Translation peculiarities of business style


The given work is devoted to peculiarities of official style rendering on the basis of Weather Ford company documents. There are many choices that determine the style. Word choices, sentence composition and sentence structure choices, and other stylistic choices such as format help determine the style of a document. The individual style of the author is something that cannot be dismissed. Writers of each document make the document unique by the way they utilize their own personal writing style and method. Style and purpose affect how the audience views the of documents that are intended for an audience that you do not know or that you are not familiar with in a business sense are usually formal in nature. The document may be a response to a customers complaint. It may be a request for payment that is overdue. It may be a legal document, a business report, or many other types of correspondence that are conducted for business. It is better to use the style of a formal document when trying to convey factual or objective information. A formal document can be strong and dynamic. When conveying negative or unpleasant information, it is best to use a formal document.

The relevance of the study stems from the fact that the theoretical issues of translation of official documents into Kazakh have not been studied properly yet.

Nowadays more and more agreements are made in English, for English is the nearest thing we have to a universal business language. Joint ventures, bank loans, and trademark licenses frequently are spelt out in this language even though it is not native to at least one of the contracting parties. In connection with the increasing rate of translation and its difficulties, which technical translators working in different foreign companies have to deal with, the problem of business correspondence translation is of current interest. That is why it is extremely important to study the stylistic peculiarities of a source text since without it an appropriate translation cannot be achieved.object of the research is texts of business correspondence. At the current stage of development of linguistics a business correspondence represents a great interest, owing to the fact that it serves as one of the most important spheres of human life such as economic, industrial and commercial relations.subject of the research is an official style rendering from English into Kazakh on the basis of Weather Ford documents.

The goal of the work is to study stylistic features which are characteristic of official style in the source language and peculiarities of their rendering into the target language.achieve the goal of the work the following tasks have been set:

-to study linguistic peculiarities of official style;

-to specify general characteristics of business style;

-to consider types of business correspondence;

-to investigate the peculiarities of business document translation;

-to reveal the ways of official style rendering from English into Kazakh on the word level;

-to reveal the ways of official style rendering from English into Kazakh on the word level.

The methods of the research used to solve the tasks are as follows:

-descriptive - to systematize and describe the material and to elucidate some notions.

-comparative - to compare original texts and their translation and revealing ways of style rendering.Ford company original business correspondence texts and their translation variants serve as the material of the investigation. Thus, the documents under study are various types of business letters, memorandums, contracts, etc.theoretical basis of our research is presented by works of such prominent linguists and translators as V.N. Komissarov, I.P. Galperin, E.E. Izraelevich, M.V. Koltunova, Y.M. Skrebnev and others.theoretical value of the investigation is that its findings shall be of certain interest for lexicologists and translators and can be used as a starting point in the research of stylistic peculiarities of a business correspondence text and their rendering from English into Kazakh.practical value of the work is that the findings of the investigation can be used in writing research papers and thesis projects on the theme of rendering different styles in the translation process from English into Kazakh. In addition, the findings of the research may be applied to other lexical systems of social and humanitarian spheres, which serve contiguous to business activity professional branches (for instance, to the vocabulary of legal relations, diplomatic communication, political practice, etc.).

Scientific newness of the work lies in a specific methodological approach to the study of new practical material and in the analysis of the translation process of business correspondence.research work consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion and references.introduction presents the problem under research and explains the method of its handling. It also emphasizes the relevance of the research, the goal to be solved, the newness of the work and description of the material used.first chapter reveals the stylistic peculiarities of official documents in English in general, to be exact, official style features, types and style of business correspondence documents. Like other styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and the main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. Here, such characteristic features of official style documents as high degree of the named lexicon, the nominal character of speech expressed in high rate of verbal nouns which often designate appointed action, high rate of denominative pretexts and prepositional combinations, development of actually writing values connected with transition of participles in a class of adjectives and pronouns, standardization of lexical compatability, standardization of syntactic units are considered.second chapter includes the ways of official style renderings into Kazakh and translation analysis of the peculiar features common to all stylistic varieties of official documents such as abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions, words in their logical dictionary meaning, that is official style rendering on word. The last paragraph reveals the ways of rendering official style on structure level.the concluding part the findings of the research are summed up.the end of the paper a complete list of references is presented.

1. English Official Style

1.1 Socially Related Sublanguages

The use of the sublanguages fettered by formality is as wide as any other, since it is up to us what we regard as formal. There certainly are degrees of formality. Both the Charter of the United Nations and a business letter signed by a low-ranking official are formal, i.e. as the meaning of the adjective formal necessarily implies devoid of any indication of private emotions (except when the subject is directly connected with emotions - say, in congratulations and condolences) and - what is perhaps of greater importance, or at least, quite indispensible - devoid of any trace of familiarity. [1; 183] It must be noted here that the word familiar is used here not in the sense of acquainted with or known to, but as The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines it, unceremonious, ever-free, treating inferiors or superiors as equals. [2; 437]remark is that of essence. The word officialese usually applies to over-refined, very elaborate, archaically stereotyped sets of linguistic units which are at least slightly ridiculous due to their excessive refinement. The term is employed here as a conventional denomination of any type or degree of officialism, i.e. the way of speaking and writing used by people who work in government and other offices, especially when ordinary people cannot understand it. [3; 982]very rough and approximate gradation of sub-spheres and their respective sublanguages is as follows:) private correspondence with a stranger;) business correspondence between representatives of a commercial or other establishments;) diplomatic correspondence, international treaties, other documents;) legal documents (civil law - testaments, settlements, etc.; criminal law - verdicts, sentences, etc.);) personal documents (certificates, diplomas, etc.).to the genres enumerated are:

-superneutral features of this whole group of sublanguages;

-socially established character, which, as alluded to before, may be collectively referred to as archaic, i.e. either obsolete or obsolescent;

predetermined lingual form in all genres mentioned, though the degree is, of necessity, different);

clichйs (different genres have stereotyped expressions of their own);

long polysyllabic word of Latin or Greek origin, often euphemistic as compared with their counterparts;

periphrastic expressions where a single word might have done just as well;

complex syntax as compared to that of commonly bookish texts;

established forms of composition that cannot be deviated from. [1; 184]main area in which business operates officially is the administrative and legal activities. This style serves the needs of society as a documentation of various acts of public, social, political, economic and business relations between the government and organizations, as well as between members of society in the official sphere of communication. Texts of this style are a huge variety of genres: the statute, law, order, contract, instruction, the complaint, the recipe, different kinds of statements, as well as many business genres (for example, the explanatory memorandum, biography, profile, statistical report, etc.). The expression of faith in a business document defines the properties, the main features of the business language and socio-organizing the use of language. Therefore, the basic form of the implementation of this style is written. In the field of science, business and law, the media and in politics, the language is used in different ways. For each of these spheres of social life its subtype literary language, with a number of distinctive features at all linguistic levels - lexical, morphological, syntactical, - is embodied. Such a subtype of the literary language is called a functional style (register). [4; 54] Official style is embodied in the sphere of social and legal relations realized in legislation, economy, management and diplomatic includes informative advertising, trademark style and everyday-business speech (statements, explanatory notes, receipts, etc.).

