужчине и женщине)go up - 1. to rise; 2. to climb (the stairs, the hill)1. The prices have gone up again. His temperature is going up. 2. He went up the stairs to his room. He went up the hill quickly.1. подниматься; 2. взбираться по чему-то, на что-тоgo with something or someone - 1. to match; 2. to accompany; 3. to date someone1. This scarf doesn't go with this dress. Apples go with cheese. 2. I'll go with you to the store. 3. Tom went with Gina before he met Liz.1. подходить друг другу; 2. сопровождать; 3. встречаться (о мужчине и женщине)

Come about: come about: to happen or start to exist ? The discovery of penicillin came about entirely by chance. When did life begin on Earth, and how did it come about?across:1come across sth/sb: to find something or meet someone by chance ? I came across her son's diary while she was tidying his room. 2 come across sth: to experience a particular type of problem, situation etc ? / expect you'll come across all sorts of difficulties, but it's still worth trying.3come across: to seem to be a particular type of person or thing. Come across as (being) sth ? He comes across as being rather arrogant, come across well/ badly (=make people have a good or bad opinion of you) ? I'm sure she's an excellent politician, but she comes across badly on television. 4 come across: to be made clear or understood ? what comes across very strongly in her letters is her wonderful sense of humor.along - come along: to go somewhere with someone? We're going to watch the football -do you want to comealong?2come along: if something new such as a job or an opportunity comes along, it becomes available for you This job came along just at the right time. come along: to arrive or appear somewhere ? The police eventually came along and took the man away.

  1. Be coming along: to be making good progress ? The doctor said that Richard was coming along nicely and would be able to go home on Friday. 4 Come along!: used to tell someone to hurry or make more effort ? Come along, girls! We'll be late if we don't go now.

Come apart- 1 come apart: to fail completely ? The peace agreement seemed to be coming apart, come apart at the seams (=used to emphasize that something is likely to fail completely) ?His whole life seemed to be coming apart at the seams. 2come apart: to break or separate into pieces ?Bruce grabbed the book from me and it came apart in his hands.round - 1come around/ round: to come to someone's house in order to see them ?Valerie and John said they might come around this evening.2 come around/round: to start to agree with or accept something that you did not agree with before ? My mother stopped speaking to me when i first left home, but she's coming round now.

  1. Come back: if something from the past comes back to you, you remember it ? She looked at the photograph, and suddenly it all came back. Come back: to reply with humor or anger to something someone says ?He always comes back with some kind of witty reply. Comeback n a humorous or angry reply ? I can never think of a good comeback until it's too late.

Come before - Come before sb/sth: to be brought to someone with official authority in order to be judged or discussed

?Murphy's case came before Judge Holden at the Crown Court.

Come between - 1 Come between sb: to spoil a relationship or friendship ? In the end it was Jed's jealousy and pride that came between us. Come between sb and sth: to prevent someone from giving enough attention to something ? He never let anyone come between him and his - 1 Come by sth: to get something ? I wonder how he came by so much money at his age. 2 come by: to make a short visit to a place on your way to somewhere else ?Can I come by tonight and get my stuff?down: to accept a lower price for something than you had asked for so theyre asking £150,000 for the house, but they might come down a bit. 2 come down: if a building, wall etc comes down, it is destroyed ?The Berlin Wall came down in 1989. 2 come down: if a plane comes down, it crashes to the ground ? The plane came down in Bilmermeer, and there were no survivors.4 come down in favor of sth/sb: to decide to support something or someone, especially officially ? The president is expected to come down in favor of military intervention, come down on the side of sth/ sb ? The judge in the case came down on the side of the unions.

  1. Come down: to stop feeling the excitement caused by taking an illegal drug ? An addict coming down off heroin is usually in a deeply depressed state.

Come down on: Come down on sb: to criticize or punish someone for something ? Your manager will really come down on you if the job isn't finished in time, come down on sb like a ton of bricks (=criticize or punish someone very severely) ? He made one tiny mistake and they came down on him like a ton of bricks. Come down to:1 come down to sth: to be the most important thing to consider, when it comes down to it (=this is the most important point) ? When it comes down to it, you have to remember she's only sixteen. 2 if it comes down to it...: used to say that if something becomes really necessary, that is what you will have to do ? If it comes down to it, we'll just have to take a later flight. Come down with: come down with sth: to get an illness ? Almost everyone in the office came down with flu. Come for: come for sb: to arrive in order to take someone somewhere ? The taxi's coming for us at nine. Come forward: come forward: to be willing to do something, especially to give someone information ? People who are bullied at work are often too scared to come forward. Come forward with come forward with sth: to suggest something or to give the money needed for something ? Delores came forward with detailed proposals for a range of reforms. Come from I come from sth: if you come from a particular place, you were born there or have your home there ? Most of our students come from Europe.2come from sth: to belong to particular type of family or social class ? The kids at this school come from all kinds of backgrounds.2 understand where sb's coming from: to understand why someone thinks the way they do ? I disagree with her all the time -I just don't understand where she's coming -1come in: used to ask someone to enter the room or building that you are in ? would you like to come in and have a drink? 1come in: if a train, bus, plane, or ship comes in, it arrives at a station, airport, or port ? What time should the train from Boston come in? incoming adj traveling towards a place and arriving soon ? incoming flights ? incoming passengers 3come in: to become involved in a plan, activity etc. + on ? Three more top bands have offered to come in on the anti-drugs campaign, be where/ how sb/ sth comes in (=be what someone or something's part in a plan is)"? We need someone who knows the area, and that's where Mick comes in. 4come in: to finish a race, competition etc in a particular.? The favorite horse only just finished the race, coming in way behind the others. 5come in: to start to be used and have an effect ? A new law came in today requiring all bars to close by 2am. 6 come in: if a new fashion comes in, it starts to be fashionable ? Bright colors are coming in again for this summer. 8 come in useful also come in handy: to be useful for something ? Keep that box - it might come in handy for something. 8 the tide comes in: when the tide comes in, the sea moves towards the land ? its only safe to swim her when the tide's coming in.ADI an incoming tide is! Coming towards the land ? The rocks were slowly being covered by the incoming tide. come in for come in for criticism/ praise etc: to be i criticized, praised etc for something ? In Dr Yates' speech, Samuel Whitbread came in for special praise. COME INTO 1 come into effect also come into operation: to begin to be used and have an effect ? The new tax came into operation on April 1st. ? In 1952, the peace treaty came into effect. 2 come into being also come into existence: to start to exist ? The company came into existence in 1987. 3 come into sight also come into view. if something comes into sight or view, you begin to be able to see it ? We finally reached the top of the hill, and the town came into view. 4 come into it: to be an important part activity, event, or process ? / don't think any good has come out of this war at all. 2 come out of sth: to stop being in a particular situation or state, especially a bad one ? Various signs suggest that the economy may be coming out of recession. 2 come out of sth well/ badly etc: to give someone a good or bad idea about you because of the way you have done or dealt with something ?I've just read a book about him. He doesn't come out of it very well. Come out with -come out with sth: to say something, especially something wrong, stupid, or annoying ? When I asked for his opinion, he came out with a long list of criticisms. Come over -1come over: to visit you at your house ? Why don't you come over this evening and we'll talk about it then? 1 come over sb: if a feeling or a change comes over you, you experience it ? She knew he was watching her, and a feeling of panic came over her. what has come over sb? (=used when you are surprised because someone has suddenly started behaving in strange way) ? / don't know what's come over him -he actually said hello to me this morning! 3come over: to seem to be a particular type of person or thing, or to have particular qualities. As ?Mrs Robins came over as a cold strict woman. 4come over: to be dearly expressed and easy to notice or understand ?The same message is coming over again and again: we are slowly destroying the planet.