Organizational-administrative documentation (OAD) is the kind of business writing that best represents its specificity. OAD is a center of business writing, the most important part of an official style. For detailed treatment of business (the commercial sphere, diplomacy and statesmanship, as well as a number of other particular spheres and types of speech) you can be advised to consult comprehensive monographs by I.R. Galperin and other well-known specialists: I.V. Arnold, V.A. Kukharenko, F.N. Morokhovsky, and others. Most linguists rely on the classification by I.R. Galperin, because it is considered to be the most detailed. And profound. Of course, this classification, one way or another, is supplemented, modified by various researchers, but it remains fundamental. Analysis of any style and genre begins with the proper classification of language styles. This is because each style of speech serves a particular sphere of human activity, because it is diverse in its species, then therefore, subgenres that reflect the specificity of language, it is inherent in this type of activity. According to the traditional classification the functional style (art, publicist, news, and science fiction) includes the style of business documents with substyles: diplomatic, business, legal and military documents. I.R. Galperin notes that a style of language can be defined as a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. [5; 253] As any other style the style of official documents is used in such speech genres as legislative and regulatory documents, correspondence, informational documents and final documents.importance of selection of genres in this style is so great that they are always marked in the title and subtitle text (application, certificate, order, etc.). The study of the peciliarities of the original text is essential because without it a proper translation is quite impossible. Translations and interpretations done by different translators are quite diverse in the subject matter, language, genre affiliation, and there are, of course, different requirements for accuracy and completeness of translation. V.N. Komissarov offers two main classifications of the translation: the nature of translated texts and the nature of speech acts of an interpreter in the translation process. The first classification is linked to the genre and stylistic features of the original document, the second to psycholinguistic features of speech action in writing and oral speech. Genre and stylistic classification of transfers results in the allocation of two functional types of translation: literary translation and informative (special) translation. [6; 95]language of business correspondence represented earlier periphery of official style. Today, along with the regulated letters, all widely used independent business letters, along with official - semiofficial (congratulatory, advertising) ones in which the expression and standard parity varies, enter into practice of business dialogue [7; 10]. Undoubtedly, official style, as well as a whole Kazakh language, has undergone essential changes. Its formation is closely connected with formation and development of the Republic of Kazakhstan; the sphere of regulation of legal and economic relations has created requirement for allocation of a special functional version of a literary language. The regulation of relations between people, establishments, and countries have raised the necessity of written certificates and documents, which make up the identified line of the official style. The absence of emotionality, narrow range of a speech expression, the maximum degree of the etiquette requirements, expressed in an abundance of etiquette signs, etiquette texts expressing congratulation, condolence, gratitude, etc. - all of these refer to defining peculiarities of the language of official style documents. Thus, it should be noted that characteristic features of official style documents are as follows:

high degree of the named lexicon, for example:. Legal terms (the proprietor, the law, registration, the property, acceptance of objects, transfer of objects, the certificate, privatization, falling, rent, the repayment, the private affair etc.). Economic terms (the grant, expenses, purchase and sale, the budget, the expense, the income, payment, the estimate, budget articles, an account part of the budget etc.). Economic-legal terms (credit repayment, the property rights, term of sale of goods, the quality certificate, etc.)

the nominal character of speech expressed in high rate of verbal nouns which often designate appointed action, for example:

credit repayment - to extinguish the credituse - to use the creditquestion decision - to solve a questionshipment - to ship the goodspayment delay - to delay payment

high rate of denominative pretexts and prepositional combinations, for example:the address, in the relation to, in force, in communication, in conformity, in the account, in a course, with a view of, on a measure, on a line, to the address, after the expiration, for the reason, at presence, etc.

development of actually writing values connected with transition of participles in a class of adjectives and pronouns, for example:

The present rulespresent contractquotationsmeasuresappropriate referenceinadequate qualitydue hereunder

standardization of lexical compatability: word meaning narrowing explains restriction of their lexical compatibility, occurrence so-called regulated combinations, for example:

The control is usually assignedtransaction - consists- is madeaccount - is exposed (or is paid)price - is establishedright - is given.happen constructive / not constructive; activity - successful; necessity - insistent; discounts - considerable; disagreements - essential / insignificant etc;

standardization of syntactic units (offers, word-combinations) which are not made as the formula and are reproduced in the text of the document fixing an appropriate situation in socially-legal relations, for example:

When due hereunder; according to the accepted arrangement;rendering of the technical help;case of default of promissory notes;contract comes into force from the date of signing;move in the order established by the law;is made by motor transport;

there is formal-logic principle of the text organization expressed in crushing of the basic theme on subthemes, considered in points and subparagraphs for which the text is graphically split up and which are designated by the Arabian figures, for example:

. A contract subject.

.1. The executor incurs duties on supply of the customer by a central heating and water supply.

.2. The customer in due time pays the rendered services;

Thus, the style of official documents is represented by the following substyles or variants:

-the language of business documents;

-the language of legal documents;

-the language of diplomacy;

-the language of military documents. [8; 297]other styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and, accordingly has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking and to reach agreement between two contracting parties.

1.2 Types of Business Correspondence

english official style rendering

Business ties are inconceivable without an exchange of the business correspondence. Developing for centuries written business etiquette wins the positions despite of the fact that it had such gaining in strength contenders as a phone, telex, fax, satellite computer communication, video telephone, etc. Nevertheless, despite advantages of oral negotiations, say, efficiency of information interchange on the phone, it has some disadvantages like elementary misunderstanding. What is the business correspondence itself? It is the integral communication facility of the enterprise with the external organizations as letters connect the organization-author to other establishments. Through letters information interchange is carried out, offers become, trunk-call dialogue is conducted, etc. Sometimes the directory documentation simply confirms the facts, events which need to be taken only into consideration. Thus, the office letter is the generalized name of various documents under the maintenance, issued according to the State Volume, sent by mail, by fax or other way [9; 43]. Without exaggeration it is possible to say that it is one of the most widespread types of office documents, and therefore, the success of the decision of concrete questions as well as the competitive ability of the whole enterprise depends on the accuracy of the message..V. Koltunova divides business correspondence into three types according to its main genres of written business language:

. Business letters;

. Organizational-administrative documentation (OAD);

. Agreements (Contracts). [10; 21]

1. Business letters. The business letter is a special type of document, the less tightly regulated than the contract or order, but without legal significance. Business correspondence is recorded and stored in both organizations, as the incoming and outgoing documentation. This is important because business letters serve as a tool for regulatory, legal and social relations between the correspondents (contractors, partners and participants in social relations). There are several types of classification of business letters, based not on their different approaches, but on different qualifying signs. Business letters can be distinguished in business correspondence by their thematic characteristics. Business letters precede the conclusion of a contract (agreement), and are the documents that govern the progress of its implementation. Business letters have the status of the document. Letters can precede the arbitral tribunal, may constitute grounds for bringing lawsuit (letter of complaint, letter of agreement). More business letters, sometimes called office memos, solve organizational issues, economic and legal relations between the correspondents, and also refer to the document. On the basis of functional characteristics business letters are divided into:

a) demanding an obligatory letter of revert: proactive business letters (letter of request, letter of offer, letter of complaint, letter of advertisement);

b) not requiring a response: confirmation letter, letter of notice, reminder letters, invitation letter, warning letter, letter of statement; letter of surrender, letter of denial, cover letter, letter of guarantee; the receipt of letters business letters are divided into ordinary and circular.