5 come over: to leave a group, team, or organization and join one that is: competing against it. + from ? Patrice Tardif was one of the three players who came over from the Blues.

Come round - come through: if something comes through, it reaches you and you receive it ? / was in Boston when the news came through. ? Hank's divorce came through sooner than he had expected. 1come through sth: to succeed in getting to the end of a dangerous or difficult situation ? amazingly, our house came through the storm without much damage. 1 come through: to provide something that someone needs or has asked for. with ? The US came through with $ billion in 1come to sth: to reach a particular state or situation - used especially in the following phrases: come to an end (=finish) ? My stay in San Francisco was coming to an end. come to an agreement (=agree about something) ?It was several months before we eventually came to an agreement, it comes to the point where (=used to say that you have reached a particular situation) ? It came to the point where we could no longer bear to talk to each other. 2come to a decision also come to a conclusion etc: to make a decision about something ? All the candidates for the sales job were good, and it took us a long time to come to a decision. 2 when it comes to sth: used to introduce the subject that you are going to talk about or deal with ?When it comes to relationships, everyone makes mistakes. ? The government has had little success when it comes to education. 4 Come to power: to officially start to rule a country ? The Communists came to power in China in 1949. 5 come to nothing a/50 not come to anything: to develop or not develop into something successful, it was obvious that their efforts would come to nothing. 5come to sth: to start to talk about something or deal with it ? There are reasons for our decision, which I'll come to later. 5come to sth: to add up to a particular total ? At the end of the evening the bill came to £50. 6 come to sb: if a thought or idea comes to you, you think of it ? I've forgotten the name of the restaurant- it'll come to me in a minute. 7come to: to become conscious again after an accident or operation ? When I came to, I was lying in a hospital bed.

Come together - 1 come together: to join together with other people, in order to do something. to do sth ? Several local groups had come together to form the new party. 1 be coming together: if something is coming together, it is finally starting to be successful ? Linda was just beginning to feel that her life was coming togetherunder - 1 come under attack/ criticism etc: to be attacked, criticized etc ? 0/7 tankers and trucks came under air attack on January 29. ? The government came under strong pressure to negotiate with the hijackers, come under fire (=be criticized) ? 7V companies have come under fire for the amount of violence on our screens. a come under scrutiny/review etc: to be examined or considered carefully ? The new policy came under intense scrutiny.up - come up: to move towards someone or something until you are next to them ? She came up and put her arms around him. + to ? A lot of people came up to her and started asking questions. come up: if an opportunity comes up, it becomes available ? Let me know if you hear of any suitable jobs coming up. ? If you keep on trying, I'm sure something will come up. 1 come up: to be mentioned in a conversation ? We'd been going out together for two years before the subject of marriage came up. 1 come up: if a problem comes up, it suddenly appears ? It's been one of those days when problems keep coming up all the time, something's come up p I'm afraid I'm going to be late home - something's come up at work. 1 is coming up: to be going to happen soon ? Your birthday's coming up next month, isn't it? ? The Annual Folk Festival is coming up on May 3rd. come up: if the sun or moon comes up, it moves up into the sky where you can see it we got up early to watch the sun come up behind the mountains. Come up: if a plant or seed comes up, it begins to appear above the ground. ? If you plant the seeds now they should come up in about ten days time. 8 come up: if a number comes up in competition, you win something if you have chosen the same number ? youll win about sixty pounds if three of your numbers come up. 9 coming (right) up! Used to tell someone that something they have just ordered will be ready soon ? Two Martinis, please." "Coming up, sir!" come up against -come up against sth/sb: to have to deal with a problem or difficult person p- Women police officers often complain that they come up against a lot of sexism.

Come up for -1 come up for sale also come up for auction: to become available to buy ? I'd really love to buy that house, if it ever comes up for sale.2 come up for discussion also come up for debate: to be formally discussed ? The issue came up for debate in Parliament three days later. 3 come up for sth: to reach the time when something should be dealt with or done ? The case came up for review and the men were found innocent. ? In November, one third of the Senate comes up for re-election. come up to - 1 come up to sth: to reach a particular standard, come up to sb's/sth's standards ? Many of Britain's beaches do not come up to EC standards, come up to expectations ? We loved the island, but the hotel didn't really come up to our expectations, come up to scratch (=be as good as expected or as something should be) ? Over a third of the schools in the survey didn't come up to scratch. 1 is coming up to sth: to be nearly a particular time or age ? It was coming up to two o'clock by the time everyone had left. ? My oldest son's just coming to sixteen.

  1. Come up with - come up with sth: to think of an idea, plan, or solution ? A good leader has to be able to identify problems and come up with solutions. 2 come up with sb/ sth: to find a suitable person or thing ? weve advertised several times, but haven't been able to come up with a suitable candidate.