Circular letters are sent from one source to multiple addresses, usually subordinate bodies (organizations).

Ordinary letters are sent to single address.form of administration can be identified along with the traditional postal mail, facsimile transmission, the teletype and telegraphic connections. And electronic and facsimile connections are used to solve operational issues.the basis of structural characteristics business letters are divided into regulated and unregulated types.letters shall be governed by a particular model (which refers not only to standard aspects of content, but the paper size, composition of bank details, etc.). Regulated letters address typical issues of regular and legal situations, and are written as a standard text drawn from the standard syntax.letters represent the author's text working in formal and logical or etiquette texts. It typically includes elements of the story (background), etiquette frame and a speech act, which is a mandatory element of the business letter. In contrast to the regulated letters, unregulated business letters do not have a rigid structure of the text, they rarely use standard phrases. The peculiarity of the language of this type of correspondence is combination of official and journalistic styles: the standard language, the pattern, expression.

2. Organizational and administrative documentation (OAD). The center of business writing is an organizational and administrative documentation. It just shows all the brighter features of the official style. Fulfilling a social role, head managers in the banks use in their work such types of documents as order, memorandum, office memos, statements, orders, job descriptions, enforcement notes, etc. The peculiarity of these instruments is that they are written in a strict form. The form of the document, as has been already mentioned, is a combination and sequence of location bank details and significant parts of the text. Among these kinds of documents order is commonly used. With the help of orders issues concerning work management in the enterprise, financing, planning, reporting, sales and other production issues can be figured out. Textual execution of the order is largely similar to that of regulated letters.

3. Agreements (contracts). Agreement is the document that establishes legal relations between legal persons (contractors) or between the individuals and legal persons. The nature of the transaction, conditions, terms, rights and obligations of the parties are definitely reflected in the relevant paragraphs of the treaty as well as aggregate information which guarantees legal force for the document. From the viewpoint of the text formation these items represent modules - text fragments with standard page headers provided by a set of standard phrases. Contracts shall be made in writing in the prescribed form and are used without changing the form of the text, or with little editing. Sending of document can be implemented through postal, telegraph, telex, faxes and other communications. All applications to the contract or agreement form its integral part: specifications, calculations, orders, statements, protocols, questionnaires, etc. Applications are the commercial documents, which often made in the form of tables or examples and include the specific terms of the transaction. In the module text of the agreement, the contract includes the following information:

. Submission of the parties entering into contractual relationships provides the full name of organizations and individuals to sign documents. In addition, in the first module the basis on which these individuals and conditional designations act is mentioned.

. Subject of the contract. Here the subject-matter of the agreement such as: trade, purchase and sales, contractors, rental, applying information, etc is stated. In the absence of a separate module «cost» indicates the cost of the contract.

. The obligations of the parties clearly formulate what obligations the contracting parties assume. In terms of communicative appropriateness, this module should be particularly carefully considered, because any miscalculation or voice negligence can lead to serious unintended consequences.the rights of the parties (rights and obligations of the parties) can be prescribed in the same module.

. Conditions and procedures for the calculations. Here the conditions of payments to consolidated services, received goods, etc. and the order of calculation are recorded. Often, the financial relationship is disclosed in the estimates contained in the annex to the treaty, which is an integral part of it.

. Parties' Responsibilities. It formulates the sanctions to be applied to the party who transgressed its obligations. If the contract does not require detailing, the record can be made in the generalized form.

. The validity of the contract. It indicates the beginning and the end of the contract, the order of extension or early annulment.

. Legal addresses and signatures of the parties. Here the precise postal address and bank details of organizations, and signatures of the persons named in the first module as well as stamps of organizations signing the contract should be indicated.

1.3Business Correspondence Style

Each of the subdivisions of business correspondence style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style.peculiar features common to all stylistic varieties of official documents, including business correspondence, are the following:

-use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions;

-the use of words in their logical dictionary meaning;

-absence of emotiveness;

-definite compositional pattern and design.should be noted that the syntactical pattern of this style is as important as the vocabulary.

Letter writing - is an essential part of communication, an intimate part of experience. Each letter-writer has a characteristic way of writing, his style of writing, his way of expressing thoughts, facts, etc. but it must be emphasized that the routine of the official or semi-official business letters requires certain accepted idioms, phrases, patterns, and grammar which are found in general use today. Therefore certain skills must be acquired by practice, and details of writing must be carefully and thoroughly learnt.cheque, a contract or any other business paper sent by mail should always be accompanied by a letter. The letter says what is being sent so that the recipient should know exactly what you intended to send. It is a typical business letter which some people call «routine». The letter may be short or long, it may contain some very important and much less important information - every letter requires careful planning and thoughtful writing. [7; 34]recent years English has become a universal business language. As such, it is potentially an instrument of order and clarity. But words and phrases have unexpected ways of creating binding commitments.writing, certainly, is not the same as casual conversation, it bears only the same power of thoughts, reflections, and observations as in a conversational talk, but the form may be quite different. What makes the letter so attractive and pleasing is not always the message of the letter, it is often the manner and style in which the message is written.

For example: «I want to express to you my sincere appreciation for your note of congratulation.»r

«I am sincerely happy that you were elected President of Biological Society.»you see such formulations show the attitude of the writer, his respect and sincerity.language of business, professional and semi-official letters is formal, courteous, tactful, concise, expressive, and to the point. A neatly arranged letter will certainly make a better impression on the reader, thus good letters make good business partners.the case of «scientific correspondence» the majority of letters bear mostly a semi-official character and are concerned with different situations associated with scientific activities concentrated around the organisation of scientific meetings (congresses, symposia, workshops, etc.), the arrangement of visit, invitation, publication, the exchange of scientific literature, information, etc. [11; 78] Letters of this kind have a tone of friendliness, naturalism. Modern English letters should not be exaggerated, overburdened, outmoded with time-worn expressions. The key note is simplicity. Modern letters tend towards using the language of conversational not only a means of communication and contact, but also a record of affairs, information, events, etc. So it is necessary to feel the spirit and trend of the style in order to write a perfect letter.letter or contract law is a complex and vastly documented subject, only a lawyer can deal with it on a serious level. A number of basic principles, however, can be outlined sufficiently to mark of encounters that require the use of specialized means working out agreements with other people, sometimes through elaborate contracts and sometimes through nothing but little standard forms, through exchanges of letters and conversations at lunch.more and more agreements are made in English, for English is the nearest thing we have to a universal business language. Joint ventures, bank loans, and trademark licenses frequently are spelt out in this language even though it is not native to at least one of the contracting a business document presenting an agreement for the delivery of goods, services, etc., approved and signed by both the Buyer (exporter) and the Seller (importer) [12; 31]. By law contracts are made in writing. When striking a deal, standard contracts are widely used. Standard contracts are not a must. Some articles can be altered and supplemented [13; 12].