Come upon - come upon sb/sth: to meet someone or find something by chance or when you do not expect it ? On the second day we came upon the remains of a Roman villa.within -1 come within seconds/ inches etc of doing sth: used to say that someone every nearly does something or something very nearly happens ? He came within two percentage points of winning Arizona. ? Afterwards I realized I'd come within seconds of death. 1 come within sight/reach etc: to be close enough to something to see it or reach it, or to be seen or reached. + of ? As Beatty came within sight of his office, he was surprised to see a small group waiting at the door. ? Parts of the city centre were coming within range of heavy artillery.about - 1 I go about sth: to start to do or deal with something in a particular way * Growing herbs is not difficult, providing you go about it in the right way. How do you go about doing sth? (=what is the best way to do something?) ? How do I go about finding out about the different courses available? 2 go about your business/work etc: to continue doing your activities or your job in the usual way ? Even after last night's air attack, the people of the town are going about their business as usual. 3 go about doing sth: to do something a lot, especially something that annoys other people ? You shouldn't go about spreading malicious gossip. 4 go about: to dress or behave in a particular way. + in ? In the days that followed, Lisa went about in a daze. You can't go about in shorts and sandals at the office.5 go about sth, go about: to move or travel around a place ? She went about the room, putting everything back in its place. 6 go about, go about sth: if a story or piece of information is going about, a lot of people are talking about it ? That story's been going about for weeks now, and it's absolute rubbish! + that ? Rumors have been going about that the couples are planning to get married 7 go about: if an illness is going about, a lot of people are getting it ? At least three people are away with flu - there's a lot of it going about at the moment.about together - go about with sb, go about together:spend a lot of time with someone because you are friends or are having a relationship with them ? Didn't you and Frank use to go about together when you were at university? Go after - 1 go after sb/sth: to follow or chase someone, in order to catch them, attack them, or talk to them ? She looked so upset. Do you think I should go after her? 2 go after sth: to try to get something, especially a job or a particular type of business ? I've decided to go after that job in Ohio. ? Tobacco companies are going after teenage smokers in a big way.against - 1 go against sth: if something goes against an idea, principle, or rule, it seems very different from it, or breaks that rule ? Her parents didn't want her to get a divorce. It went against their religious beliefs, it goes against the grain (=used to say that something is very different from what you would normally do) ? It goes against the grain to tell a complete stranger everything about your private life. 2 go against sth/sb: to not do what someone has asked or advised you to do, or to do something different to it. go against sb's advice/wishes etc ? He went against his doctor's advice and went back to work the following week, go against sb ? She never expected her mother to go against her father like that. 3 go against sb: if a court case, decision, vote etc goes against you, you lose or you do not get the result that you want ? Our lawyer had warned us that the case might go against us. Things go against you (=used to say that events happen in a way that is bad for you) ? By the end of the 1980s, things started to go against us, and we lost a lot of money.ahead - 1 go ahead: to do something that you have been planning or preparing to do. + With ? Last night railway workers looked likely to go ahead with their strike, go ahead and do sth ?In the end, the newspaper went ahead and published the story. the go-ahead n if someone gives you the go-ahead to do something, they give you official permission to start doing it ? The movie was given the go-ahead and production started in May.

go ahead: to take place, especially in spite of problems or opposition ?The match went ahead, despite the terrible weather conditions. ? Mr. Connelly went into hospital, but was told that his operation could not go ahead. 3 go ahead!: a. used to give someone permission to do something ? "Do you mind if I smoker "No, go ahead." b. used to encourage someone to start doing something ? Go ahead. Matt, we're all dying to hear your story. с used to tell someone in a threatening way that you do not care if they do something ? "If you don't get off my land, I'll take you to court." "Go ahead." 4 go ahead: to go somewhere before or in front of other people you are with ?I'll go ahead in my car, because I know the way.

Go along - 1go along: to go to a place or an event ? theyre having a party at Patrick's house. Do you feel like going along? 2 do sth as you go along: to do something at the same time as you are doing something else, especially because you have not planned or prepared it properly ? I'm sure she was making her speech up as she went along. ? You can't just make the rules of the game as you go along! 3be going along: to progress in a particular way ? theyve been going out together for six months, and everything seems to be going along quite nicely.

Go along with - go along with sth/sb: to accept someone's idea or suggestion, especially because it might upset someone or cause trouble if you do not ? / wasn't very keen on the idea, but I went along with it just to keep everyone happy.round - 1 go around/ round: to go to see someone for a short time, especially at the peace where they live ? / think I'll go round and see Jim on my way home tonight. + to ? Marie went around to Bella's place, to try and persuade her to come to the party. 2 go around/ round sth: to move or travel around a place ? I spent the morning going around the city taking photographs. 3 go around/ round sth, g around/round: to go to a number of different places of the same type, one after the other ? Mrs. Taylor went around the shops, ordering what she thought was necessary. + to ? We went round to all the clubs, but Des wasn't in any of them. go around/round doing sth: to say or do something a lot, especially something annoying ? You can't go around accusing people of things like that. go around/ round: to dress or behave in a particular way, especially regularly ? I can't see anything without my glasses -1 might as well go around with my eyes shut. 6 go around/ round, go around/ round sth: if a story or piece of information is going around, a lot of people are talking about it ? I don't usually pay any attention to the gossip going around at work. + that ? There's been a rumour going round that they're planning to close the factory. 7enough plenty etc to go around: if there is enough food, drink, work etc to go around, there is enough for everyone to have some ? Do you think we've got enough pizza to go round? ? Builders are really having a hard time these days - there just isn't enough work to go around.

8 go around/round, go around/round sth: if an illness is going around, a lot of people are getting it ? A particularly unpleasant virus was going around the school.

Go round also go around together - go around/round with sb, go around/ round together: to spend a lot of time with someone, for example: because you are friends or are having I a romantic relationship with them ; ? There was a gang of about six of us \ who went round together all the time.

Go at -1 go at sth: to start to do something or deal with it in a particular way, especially in a determined or energetic way, go at it ? The women went at it with tremendous enthusiasm. 2 go at sb: to start to fight, attack, or argue with someone ? Sophie went at him with a kitchen knife.

Go away - leave a place or a person ? Go away and let me get some sleep! ? He pushed the letter under the door and went away, 2 go away: to leave your home in order to spend some time somewhere else. We're going away to France for a week. ? Dad often had to go away on business. 3 go away: if a problem, pain, or something unpleasant goes away, it disappears ? After about an hour, the pain started to go away, sth goes away by itself (-it disappears without anyone doing anything) ? Traffic problems won't just go away by themselves - it's up to us to take action.

Go back - 1go back: to return to a place where you have been before, or to the place where you were until recently ? They left Africa in 1962, and they never went back. to ? We went back to the hotel for dinner. 2 go back: if something goes back to a time in the past, it started to exist then. + to ? Parts of the castle here go back to the twelfth century, sth goes back a long way (=it started a long time ago and has existed for a long time) ? theyre a very old family - their name goes back a long way. 3 go back, go back sth: to consider or discuss things that happened at a time in the past *? Let's go back a few million years and look at the time of the dinosaurs. + to ? To understand many emotional problems, you often have to go back to the patient's childhood. 4 you can't go back also there's no going hack: used to say that you cannot change your situation back to how it used to be ? If we sell the house, there's no going back. 5go back: if schools or students go back, the schools open and the students start studying again after the holidays ? When do the schools go back?* to ? The kids go back to school in the first week of September, 6 go back: to be returned to the place where something was bought or borrowed from ? Don't forget the car has to go back tomorrow - we only hired it for a week. 7 go back:

to start working again after a strike ? The miners say they won't go back unless they get more money. 8 go back a long way: if two people go back a long way, they have known each other for a long time ? Annie and Richard go back a long way - at least fifteen years. 9 the clocks go back: when the clocks go back in the autumn, the time officially changes so that it is one hour earlier than it was before ? The clocks go back some time in October, don't they?

Go back on - 1 go back on sth: to not do what you have promised, agreed, or said you would do ? He said he won't lend us any money, and I can't see him going back on his decision, go back on your word (=not do what you have promised or agreed to do) ? "You can trust me," said Professor Higgins. "I never go back on my word." 2 go back on sth: to change what you said before, or say that you never said it ? One of the witnesses has gone back on her original story.

Go back over - go back over sth: to examine, consider, or repeat something again ? Would you mind going back over the rules for me again?

Go back to 1 go back to sth: to start to do something again that you were doing before, or used to do in the past, go back to work/ school etc ? After the operation, it was six weeks before I could go back to work, go back to sleep/ bed ? / tried to go back to sleep, but I couldn't stop thinking. go back to doing sth ? I'd hate to go back to living abroad now. 2 go back to sth: to return to a situation or state that used to exist before ? It will be a long time before things start to go back to normal after the war. Can't we just go back to being friends?

2 Go back to sb: to start to have a relationship with someone again after it had ended ? He'll never go back to his girlfriend now. 4 go back to sth: to start talking about or considering something again. Can we just go back to Alan's point for a minute?

Go befor 1have gone before: to have happened or existed before ? Industrialization created a form of society that was different from any that had gone before, what has gone before ? In many ways this program improves on what has gone before. 2 go before sb: to be considered by someone in authority, so that they can make an official decision ? The proposal will go before the Planning Committee at their next meeting. Go beyond - go beyond sth: to be much better, more serious, more advanced etc than something else ? The book's success went beyond anything we had expected, p- She didn't just feel unhappy - it went beyond thatby 1 go by: if time goes by, it passes. Twenty years had gone by since I lost saw him. ? As time went by, our fears for her safety increased. Bygone adj used to describe a period of time as one that existed along time ago. ?Their way of life is a reminder of a bygone age. 2 go by: to move past you, especially when you are not moving ?I sat down at an open air café, and watched the people doing by. 3 go by sth: to stop at a place for a short time, usually to get something ? On the way home I went by Jasons to pick up my pocket. 4 go by sth: to use a particular thing when you are making a judgment or deciding what you should do? ? You cannot go by that old map. Its completely out of date. If sths anything to go by (=used when saying that something is likely to be true) ?it should be a great movie, if Kubricks other work is anything to go by. 5 Go by sth: to obey the rules of something ? there was one point in the game when he certainly wasnt going by the rules. Go by the book (=be very careful to obey all the rules exactly) ? There is a fixed procedure for making a complaint, and we prefer it if you go by the book. 6 Let sth go by: to deliberately ignore or not react badly to someones remarks or behavior ? "Ill let it go by this time," the teacher said, "but I dont want it to happen again".down- 1 go down sth: to move along a street, passage etc in order to get somewhere ? I went down the corridor and knocked on the staffroom door. 2 go down, go down sth: to go to a particular place near where you live, or the one that you usually go to. +to? the kids have gone down to the river, go down the shops/pub.ect. ?My dad always used to go down the pub after Sunday dinner. 3 go down: to visit or travel to a place, especially somewhere that is further south or in the country P-At weekends, Wright used to go down and stay with his father in Mississippi. + to ? Three days a week Kate went down to Camber well to teach. 4 go down: to reach as far as a particular point or place. + to ? the road doesn't go down to the beach - we'll have to walk from here. 4 go down: if a price or the level of something goes down, it gets lower ?The price of fruit tends to go down in the summer. + to ? When I came out of hospital, my weight had gone down to eight stone. 6 go down: if the standard or quality of something goes down, it becomes worse ? The standard of the food in the canteen has gone down a lot recently, things have gone down ?Things have really gone down at the school since the old head teacher left. 7go down: if a computer goes down, or the telephone lines go down, they stop working because of a fault ?Make sure you save your work regularly, just in case the computers go down. ? The lines had gone down in the storm, and we were cut off for days. 8 go down well/ badly etc: to get good, bad etc reaction from people ?The band's given several performances so far, and they all went down really well. ? / could see at once that my comments had gone down badly.9 go down well also go down nicely etc: if food or drink goes down well, nicely etc you enjoy eating or drinking it ? A long cold drink would go down very nicely, thank you 10 go down: when the sun goes down at the end of the day, it gradually gets lower in the sky until it disappears ?The sun was going down in the West. 11 go down: to fall to the ground, especially because of an accident or injury ? The leading horse went down at the last jump.12go down on your knees also go down on all fours: to get into a kneeling position, or in a position with your hands and knees on the floor ?Did he go down on his knees when he asked you to marry him?-1 quickly went down on all fours and started to crawl towards the door.13 go down: if a ship or boat goes down, it sinks ? Then our small boat began to go down and we found ourselves in the river. 14 go down: if a plane goes down, it crashes to the ground ? The aircraft went down somewhere over the Atlantic.15 the lights go down: if lights go down in a theatre, cinema etc, they are turned off or made less bright so that the show can begin ? The lights went down as the orchestra started to play. 16 go down: to lose a game against another team or player. + to/against ? United went down 2-0 against Rovers. 17 go down: to move down to a lower group of teams or players who play against each other. + top At the end of the season, five clubs went down to the second division. 18 go down:a tyre, balloon etc goes down, the air goes out of it ? It looks as if the front tyre has gone down. 19 go down: if a swelling on your body goes down, it disappears ? If you rest your leg, the swelling should go down soon. 20 go down: to be sent to prison ? It was a horrible crime and the boys involved deserved to go down, go down for life/10 years etc ? If they ever catch the murderer, he'll go down for life. 21 go down: to happen ? I'll never understand exactly what went down that night. 22 what's going down?: used as a greeting when you meet someone ?Hey, Bob! What's going down? Go down as - go down as sth: to be remembered or recorded as being a particular thing or type of person ? He's sure to go down as one of the greatest ever basketball players, go down in history as sth ?She'll go down in histories one of our most courageous war heroes. Go down with - go down with sth: to get an illness, especially one that is not very serious ?Several people at work has gone down with flu. Go for - 1go for sth: to try to get, win, or achieve something. What sort of job are you going for, Tim? go for it! (=used to encourage someone to try to do or get something) ? It sounds like a good deal! Go for it! sb really goes for it (=used to say that someone tries as hard as they can to get something) ? If she sees a chance for promotion, she really goes for it. 2 go for sth: to choose a particular thing because you think it is better or more suitable ? I'd go for the black dress if I were you.3 go for sth/sb: to like a particular type of thing or person ? / don't normally go for bright colors. 4 go for sth: to be sold or available for a particular price ? How much did the painting go for in the end? 5 go for sb: to attack someone physically or criticize them very severely ? Ben lifted his arm and for a second I thought he was going to go for me. ? She always used to go for him in meetings. 6 that goes for sb/ sth also the same goes for sb/ sth: used to say that the same thing is also true about someone or something else ? I've always hated living in cities. Fortunately the same goes for my husband. 7 have a lot going for you: to have a lot of advantages or good qualities ? weve always thought that the Austrian skiing resorts have a lot going for them, have everything going for you ? She had everything going for her, and then she had that terrible accident. 8 go for sth: to be used for a particular purpose ? £54 million went for the resettlement of refugees. 9 go for your gun/ knife etc: to move your hand quickly towards your gun, knife etc, in order to use it ? The police officer thought he was going for his gun, and shot him through the chest.forward - 1go forward: to start to happen or to make progress ? The project can only go forward if we are able to get further financial support. 2 go forward: if someone or something's name goes forward for a job, prize etc, and their name is officially suggested for it ? Six names went forward for the position of chairman.