The principles of purpose, style and tone transfer from one area or specialty of writing to another, yet each document written varies depending on the purpose of the document, on the style chosen for the document, and on the tone the document conveys. In every area of writing, the purpose of the document must be determined. The style of the document needs to achieve the intended purpose of the document. Through style, the tone of the document is conveyed. When the document is edited and revised it is necessary to remember the purpose, style, and tone of the document. No matter the area or specialty, each document has a purpose. The style of each document differs from other documents depending on the purpose of the document, the format of the document, and the area or the specialty for which the document is written. The principle of rewriting and editing a document before production is consistent with all documents. The method of revision varies depending on the importance of the document, the time frame allotted to create and produce the document, and the media used to produce the document. The completed document conveys a unique emotion or tone to the audience as a result of the purpose, style, media used, and area or specialty.produce and utilize documents for numerous purposes. The purpose of a document you may write in the traditional business environment may be as follows:

Providing factual information to the board of directors to give them insight into a particular product and its production problems.

Persuading your supervisor or fellow workers to believe in your point of view.

Sharing your thoughts or opinions concerning the effectiveness of a program.

Expressing concern for a specific problem in your work environment that may be hazardous to yourself and others.pressure in a business environment produces the purpose that we need to write about. A faulty product that needs internal attention may produce a purpose. A product that is just coming out on the market and needs consumer awareness may produce purpose. Internal planning, communicating and production processes also produce purposes for all areas of writing, the audience needs to be considered. To be a successful writer it is important to assess how familiar your audience is with the topic. What is their level of understanding and familiarity with the topic? Does your audience contain specialists or non-specialists? Write down the characteristics of your audience. Do a survey or profile to see how your audience will use the document. Knowing your audience and the purpose the document has for your audience will help you in»… Circumstances that exist for us to communicate with others. Understanding exigency is essential because without it we cannot effectively determine purpose». [13; 37]

«Ultimately, style is the writer. We can't prescribe a universally preferable style because the decisions writers make depend on the context: on the subject or content, the purpose of the document, the readers, previous or related documents, and the situation or climate in which the document is produced»

There are many choices that determine style. Word choices, sentence composition and sentence structure choices, and other stylistic choices such as format help determine the style of a document. The individual style of the author is something that cannot be dismissed. Writers of each document make the document unique by they way they utilize their own personal writing style and method. Style and purpose affect how the audience views the of documents that are intended for an audience that you do not know or that you are not familiar with in a business sense are usually formal in nature. The document may be a response to a customer complaint. It may be a request for payment that is overdue. It may be a legal document, a business report, or many other types of correspondence that are conducted for business. It is better to use the style of a formal document when trying to convey factual or objective information. A formal document can be strong and dynamic. When conveying negative or unpleasant information, it is best to use a formal document. We should not use humor in formal documents as a general rule.documents are usually intended for an audience that knows the writer. The audience may be someone we know personally or someone we are familiar with in a business sense. Some good document styles to use for informal documents may be memos, personal letters, articles for a newsletter, and e-mails. We can use a more relaxed and friendly tone in your writing style, yet still be informative. Humor in good taste is acceptable.client recently asked about using humor in business writing. Humor is extremely subjective, so it should be used cautiously in business correspondence. What is funny to us might not be to someone else.we use humor, we risk offending the reader or creating a misunderstanding. However, if we know your reader especially well, a dash of humor can be refreshing. Just be certain that the humor is obvious as well as appropriate for the reader and the topic.

«Tone is the impression readers receive from your writing and the attitude conveyed in your treatment of the subject».

Style and purpose help to achieve tone. Tone is the emotion, feeling, or impression that you convey through your writing. Tone can be described by many different words, positive and negative. The tone of your document reflects whether you are positive or negative about the subject or your audience. Style, purpose and tone work together to produce the overall desired effect of your document for its important as we word your business documents to consider the type of tone we want to convey to our readers. The typical situations we will come across when conveying information include:

. Conveying routine information and making direct requests,

. Communicating good news,

. Communicating bad news and

. Attempting to persuade which is the tone of choice for a proposal.possible tones include:

Being forceful - this is helpful when we want to add emphasis to our messages

Being passive - this is helpful for conveying information up the corporate ladder or when we have negative information to convey.

Being personal - this style is really helpful when we want to convey good news or to persuade our reader to action.

Being impersonal - helpful when conveying bad news

Being persuasive - helpful to persuade readers to actionwording rather than negative wording should be used to present the focus of our writing if we want your business writing to be successful. People respond more constructively to positive ideas. A positive emphasis will persuade readers and create friendliness among coworkers. Some key elements that help to establish a positive tone in writing are:

Always stress what something is rather than what something is not

Emphasize what the firm can and will do rather than what it cannot do,

Open with action rather than an apology, and avoid unpleasant facts.a person must present any negative information in their business writing, connecting it to a positive picture will soften the effects. Positioning of information is also important in business writing. Good news deserves high emphasis by placing it at the beginning and ending of paragraphs. Bad news should be located in secondary positions such as the center of a paragraph. Always give more space to Good News and less to Bad News.important aspect of business correspondence is to choose words that are neutral in terms of gender. The pronoun «he» used to be the default pronoun to use when gender was undeterminable. If you were uncertain which gender we were writing to us would simply write «Dr. Sir» It may have been acceptable in the past to inadvertently ignore women. However that is not the case today. Today, more than ever before people may be offended by sexist words and images. Simply put avoid the pronoun «he». Here are some examples of how to avoid sexual stereotyping.

Try to use language that is similar when stating the names of men and woman together to show equality.

Always ensure parallel treatment of couples.

Avoid familiar clichйs.and editing is an important process in writing. It is the final process for any type of document you may produce. Editing can be time-consuming. Deadlines and time constraints may limit the amount of time you are able to edit a document. It is important to give yourself enough time to review a document before rewriting and production. While proofreading and editing a document, be aware of the purpose of the document, make sure the style is consistent, and make sure the document reflects the tone that you intended. A wise person knows when a document has reached an acceptable or appropriate state and ends the rewriting and editing process., purpose, and tone are universal tools and components in all documents. Rewriting and editing are necessary tools whether a document is created as a traditional business document or created as an online document., style and tone are essential in developing a document from start to finish in business correspondence. Editing and rewriting are also important elements to use in business correspondence as well. But, in editing and rewriting, purpose, style and tone must be kept in mind throughout the process no matter which type of document is being developed.term, «style,» in this chapter refers to the shape, voice, and force of sentences.readers do not want to know what is going on inside a writer's mind. Instead, they want writers to propose plans or recommend actions that will benefit the company, and to do so as concisely as possible.someone mentions «business correspondence» around us what is the first thing that comes to our mind? Probably we would immediately picture business letters. In spite of the fact that business email nowadays is used much more than letters. But business letters have been the only type of business correspondence for much longer than any of us can remember, so «business correspondence» is still associated with them more than with its any other type. And as anything that «has been there» for a long time business letters just have to have very well established rules and regulations.letter is now used primarily for formal correspondence with clients, customers, and others outside the company, particularly people you have not met.

From the linguistic point of view, a contract is a type of a document, because any agreement is a completed document fixing some information. As a type of text, contract has its own specific characteristics. Stylistic peculiarities of all document texts are concreteness, conciseness, clearness of the stated idea, high capacity of information, strict logic, clear rhythm of sentences, accenting on the main idea with the help of word repetitions, absence of connotational information, a special system of clichйs and stamps, usage of abbreviations, conventional symbols and marks, usage of terms in their direct semantic meaning, preferential usage of monosemantic words, division of a text into chapters, paragraphs, points, often numbered (clear compositional structure of a document), usage of definite syntactic models, graphic decoration of a document: quality of paper, quantity and quality of illustrations, size and kind of print.main features of the style of contract are steady system of linguistic means in the text of contract, lack of emotional colouring, decoding character of language, usage of a special symbolic system, definite syntactic structure. (above-enumerated items).style of contract defines some peculiarities and techniques of its writing. Making contracts is different in some points from writing business letters, such as an offer, an inquiry, a complaint, etc. Some considerations important for business letters are not important for contracts, and v.v. The main difference is that any contract is made up by two contracting parties and contains information about many subjects. So, all points are to be approved by both parties. There are certain clearly definable requirements for how to write contracts., contracts should be formal, complete, clear, concrete, correct and concise. In contracts all possible informational details are not suitable. So, while writing contracts we must observe all peculiarities of standard English grammar, vocabulary use and stylistic appropriation. A formal contract or agreement requires considerations of neatness and attractive arrangement. Completeness of any contract suggests the scope of all significant facts that have reference to the issue of the agreement. Actually, you are expected to explain what, how, and when you are going to deal with your element, - clearness, - is one of the most important, because much depends on it. Clearness could be reached by the use of simple short words, phrases and paragraphs where the both parties of a contract explain their intentions and issues. Clearness of any arguments actually defines your striking a deal or not.component which is closely connected with the previous one is concreteness. Concreteness of a contract or an agreement is a part and a parcel of any legal document. Besides that, the longer the document is, the more attractive and vivid its contents should be.

The next two components are also significant. They are correctness and conciseness. Correctness involves proper grammar use, vocabulary use, punctuation and formal style.

Conciseness is usually achieved by the use of minimum words to express maximum of has been noted above, any contract should be simple and clear, concise and brief. Commercial correspondence often suffers from an old-fashioned, pompous style of English which complicates the message and gives the reader the feeling that he is reading a language he does not understand. Though the language of contract is perhaps the most formal among all kinds of business correspondence, and the vocabulary of such correspondence is very specific, which is connected with its character and a great number of legal terms, it should not be archaic. It should be clear enough in its, however, should not be too simple as it may become discourteous and sound rude. Linguists recommend the following stylistic devices that might make agreements and contracts more polite: complex sentences joined with conjunctions are preferable, rather than short sentences; passive constructions rather than active; full forms rather than abbreviated forms, where necessary.right tone should be neutral, devoid of a pompous language on one hand, and an informal or colloquial language on the other hand. Therefore, inappropriate vocabulary, idioms, phrasal verbs are not allowed at all.both contracting parties should not experience any difficulties in obtaining information, they should be able to understand what is written. Misunderstandings are caused by a lack of thought and care.

2. English Official Style and Ways of its Rendering into Kazakh

As we have already mentioned official style has a definite communicative aim and, accordingly has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking and to reach agreement between two contracting parties.of the subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style.peculiar features common to all stylistic varieties of official documents are the following:

use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions;

the use of words in their logical dictionary meaning;

absence of emotiveness;

definite compositional pattern and design.let us consider some of these peculiar features and ways of their rendering into Kazakh in the translation process.

2.1Abbreviations, Conventional Symbols and Contractions Rendering

Besides the special nomenclature characteristic of the business style, there is a feature common to all styles - the use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions. Some of them are well-known, for example:Contract is made (or entered into) by and between … Ltd. represented by its Executive Director Mr. N., acting in accordance with the Articles of Association, and … Inc. represented by its Sales Agent Mr. A, acting pursuant to a power of attorney dated…two abbreviations are used Ltd and Inc which are familiar to businessmen and those dealing with contract concluding. They are usually added to the names of companies and are the legal forms of entities:. - limited - Лимитед (жауапкершілігі шектеулі). - incorporated (formed into a corporation) - Инк. (за?ды ???ы?ы бар болып тіркелген (бірлестік, ода?) or (инкорпорациялан?ан) [14; 218]

Next example comprises not only abbreviations but conventional symbols as well:

Total price CIF $ ________$ ________Contract Value $ _______

CIF means Cost (??н), Insurance (са?тандыру) and Fright (тасымал) i.e. the seller has to procure marine insurance against the risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The symbol $ is a well known symbol of American currency dollar which is rendered with the help of the same symbol.symbol &, which means in English and, is used in some terms like C&F (Cost and Fright), C&I (Cost and Insurance). But is marked as # in contract texts. The symbol is used instead of the word number. In American English the symbol # means number as well, but it is used in different tables and graphics, and not in the text. It is never used, however, to denote numbers of houses.

One more example with the conventional symbol:/Product Liability Insurance with coverage up to €5,000,000 for each and every claim.translation the symbol is repeated and a descriptive translation of the symbol is given in brackets to avoid mistakes in the total sum of money under the contract.

Азаматты? жауапкершілікті са?тандыру ?р ж?не кез-келген ?ызметті? сапасы €5.000.000 (бес миллион евро) ??райды.

By the way, the use of figures instead of words for sums can create many problems for people. To avoid any possibility of confusion, it is necessary to write sums in both figures and words, for example, $ 9.897.44 (nine thousand, eight hundred and ninety-seven dollars, forty-four cents). It is also a norm to put only dollars (pounds, etc.) in words and cents (pence, etc.) in figures only, for example, $ 100.50 (one hundred dollars and 50 cents). From the above-written it is clear that the symbols Ј (pounds) and $ (dollars), in documents in particular, are put before the sum and their usage is not of any mistake.

Thus the use of initials and acronyms is becoming more and more frequent in business correspondence. Therefore technical translations usually involve plenty of initials and abbreviations which are different in every language and can not be translated literally, but there are various tactics and rules that a technical translator must always bear in mind.

Even though it may at first appear to be an easy problem to deal with, there are some abbreviations which can sometimes lead to confusion when translating, because an equivalent does not exist in the target language, and it is not always clear how to proceed. So, technical translators resort to a variety of dictionaries and glossaries of terms, initials and acronyms in different fields.

Thus the abbreviations which are formed in the process of word shortening also may cause difficulties in the translation of word of business documents. Shortening is a way of word-formation when new words are formed from initial letters of each of the successive part or major parts of a compound form.

Some acronyms are much less common, making it nearly impossible to find a consistent rule to follow. In such cases, the translator must decide whether to stick to the original or rearrange the letters to fit the new language in which it appears. When making this decision, the readers comprehension is essential. Accordingly, the context in which the acronym will appear is a factor.

One of the well known abbreviations used in business correspondence is the English abbreviation CV.

CV is an abbreviated form of curriculcum vitae, which can accordingly be translated into the Kazakh language as ?мірбаян and ?мірнама. The given old Latin-English word-combination is currently used in English in the meaning of a document giving details of your qualifications and the jobs you have had in the past that you send to someone when you are applying for a job. The abbreviation CV can also be translated by a borrowing резюме which is widely used in Modern Kazakh.