  1. go forward: to compete in the next stage of a competition after winning the previous stage. + to ? The winner of the competition will go forward to the national final. 4 the clocks go forward: when the clocks go forward in the spring, the time officially changes so that it is one hour later than it was before ? The clocks go forward this Saturday.
  2. Go forward to-1 go forward to sth: to be taken to a group of people in authority in order to be considered or officially decided ?Our recommendations went forward to the Finance Committee. > The case then went forward to the European Court of Human Rights.

Go forward with - go forward with sth: to start to do something that you have planned ?Are you sure you want to-go forward with these charges?in -1go in: to enter a building or room ?It's starting to rain. Do you want to go in? 2 go in: to go to the place where you work " Ed went in early every day last week. + to ? Can I take the car if you're not going in to work tomorrow? 3 go in: to go and stay in hospital in order to receive treatment ? He's had to go in to have an operation on his eye. + for ? The actress reportedly went in for cosmetic surgery last week. 4 go in: to enter a dangerous building, area, or country in order to try and deal with the problems there ? ok men. We're going i go in sth, 5 go in: to fit inside a container, space, hole etc ?There must be something wrong with this cassette; it won't go in. 6 go in, go in sth: to join a company or organization ? Bob went in at quite a low level, but he was quickly promoted.7 go in: if the sun or moon goes in, it disappears behind clouds ? The sun had gone in and it was starting to get cold. 8go in: if a piece of information goes in, you understand it and remember it / tried to concentrate on what he was saying, but it just wasn't going in. go in for - 1 go in for sth: to do, use, have etc a particular type of thing, because you like it, or because it seems a good idea ? In our family we don't go in much for formal meals. ? Men don't usually go in for displays of emotion. 2 go in for sth: to take part in a competition or examination ? / decided I'd go in for the Young Entertainer of the Year contest. ? There are several exams you can go in for if you want to improve your qualifications. 5 go into - 1 go into work/ hospital etc: to go to work, hospital etc ? You don't look well enough to go into work today. 2 go into sth: to go to the centre of the town that you live in or near ? I thought I'd go into Cambridge this afternoon, go into town ? Could you give me a lift if you're going into town? 3go into sth: to fit inside a container, space, hole etc ? Which hole does this screw go into? 4 go into sth: to join a company, organization, or profession ? At sixteen he left go into sth: to talk about something, especially in a detailed way ? It's a difficult subject and there isn't time to go into it here. 5 go Into sth: to find out more about something, by getting all the necessary information ? Before you make any further plans, you'd better go into the cost of all this. 6 go into sth: to start to be in a particular state or situation, especially a bad one ? Her son went into a coma and never came out of it.7 go into debt ? We had to go into debt in order to pay for our daughter's wedding. 8 go into sth: to start behaving in a particular way. go into a mood/ temper ?She's gone into one of her moods and is refusing to talk to anyone, go into a panic ? The crowd went into a panic, and started to run for the exits. 9 go into sth: if a lot of time, money, effort etc goes into doing something, it is used in order to do it ? Years of research went into the book, go into doing sth ? Huge amounts of money have gone into developing new cancer drugs. 10 go into sth: to be used in something you are making ? Some quite expensive ingredients go into this recipe. 11go into sth: to take part in a competition, election, or exam ? The US team is extremely confident as it goes into Thursday's game. 12 go into sth: to accidentally hit something such as a wall, tree, car etc ?I didn't see the red lights and I went into the back of a BMW. 13 go into sth: if a number goes into a second number, the second number school and went into the family business can be divided exactly by the first ? Seven doesnt go into thirty-two.

Go off- 1 go off: to leave the place where you are and go somewhere else. + To ?All the men had gone off to the war. + to do sth ? Dad went off to watch the baseball game. 2 go off sb/sth: to stop liking someone or something that you used to like ?Pete went off me after he met another girl on holiday. ?I used to enjoy tennis, but Ive gone off a bit now. 3 go off: if food or drink goes off, it is not good to eat or drink any more because it is no longer fresh ? Milk usually goes off after a few days. 4 go off: if a bomb goes off, it explodes ?A bomb went off in East London last night, killing two people. 5 go off: if a light, machine ect goes off, it stops working ?Suddenly all the lights went off. 6 go off: if a gun goes off, it fires ?I heard a gun go off in the distance. 7 go off: If an alarm goes off, it makes a sudden loud noise ?I set my alarm clock to go off at six. 8 go off well also go off smoothly: to happen successfully in the way that you had planned ? Rosie was very nervous, but all the arrangements went off really smoothly. 9 go off: to suddenly start talking or thinking about something completely different? Ian suddenly went off into a description of his childhood. 10 go off: to become worth in standard or quality ?It used to be a lovely hotel, but its gone off a bit in recent years. 11 go off: to talk to or shout at someone very angrily. + on ? Melissa really went off on Rich as soon as he got home. Go off with -1go off with sb: to leave your husband, wife, boyfriend etc in order to have a relationship with someone else ? Ken went off with a woman half his age. 2 go off with sth: to take something away from somewhere without permission, or to steal something ? I think someone went off with my coat by mistake. ?He went off with thousands of pounds worth of jewelers. Go on - 1go on: to continue to happen or exist ? The party went on until four in the morning. + for ? The talks are expected to go on for several weeks. go on and on (=continue for a very long time) ? The meeting went on and on, until we were practically, falling asleep. on going adj is used to emphasize that something continues to happen and does not stop ? Learning is an ongoing process - it doesn't stop when you leave school. 2 go on: to continue doing something without stopping or changing ? If you go on like this, you'll end up in hospital, go on doing sth ? Philip completely ignored what I said and went on eating. ? It could go on raining like this all day. 9 go on: if something is going on, it is happening, especially something strange, unusual, or confusing ? It was obvious that something very suspicious was going on. Whats going on ? There seems to be a lot of noise -what's going on in there? Goings-on pl n events or activities that seem strange or that you disapprove of"- There've been some strange goings-on in the house next door. 4 go on: to do or achieve something, after you have finished doing something else. + to do sth ? He went on to win an Olympic Gold medal in the 400 metres. + to ? In 1980 fewer than 30% of girls went on to higher education. 5 go on: to continue talking about something ? "There's only one other possibility," Jed went on. + with ?After a short pause, Maria went on with her story. 6 go on: to talk too much in a boring way. Sb does go on ? Pam's a really nice person but she does go on a bit! go on and on ? The speaker went on and on until several people left the hall. 7 go on: to keep complaining about something ? I wish you'd stop going on, Mum! + about ? He's always going on about how much work he's got to do. 8 go on: to continue travelling towards a particular place or in a particular direction ? They stopped at a cafe and had a meal before going on again. 9 go on: to go somewhere before the other people you are with > Bill and the girls went on in the car and the rest of us followed on foot, go on ahead ? Why don't you go on ahead - we'll catch up with you later. 10 go on: to continue for a particular distance, especially a long one, or over a particular area ? In front of us, the desert went on as far as the eye could 11 go on!: used to encourage someone to do something ? Go on, James, tell us what happened! 12 go on (then): used to tell someone that you will agree to something that you had refused to agree to before ?"Don't you think I could borrow the car, just for once?" "Oh, go on then." 13 go on sth: to base your opinion on the information that is available ? I can only go on the information that I've got in Ths report. 14 go on sth: to spend money or time on something ? A large proportion of my salary goes on our mortgage, go on doing sth ? The money we raised went on rebuilding the church tower. 15 go on: if a light, machine, or piece of equipment goes on, it starts working ? the inside light goes on automatically when you open the door. As time/ the day etc goes on: used to describe what happens while time passes 4s time went on, we no longer seemed to have much in common. 16 go on sth: to start taking a type of medical drug ? I don't want to go on sleeping pills, if I can possibly avoid it. Go on with -have enough to go on with: to have enough of something, so that you do no need any more at the moment ?Have you got enough money to be going on with? go out- 1 go out: 10 leave a building, room etc in order to go somewhere else ? Maria got up and went out. ? Do you want to go out into the garden? 2go out: to leave your house in order to meet people, enjoy yourself etc