It should be noted that there are a lot of abbreviations of Latin origin used in business correspondence. Here are some of them:

The abbreviation et al is of Latin origin and is used in business correspondence as a short form of the expression et alii, which can be rendered into Kazakh by т.б short for та?ы да бас?алары. The given abbreviation is used actually in the form of an adverb and is usually written after a list of names to mean that other people are also involved in something or some actions. We translate the given old Latin abbreviation with the help of the corresponding equivalent of the target language.

Another abbreviation is etc. short for et cetera, which is Kazakh т.с.с. short for та?ы да сол сия?тылары.next Latin-English abbreviation can be met in any context of any language: e.g. short for exempli gratia. It can be translated into Kazakh with the help of anologue, i.e. just as мысалы (sometimes the abbreviated form is used: мыс:).

An old Latin abbreviation ibid short for ibidem is equivalent to the Kazakh expression сол жерде. The given abbreviation is commonly used in official documents in the form of an adverb to mean from the same source, place, or document as the one that has just been mentioned.i.e. short for id est is also borrowed from Latin and accordingly has the following correspondence in the Kazakh language: я?ни. This abbreviation is widely used in written form of the language before a word or phrase that gives the exact meaning of something that someone just have written or said.Latin P.S. (post scriptum), can be translated into the Kazakh language as постскриптум (жазыл?ан н?рседен кейін; хат?а ?осымша). The given abbreviation is considered to be a message written at the end of a letter or email, usually below the place where you sign your name or other writing with the purpose of adding some more information. [15; 1100] As we see the abbreviation can be rendered into Kazakh by the methods of transliteration/transcription or we can use the descriptive method of translation and give an appropriate explanation for the abbreviation used.

The old Latin abbreviation viz. short for videlicet can actually be translated into Kazakh language as д?л (-ірек) айт?анда. The given old Latin abbreviation is currently used in the formal style of written language in the form of an adverb before the process of naming the things that somebody has just referred to in a general way. We can use the analogue translation rendering this abbreviation or can use the method of compensation.

As we remember abbreviations are shortened forms of a simple or complex term - letters, syllables or words are omitted from the original term, for example, INFO - information, PKGS - packages. Let us analyse the ways of rendering abbreviations of the text below:Source Text:

«NN-Munai» LLP represented by X, hereinafter referred to as Employer, from one side and Y, in the position «Coordinator» hereinafter referred to as «Employee» on the other part, have concluded the present Contract for the following:

. The worker, holding a position of the Coordinator, performing the work connected with transportation of the goods and back takes up a full liability for maintenance of safety of the goods received under power of attorney of reception-transfer and/or by proxy and/or under the single power attorney and/or under other single documents, and bears the property responsibility for the harm which has arisen owing to shortage by deliberate destruction or deliberate damage of materials, the goods, semi-finished items, products, and also not being limited to the tools, special clothes and other subjects of value.

. And in connection with above stated the Employee undertakes:

To provide safety of the goods from the moment of reception before delivery on a warehouse of the Employer, being on the base of the Employer in Aktobe;

To be responsible for shortage, damages of the goods;

To take measures for prevention of damage;

To inform the Employer in time on all circumstances menacing to maintenance of safety of the goods entrusted to it;

On receiving of the goods from suppliers of the Employer, and also on direct purchase from places of realization to examine integrity of the goods, and to count quantities of the goods according to a waybill, to check up packing of the goods which should correspond to rules of transportation;

At detection of shortage, damages or TU discrepancies of the goods, to inform directly Employer about it immediately.text of the contract contains two abbreviations LLP and TU. The first one is Limited Liability Partnership - Жауапкершілігі Шектеулі Серіктестік and can be rendered into Kazakh by an abbreviation ЖШС. The second one is a Russian specification Tehnicheskie Uslovia (Технические условия) which is frequently transliterated for clauses in the form of abbreviation for such kind of documents. In the Kazakh translation this abbreviation is omitted.Target Text:

«NN - М?най» ЖШС X - атынан жолданыл?ан б?дан былай «Ж?мыс беруші» деп аталады, бір жа?ынан, ж?не координатор болып ж?мыс істейтін азамат Y б?дан былай «?ызметкер» деп аталады, екінші жа?ынан т?мендегі е?бек келісім шарты келісілді:

. Тауарды ?келіп ж?рген координатор ?ызметін ат?ар?ан ?ызметкер сенімхат немесе бір жол?ы сенімхатпен алын?ан тауарды? б?тіндігін ?амтамасыз етуіне, м?лікке зиян тиген жа?дайда жауапкершілікті, тауарды? жетіспеушілігіне байланысты, немесе материалдарды б?лдіру, д?мбілдерді, тауарларды ж?не арнаулы киім, ??ндылы?ы бар заттарды ?аса?ы жою м?селесінде, толы? материалды? жауапкершілікті мойындайды.

. Со?ан байланысты ?ызметкер міндеттенеді:

-тауар алу уа?ыттан ж?не Ж?мыс берушіні? А?т?бе базада?ы ?оймасына тапсыруына дейін б?тіндігін ?амтамасыз етуге;

-тауарды? жетіспеушілігіне, б?лінуіне жауап беру;

зиянды алдын алуына байланысты ?арекет ету;

Ж?мыс берушіге тауарды? б?тіндігіне ?ауіп ?атерлі жа?дайларды уа?ытында хабар етуіне;

Ж?мыс берушіні? жеткізушіден тауарды ал?анда ж?не де тікелей сауда к?терме жерден сатып ал?анда тауарды? б?тінділігін, тауарды? буып т?юсын, тізіміне ?арай санын тексеруіне;

тауарды? жетіспеушілігінде немесе б?лінуінде дереу Ж?мыс берушіге хабар беруіне.

Let us consider another example:

The Source Text:

Dear Allbe aware that Rig 249 move is complete.,

ECC OperatorTarget Text:

??рметті ?ріптестер,

249-шы б?р?ылау ?ондырмасыны? к?шуі ая?талды.


Апат?а ?арсы ?рекет ету ж?ніндегі байланыс орталы?ыны? операторы

Acronyms are abbreviations of a complex term, made up of (mostly initial) letters or syllables of its components and pronounced as a single word For example, the acronym Zip or Zip Code which is used in the texts of business documents is a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963 and is deciphered as Zone Improvement Plan.are abbreviations of a complex term made up of the initial letters of its components, each letter being pronounced separately, for example, CID - si: ai di: is a commercial item description or SCAC - Standard Carrier Alpha Code.

Abbreviationsadsd (addressed) - жіберілген арр. (appendix) - ?осымша Co. (company) - серіктік, компания dd 1. (dated) - даталан?ан 2. (delivered) - жеткізілген enc., encl. (enclosed, enclosure) - салын?анAcronymsCEO (chief executive officer) - ат?арушы директор CV (curriculum vitae) - ?ыс?аша ?мірбаян doc. (document), (pl. - docs.) - ??жат (тар) memo (memorandum) - хат, жазбаInitialismsH.Q., HQ, h.q. (headquarters) - бас бас?арма (компания, ?йым) В/Е, В.Е., b.e. (bill of exchange) - к?шірме вексель p.a. (per annum, лат.) - жылына Plc, PLC (public limited company) - жауапкершілігі шектеулі ашы? акционерлік серіктестік

To translate these abbreviations properly a translator is to be able to decipher them or know the meanings of each component.of the biggest challenges faced by translators dealing with acronyms is whether the original acronym should be left as written (so that it remains true to the original language) or whether the acronym should be adjusted to the target language. In such cases, it is best to look at the standard usage of the acronym in the target language - for example, by seeing how it is used in major media outlets, journals or other public sources.