?Let's go out and celebrate! + for ?Do you want to go out for a pizza tonight? + to do sth ? Will's just gone out to play football with the other boys. 3 go out: to travel to another country, especially one that is far away ? My sister lives in Toronto and we're all going out there in the summer. + to ? Louisa has gone out to Australia to try and find a job for the summer. 4 goes out: if a light does out, it stops shining? I sat and watched all the lights go out one by one. 5 go out: to stop burning ?By now, the barbecue had gone out and it was starting to rain. 6 go out: if news or an official message goes out, it is announced or sent ? the news went out that Mandela was about to be released. + to? Invitations to the conference went out to twenty five countries. 6 go out: to stop being fashionable or stop being usual ? People used to wear white leather boots- but they went out years ago. Go out of fashion ? Computer games can quickly go out of fashion. 8 go out and do sth: to do something difficult on a determined way ? "I want you to go out there and win," said the coach.

go out: if money goes out, it is spent ? everythings so expensive - my money goes out almost as soon as I get it. Outgoings Pl n the money that you have to spend regularly each month or year ? if you are outgoings are high, it is difficult to save money as well. 10 go out: to be broadcast on television or radio ? The interview will go out live at 7 o clock on Wednesday evening. 11 the tide goes out: if the tide goes out, the sea moves away from the land ? it can be dangerous to swim here when the tides going out. 12 go out: to lose a game against another player or team, so that you cannot continue in a sports competition ? She went out in the quarter finals at Wimbledon. Go out of- go out of sth/sb: if the excitement, energy etc goes out of something or someone, they no longer have it ? All the fun and excitement had gone out of her life. Go out to - your sympathy goes out to sb also your heart etc goes out to sb: used to say that you fee! A lot of sympathy for someone because they are in a very sad or difficult situation ? Our sympathy goes out to all the families affected by this tragedy. Go out with-" go out together, go out with sb: to have a romantic or sexual relationship with someone, but not be married to or live with them ? / only went out with Pete a couple of times - he wasn't really my type!

Go over - 1go over: to visit someone who lives near you for a short time ? Debbie's out of hospital - Ithink I might go over and see her this evening. + to ? I'm going over to Steve's for dinner. 2 go over: to visit a place that is across the sea. + to ? We're going over to Ireland to see Jenny's family. 3 go over sth: to examine or discuss something carefully and in detail ? The President was in his study, going over his speech for the following day.

  1. go over sth: to explain something to someone to make sure that they have understood it ? Our boss went over what we had to do when the visitors arrived. 5 go over sth: to keep thinking about something that has happened, especially something bad or annoying ?Neil kept going over what had happened, trying to work out how it had all gone wrong, go over sth in your mind > She went over it again and again in her mind. Why had Robert been so unfriendly? 6 go over sth: to clean something thoroughly ? Simon went over the carpet with the vacuum cleaner.

Going-over n give sth a going-over to clean something ? / need to give the house a good going-over before Mum comes to stay. 7 go over sth: to search a place very carefully ? I've gone over every inch of the house, but I can't find my ring anywhere, go over sth with a fine- tooth comb (=search a place extremely carefully) ? The police went over the area with a fine-tooth comb go over to -1 go over to sth: to change to a different system or a different way of doing things ? We used to have gas heaters, but now we've gone over to solar power. 2 go over to sth: to leave a group or organization and join the one that is opposing them ? If the army went over to the rebels, the government would collapse.

  1. Go over board - go overboard: to do something too much, or react in an extreme way ?"It's one of the best films I've ever seen." "There's no need to go overboard - it wasn't that good." + on/ with ? People seem to be going overboard on health and fitness these days. Go round- 1go through sth: to experience something, especially a difficult or unusual situation ? weve been through a tough time lately, but hopefully things will start to improve. ?The company is going through a period of great change, sb went through a lot (=a lot of bad things happened to them) ? She went through a lot when she was young - her mother died when she was only 6 years old. 2 go through sth: to carefully examine all of a group of things in order to try to find something ? Dave went through his pockets again, but he still couldn't find the address. go through sth: to carefully read or discuss something, to check that it is correct and acceptable ? Could you just go through this pie and mark anything that seems wrong? 3 go through sth: to talk about all of the details of something to someone, in order to make sure that they understand it ? Do you want to go through the main points again? 4 go through sth: to practice something such as a song or dance ?Let's go through the song again from the beginning. 6go through sth: to be tested, checked, or officially examined ? Every car goes through a series of safety checks before it leaves the factory. You have to go through a lengthy process before being allowed to adopt a child 7go through: to be officially accepted or approved" your application for a loan has gone through. ? Donna plans o remarry as soon as her divorce goes through. 8 go through sth: to use all or a lot of something in a short time ? We went through all of our money in the first week of our holiday. 9 go through sb/sth: to ask a particular person, department ect to deal with something because they are officially responsible for it? All requests for new books must go through the head teacher. 10 go through: to take part in the next part of a competition, because you have won the part before it. +to? United went through to the FA Cup final for the first time in 11 years. 11 go through sbs mind also go through sbs head: if something goes through your mind or head, you think about it ? the same question kept going through my mind again and again.