Incoterms 2010, for example, is an acronym that appears around the world - it stands for International Commercial Terms, for example:

In case of replacement/supply by the Contractor of a spare part at its own cost, delivery of the repaired or replaced spare part to the Purchaser shall be done at the Contractors cost in accordance with CIP Incoterms 2010.this acronym is rendered by a transliteration as ИНКОТЕРМС but more often the English variant without changes is used in the source language text.

Егер мердігер ?осал?ы б?лшектерді ?з есебінен ауыстырып н/е жеткізетін болса, CIP Incoterms 2010 шарттарына с?йкес, ж?нделген н/е ауыстырыл?ан б?лшекті? т?тынушы?а жеткізілуі мердігер есебінен ж?зеге асады.

Goods in international trade are transported with the help of multimodal (door-to-door) shipment. In contracts delivery and acceptance terms are marked with the International Commercial Terms (Incoterms) [16; 16]. So, contracts can be classified in accordance with the way of delivery. Most of Incoterms are represented as abbreviations.

The seven abbreviations for rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for any mode(s) of transportation which are used in business documents are:

EXW - Ex Works (named place of delivery) - зауыттан, к?сіпорыннан, кеніштен, ?оймадан «франко - ?ойма» немесе «франко - зауыт».seller makes the goods available at its premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a seller has the goods ready for collection at his premises (works, factory, warehouse, plant) on the date agreed upon. The buyer pays all transportation costs and also bears the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. The seller doesn't load the goods on collecting vehicles and doesn't clear them for export. If the seller does load the good, he does so at buyer's risk and cost. If parties wish seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

FCA - Free Carrier (named place of delivery) - ..атал?ан бекетте…

«тасымалдаушыдан босатылды» («франко-тасымалдаушы» немесе ж?нелтілетін «франко - станция».

The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, into the disposal of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the named place. The seller pays for carriage to the named point of delivery, and risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

CPT - Carriage Paid To (named place of destination) - тасымала?ы…?а дейін т?ленді…ж?к апарылатын бекетті? атауы (сатып алушыны? стансасына жеткізу келісілген «франко - вагон»).

The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.

CIP - Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) тасымала?ы немесе са?тандыру…?а дейін т?ленді…ж?к апарылатын бекетті? атауы (к?лікті? кезгелген т?рі ?шін).

The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier.

DAT - Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.

DAP - Delivered at Place (named place of destination)pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.

DDP - Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination) - кедендік баж салы?тарын ?тей отырып жеткізу «франко-т?тынушы ?оймасы» - жабды?таушы барлы? к?ліктік шы?ындарды ?з мойнына алады.

Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer.four abbreviations for rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are:

FAS - Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment) - ФАС - тауар ба?асына оны кеме бортына жеткізу ??ны ?осыл?анда?ы су жолымен тауар жеткізуге байланысты сатып алу-сату ж?ніндегі сырт?ы сауда шартыны? т?рі. франко-ж?нелту порты» - жабды?таушы ж?кті кеме айла?ына т?сіріп, порт?а тиеуге дейінгі шы?ындарды т?лейді.seller must place the goods alongside the ship at the named port. The seller must clear the goods for export. Suitable only for maritime transport but not for multimodal sea transport incontainers (see Incoterms 2010, ICC publication 715). This term is typically used for heavy-lift or bulk cargo

FOB - Free on Board (named port of shipment) [17; 175]

ФОБ - халы?аралы? саудада тауарлар жеткізілімі талаптарыны? бірі, м?нда сатушы ж?к тиелетін келісілген портта сатып алушы жалда?ан кемені? бортына тауарды белгілеген мерзімде ?зіні? есебінен жеткізуге ж?не сатып алушы кемені ?зіні? есебінен жалдау?а ж?не тиелетін мерзімі мен орнын, кемені? атауын, келетін уа?ытын, тиеу кезін де хабарлау?а тиіс.example:

The line shall be shipped and delivered on FOB conditions to the port indicated by the Buyer. The Seller shall be in charge to pay all the expenses connected with transportation up to the frontier, and then the Buyer shall undertake all the taxes and duties existing on the territory of ROK.

Ба?ыт Сатып алушы белгілеген порт?а ФОБ шарты бойынша тиелінеді ж?не жеткізілінеді. Сатушы шекара?а дейінгі тасымалдаумен байланысты барлы? шы?ындарды т?леуге міндетті, ал содан кейін Сатып алушы КР территориясында кезігетін барлы? салы? пен алым т?лемін ?зіне алады.

The seller must load the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of the vessel (this rule is new!). The seller must clear the goods for export. The term is applicable for maritime and inland waterway transport only but NOT for multimodal sea transport in containers. The buyer must instruct the seller the details of the vessel and the port where the goods are to be loaded, and there is no reference to, or provision for, the use of a carrier or forwarder. This term has been greatly misused over the last three decades ever since Incoterms 1980 explained that FCA should be used for container shipments.

CFR - Cost and Freight (named port of destination) - франко-ж?нелту станциясы» - жабды?таушы ж?кті темір жол станциясына жеткізіп, ж?нелту бойынша шы?ынды ?тейді.must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport only and Insurance for the goods is not included. This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F).

CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination) - ??н, са?тандыру ж?не тасымал… ж?к апарылатын портты? атауы немесе «СИФ»

(тек ?ана те?із тасымалы ?шін).

Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only.

There are so many abbreviations and acronyms in business documents that there are special addenda in dictionaries to decode them, for example:units of measure such as length, weight, etc. are often used in texts of contracts and business letters in their abbreviated forms and are usually translated into Kazakh by a full equivalent:

The field, discovered in 1979, is one of the worlds largest gas and condensate fields. Located in north-west Kazakhstan and covering an area of over 280 square kilometres, it holds estimated hydrocarbons initially in place (HIIP) of 9 billion bls of condensate and 48 trillion cu. ft (tcf) of gas, with estimated gross reserves of over 2.4 billion bls of condensate and 16 tcf of gas.the original text the contracted forms of measure such as cu. ft - cubic feet, tcf - trillion cubic foot, bls - barrels are used.

1979 жылы ашыл?ан ы?ана? кен орны ?лемдегі е? ірі газ конденсат кен орындарыны? бірі болып табылады. Кен орны ?аза?станны? солт?стік-батысында орналас?ан ж?не 280 шаршы километр аума?ты алып жатыр. М?нда?ы к?мірсутектерді? есептелінген бастап?ы балансты? ?оры 9 миллиард баррель конденсат пен 48 триллион текше фут газды ??райды, ал ба?алан?ан жалпы ?ор к?лемі 2.4 миллиард баррель конденсат пен 16 триллион текше фут газдан асады.

2009 has been another year of record production at 139.4 million bls of oil equivalent, representing an increase of about three million bls of oil equivalent compared to 2008, despite the 33 days shutdown which was concluded during the year. In addition, 6,589 million standard cubic metres of gas was extracted, treated and subsequently injected into the reservoir.