Go through with- go through with sth: to do something you had promised or planned to do, even though it is difficult ? Giving evidence in court was terrifying, but Im glad that I went through with it. Cant go through with it ? Jenny was going to make an official complaint, but decided that she couldnt go through with 1 go to sb: if money or a prize goes to someone, they are given it ? All the money raised will go to local charities. 2 go to a lot of trouble/ expense etc: to try very hard or spend a lot of money in order to do something ? Parents often go to a lot of expense in order to make sure their children get a good education. 3 go to it: used to tell or encourage someone to do something ? "The kitchen really needs to be cleaned." "Yeah, go to it."together- 1 go together: if two things go together, they look, taste, or sound good together ? Do these trousers and this jacket go together?* Tina's voice and Rhys songwriting style go together perfectly, go well together ? Tomatoes and pasta go very well together. 2 go together: if two things go together, they often exist together or are connected ? The problems of poor housing and bad health often go together. ? Traditionally, Christmas and snow have always gone together. Go toward -> go towards/toward sth: to be used to help pay for something. My parents gave me £300 to go toward a new computer.

Go under - 1 go under: if a company or business goes under, it has to close because it does not make enough money to continue ? Many restaurants go under in their first year. 2 go under, go under sth: to become unconscious because you have been given an anaesthetic (=a drug used by doctors to make you unconscious) while you are having medical treatment ? It will take you about ten seconds to go under. 3 go under: to sink below the surface of the water ? We watched from the lifeboat ay, the great ship finally went under.up - 1 go up: if a price or the level of something goes up, it increases ?The rate of violent crime among young people is still going up. > House prices in this area are going up and up. 2 go up: to go to a town or city from a smaller place, or to somewhere further north ? I'd like to go up to London to do some Christmas shopping. 3 go up: to go towards someone or something, for example until you are near enough to talk to them ? The boys went up and asked her for her autograph. + to ? Dylan went up to the microphone and started singing. 4 go up: if new buildings go up, they are built ? New high-rise apartment buildings are going up all around the town. 5 go up: to explode or start burning strongly ? A lit cigarette fell on the sofa, and within minutes the whole room had gone up. go up in flames ?The car rolled down the bank, and went up in flames. 6 go up: if a shout, cry etc, goes up the people in a place start to shout etc ? A groan went up as Miss Hirsch reminded the class about their vocabulary test. 7 go up: to move to a higher group of sports teams and players who play together *- United will go up to the first division next season. Go up against -" go up against sb: to compete against someone, especially in sport, business, or in a court of law ? It's very difficult for an ordinary person to go up against a big company that can afford top lawyers.up to - go up to sb/sth: to reach as far as a particular place, time, amount etc ? Our garden goes up to these bushes the rest belongs to the neighbors. ?The financial year only goes up to April.with - 1 go with sth: if one thing goes with another, they look, taste, or sound good together" Do you think these shoes go with this dress? Go well with ? This wine should go well with meat dishes and cheese.

  1. go with sth: to be a usual part of something ? She talked about the pressure that often goes with being famous, sth goes with the territory (=used to say that something is a usual part of a job or situation) ? Young doctors have to work extremely long hours, but that just goes with the territory. Go with sth: to be provided with something else ? The house goes with the job. > a blue silk evening dress that has a matching bag to go with it
  2. go with sth: to accept someone's idea or suggestion and decide to use it ? "What do you think of Jo's idea?" "I think we should go with it."

Go without - go without, go without sth: to not have something that you usually have " We can't really afford a holiday us year, so we'll just have to go without.


Phrasal verbs are primarily of use in verbal English and informal written content. There are no set rules as to how phrasal verbs are formed appropriately. The English language has become more and more dominant and very popular all over the world, over the years. It is far and wide spoken by people in many countries. It is the most important language of the world. In order to have a command over the language, it is imperative to incorporate the skills and that includes phrasal verb lessons as well. The demand of these lessons has increased tremendously. Phrasal verbs and meanings are not very easily decipherable many times. The meanings of some are a little complicated and hence they require thorough study. Many competitive exams test the knowledge of English and the knowledge of these verbs holds great importance.and well-read English teachers as a rule give a fine piece of counsel to their students to get them to study properly their phrasal verb lessons. Nowadays a great number of competitive exams check the candidate's awareness of the English language. The phrasal verbs of great importance and should be studied. Every phrasal verb in English forms a complete semantic component that has a set meaning of its own. There may be sentences which contain direct and indirect objects apart from the phrasal verb.a rich Phrasal verbs vocabulary enables you to speak good and fluent English. In order to understand, speak, read and write good English, one needs to be skilled in them.basic assumption of this diploma work is helpful and maximize students interaction in class is very necessary. This work is based on motivating all students to speak English in class. It is necessary to organize a communicative activity which achieves maximum participation of the learners. In order to overall students English Language skills, there is Morning Discussion as a Communicative Activity. It makes the class more active and the students can exchange their opinions and the main thing is everyone can participate. process of teaching and learning phrasal verbs includes the communicative tips for teachers which will help to encourage students for better understanding. It is necessary to achieve students communicative competence and teaching students with new, creative materials will affect, motivate students ability in learning phrasal verbs., a teacher would organize a lesson where students will participate. New trend in teaching, here is given four types of phrasal verbs which make your learning easier. This lesson takes a two pronged approach to helping student learn phrasal verbs. It begins with a reading comprehension which can also serve to introduce some interesting student stories for discussion. This comprehension is peppered with phrasal verbs which can then be discussed as a class. The second part of the lesson includes a brainstorming session for students to create lists of phrasal verbs to share with one another.

"What problems do your students have with phrasal verbs?" He answered, "None". "None?" "No," he said, "they dont use them." He was right: most students avoid phrasal verbs if they can help it. The problems of meaning (many are idiomatic), form (some are separable, some are not), and style (many are informal, even slang) make them a mine-field for learners. Nevertheless, examination boards love them, and many students would love to acquire them, if only because they feel, quite rightly, that it lends idiomaticity to their talk.approaches to the teaching of phrasal verbs have tended to focus on the syntax rules, i.e. whether they are transitive/ intransitive, and, if the former, whether they are separable or not. Phrasal verbs are also often grouped according to their lexical verb: get up, get back, get off, get over, etc., and exercises are designed to test the learners knowledge of the difference. This may seem systematic but there is a very good chance learners will get them confused: there is a "sods law" operating in language learning that goes: the more similar two items are, the more likely it is that they will get muddled. Occasionally, exercise types focus on the meanings of the particles - a particle being the adverb or preposition component of the phrasal verb (in, back, off, around etc). A focus on particles aims to sensitize learners to the shared meanings of a group such as carry on, drive on, hang on, go on and come on. The good thing about this approach is that it helps "fix" the meaning of the particles, so that learners have a better chance of understanding new phrasal verbs when they meet them, e.g. log on, press on, etc. But there still remains the problem of confusability. It may be the case that phrasal verbs are best learned on an item-by-item basis, and preferably in short contexts that demonstrate their syntactic behaviour. The are some good advices to students:you read a book, newspaper or text in English, get into the habit of identifying and underlining phrasal verbs.down in a special notebook the sentences in which they appear.your English-English dictionary to look up the meaning, and write this after your write your own sentence using the same phrasal verb in a different English teacher or friend to check that your sentences are correct.the number of new phrasal verbs you collect to, say, two or three each day; if you do five or ten minutes good work with each, you will quickly build up a useful stock of words which you have actually seen used in the English you have read.

Used literature

1.Adrian Doff (1988) Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers (Trainers Handbook), Cambridge University Press

2.Allsop, J. (2002) Test your phrasal verbs. Longman. Dainty, P. (2002) Timesaver Phrasal Verbs and Idioms: Pre-intermediate - Advanced (Timesaver). Mary Glasgow Magazines.

3.Ben-Barka, A. C. [1982]. In search of a language teaching framework: An adaptation of a communicative approach to functional practice. (EDRS No. ED239507, 26 pages)

4.Berns, M. S. (1984). Functional approaches to language and language teaching: Another look. In S. Savignon & M. S. Berns (Eds.), Initiatives in communicative language teaching. A book of readings (pp. 3-21). Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley.

5.Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., Finegan, E. (1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Longman

6.Coucorde International.2000 "English Language and Activity Courses for Young People"


8.Clark, J. L. (1987). Classroom assessment in a communicative approach. British Journal of Language Teaching, 25(1), 9-19.

9.Dean Curry. 1994 "Talking English" Conversational English for students of EF Washington.

10.Das, B. K. (Ed.) (1984). Communicative language teaching. Selected papers from the RELC seminar (Singapore). Anthology Series 14. (EDRS No. ED266661, 234 pages)

11.Dolle, D., & Willems, G. M. (1984). The communicative approach to foreign language teaching: The teacher's case. European Journal of Teacher Education, 7(2), 145-54.

12.FORUM, Volume 42, "English Teaching Forum" Volume 4 October, 2004

13.Flower, J. (2005) Phrasal Verb Organiser with Mini-Dictionary. London: Thomson.

14.Guy Wellman. 1998 "Word Builder" The Heinemann ELT English Oxford.

15.Gerngross, G., & Puchta, H. (1984). Beyond notions and functions: Language teaching or the art of letting go. In S. Savignon & M. S. Berns (Eds.), Initiatives in communicative language teaching. A book of readings (pp. 89-107). Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley.

16.Goodale, M. (2002) Collins Cobuild: Phrasal Verbs Workbook. Collins Cobuild.

17.Hardinge, M. ( 1998) Get ahead with phrasal verbs. Prentice Hall.

18.Jim Scrivener. 1998

19."Learning Teaching" A guidebook for English Language

20.Teachers Kenneth Chastain (1988) Developing Second-Language Skills, 3rd ed. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

21.Larsen-Freeman.Diane.2000 "Techniques and Principles in language Teaching"

22.Oxford University Press.

23.Michael Me Carthy and Felicity O'Dell.2000 "English Vocabulary in Use"

24.Cambridge University press.

25.Michael Onushco, Jr. 2003 "Teaching English Communicatively"

26.Practical Ideas and Suggestions. Bishkek

27.Nancy Ellen Jelman "Conversation Inspirations"

28.Littlewood, W. T. (1983). Communicative approach to language teaching methodology (CLCS Occasional Paper No. 7). Dublin: Dublin University Trinity College, Centre for Language and Communication Studies. (EDRS No. ED235690, 23 pages)

29.Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

.Littlewood, W. (1981). Language teaching. An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

31.McCarthy, M., ODell, F. (2004) English Phrasal Verbs in Use, CUP.

32.Morgan, J., Rinvolucri, M. (1986) Vocabulary. Resource books for Teachers. OUP.

33.Morrow, K., & Schocker, M. (1987). Using texts in a communicative approach. ELT Journal, 41(4), 248-56.

34.Oxford, R. L., et al. (1989). Language learning strategies, the communicative approach, and their classroom implications. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 29-39.

35.Parkinson, D. (Ed) (2002) Really learn 100 phrasal verbs, OUP.

36.Pattison, P. (1987). The communicative approach and classroom realities. (EDRS No. ED288407, 17 pages)

37.Pica, T. P. (1988). Communicative language teaching: An aid to second language acquisition? Some insights from classroom research. English Quarterly, 21(2), 70-80.

.Riley, P. (1982). Topics in communicative methodology: Including a preliminary and selective bibliography on the communicative approach. (EDRS No. ED231213, 31 pages)

.Rosenthal, A. S., & Sloane, R. A. (1987). A communicative approach to foreign language instruction: The UMBC project. Foreign Language Annals, 20(3), 245-53.

40.Root, C., Blanchard, K. (2003) Zero In!: Phrasal verbs in context. Chicago, University of Michigan Press.

41.Rudzka-Ostyn, B., Ostyn, and P. (2003) Word Power: Phrasal Verbs and Compounds: A Cognitive Approach. Mouton de Gruyter.

42.Savignon, S. J., & Berns, M. S. (Eds.). (1983). Communicative language teaching: Where are we going? Studies in Language Learning, 4(2). (EDRS No. ED278226, 210 pages)

43.Sheils, J. (1986). Implications of the communicative approach for the role of the teacher. (EDRS No. ED268831, 7 pages)

.Swain, M., & Canale, M. (1982). The role of grammar in a communicative approach to second language teaching and testing. (EDRS No. ED221026, 8 pages) (not available separately; available from EDRS as part of ED221023, 138 pages)

.Swan, M. (1985). A critical look at the communicative approach (1). ELT Journal, 39(1), 2-12.

.Swan, M. (1985). A critical look at the communicative approach (2). ELT Journal, 39(2), 76-87.

.Savignon, S., & Berns, M. S. (Eds.). (1984). Initiatives in communicative language teaching.

48.Stevick, E. (1976) Memory, meaning and method. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

49.Summers, D. (1988) The role of dictionaries in language learning in Carter and McCarthy, Vocabulary and Language Teaching London: Longman.

.Swan, M. (1995) Practical English Usage. Second Edition. OUP.

51.Terrell, T. D. (1991). The role of grammar instruction in a communicative approach. Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 52-63.

52.Thornbury, S. (1997) About Language. CUP.

53.Thornbury, S. (2002) How to teach vocabulary. Longman.

.Underhill, D. (2005) Pronunciation and phrasal verbs. MED Magazine, Issue 43, October 2005.

55.Willems, G., & Riley, P. (Eds.). (1984). Communicative foreign language teaching and the training of foreign language teachers. (EDRS No. ED273102, 219 pages)

56.Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley.

57.Watson-Jones, P. (2001) Penguin Quick Guides: English Phrasal Verbs (Penguin Quick Guides). Longman.


Теги: Phrasal verbs and verb expressions. Verb expressions with "Come" and "Go"  Диплом  Английский
Просмотров: 45788
Найти в Wikkipedia статьи с фразой: Phrasal verbs and verb expressions. Verb expressions with "Come" and "Go"