2009 жылы ?ндірісте біз та?ы жа?сы жетістіктерге жеттік, атап айт?анда 139,4 миллион баррель м?най шы?арды?, 2008 жыл?а ?ара?анда 3 миллион баррель?а к?п, о?ан ?оса сол жылы 33 к?нге созыл?ан Толы? То?талыс ж?мыстары ж?ргізілген болатын. Сонымен ?атар 6,589 миллион текше метр газ ?ндіріліп, тазартылып ж?не бір б?лігі коллектор?а ?айта айдал?ан болатын.

Abbreviations are very useful, because they are very quick to write and easy to read. But the both parties are expected to know what the abbreviations stand for. If one of the partners is not absolutely certain that the abbreviations are easily recognised he / she should not use it.

Our investigation shows that the translation of acronyms presents unique challenges to translators, who are often charged with the tricky task of piecing together both well-known and unfamiliar abbreviations in a way that readers will understand. While some acronyms are universally recognizable, lesser-known acronyms require some extra explanation on the translators part. The lack of global guidelines for acronym translation adds to the confusion, but three quick tips can make the translators job easier.route translators choose, clarity and consistency are paramount to ensuring reader comprehension. Upon first introduction of an acronym, its wise to note the phrases full name in the source language and, if necessary, target language. For less well-known acronym translations, this allows readers to decipher the acronym without difficulty. After the first reference, the chosen acronym can simply be used., once an acronym has been established, its imperative to stick with the same acronym throughout a document. Some translators, especially those who work in specialty fields, make their own reference guides of acronyms, adding new entries as they go and consulting their list of personal acronym translations like their very own translation dictionary., a translators greatest resource is the person or company requesting the translation in the first place. If a client has a preferred acronym that should appear in a translation, he or she should communicate this to the language services provider at the start of the project. This way, translators have the answers they need from the outset, which saves time and promotes consistency.steps like these can help maintain accuracy in acronym translation, making the job easier for translators and helping improve reader comprehension.

2.2 Style Rendering on the Word Level

The most general function of business documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. It should be noted that the language of business document has its own specific features. First of all, it is rather stable. [18; 249] As a rule, words have their only exact meaning. There are no words which are emotionally coloured. As a result of it, we can point out the words, which are used practically in every business document. The most striking, though not the most essential feature, is a special system of clichйs and set expressions by which each sub-style can easily be recognized, for example:

the above-mentioned - жо?арыда айтылып кеткенnamed - м?нан былай аталатынbehalf of - атынан [19]us consider the following business letter with a translation:Text:

Dear Mr. N,, we have not received computers «APPLE» which are the part of our order. We shall be grateful, if you will send them as soon as possible and if it is not possible, in this case return money cashed from us.look forward to your reply.sincerely,director

Encl: a copy of the order Copy 345Mr. XText:

??рметті N мырза,

?кінішке орай, біз тапсырысымызды? бір б?лігі болып табылатын «APPLE» компьютерлерін ?лі ал?ан жо?пыз. Сіздер осы тапсырысымызды тезірек жіберсе?іздер, ал жібере алма?ан жа?дайда, бізден ал?ан а?шаны ?айтарса?ыздар екен.

Жауабы?ызды асы?а к?теміз.

Ізгі тілекпен,



345 - тапсырысты? к?шірмесі бірге жіберіліп отыр

К?шірме XXге

As we see the English letter contains such set expressions as Dear Mr. N, We look forward to your reply, Yours sincerely, which are commonly used in business letters and make up the style or format of business documents. [20; 23] They are rendered into Kazakh with the help of the source language equivalents, for example:Mr. N. - ??рметті N мырза,

as soon as possible - м?мкіндігінше тезірек

We look forward to your reply - Жауабы?ызды асы?а к?теміз

Yours sincerely - Ізгі тілекпен [19]

While writing business letters in English one could use the following set expressions which have a definite communicative aim and comprise its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means: to enclose (a booklet,) to refer to (a letter), certified letter (registered letter), to be in communication with, etc. All these expressions have their own meanings and can be translated into Kazakh with the help of permanent equivalents:

to enclose (a booklet) - хат?а ?осымша (буклет) салу

to refer to (a letter) - (хат?а) сілтеме жасау

certified letter (registered letter) - тапсырыс хат

to be in communication with… - … мен байланыста болуsuch expressions which are retained in most business correspondence contexts:

Please, accept my apologies for… - … ?шін мені? кешірімді ?абылдауы?ызды ?тінемін

close collaboration - жа?ын ынтыма?тасты?

not above - к?п те емес

as follows - мынадай…

according to… - …-?а с?йкес

in connection with… - … мен байланыстыa result of… - … н?тижесіндеfail - міндетті т?рде, даусызcase of necessity - ?ажет бол?ан жа?дайда

at the present time - ?азіргі уа?ытта [19]we see that the above set expressions can easily be translated into Kazakh with the help of corresponding equivalents.following set expressions are commonly used in the text of a contract or enclosure and also have their corresponding Kazakh equivalents, for example:

pro and contra - ?олдаушылар мен ?арсыларand demand - с?раныс ж?не ?сынысsign a license contract - лицензиялы? келісімге ?ол ?оюlicense rights - лицензиялы? ???ы?

by mutual agreement - екі жа?ты келісімan order - тапсырыс ?шінthe following conditions - келесі шарттардаplace an order - тапсырысты таратуalter an order - тапсырысты ?згертуcancel an order - тапсырысты жою

in accordance with… - …мен салыстыр?анда [19]aforesaid is a clichй which is more preferable in texts of business documents instead of its less formal equivalents: the above-mentioned, the above-written, as was written / said before, and the like. [21; 26]example:aforesaid documents should contain references…aforesaid guarantee shall end for the following vehicles…

The aforesaid liquidated damages shall be full and exclusive monetary compensations for any delay of whatever nature under the Agreement.

It is understood and agreed. On the one hand it usually adds nothing, because every clause in the contract is factually understood and agreed. On the other hand, it adds an implication that the other clauses are not backed up by this phrase. By including one you exclude the other.example:prices in this contract are understood and agreed date is understood and agreed to be the date…

Including without limitation. Usually people want to specify things underscored in contracts, and this phrase indulges the prediction.example:may assign any and all your rights including without limitation your exclusive Rights.

Assignees and licensees. These are important words on which acceptability depends from ones point of view.example: TCO, its assignees and licensees…beginning suggests that TCO may hand you over to somebody else after contracts are signed. If you happen to be TCO, you will want those particular rights and should use the phrase.

Without prejudice. The British use this phrase all by itself, leaving the reader intrigued: without prejudice - to what exactly?use it more elaborately. Legal rights, for example, are not the same thing as remedies in the offers to enforce them. Thus its the American right to write:

Without prejudice to any of my existing or future rights or remedies.have carefully examined the samples from this consignment and offer you, without prejudice, an allowance of 50 USA cents per 50 kilos.

As between us - it is a useful phrase because people are always forgetting or neglecting to mention that a great many interests may be involved in what appears to be a simple dialogue. A is controlled by investors, and B - by a foreign parent company. Thats why it will be useful to say in such a situation as between us…confirm the exchange of telexes as between us follows…

Solely on condition that - its one of a few phrases that can be considered better than its short counterparts.can accept the goods solely on condition that you grant us allowance of…per…contracts there are other prepositional phrases made up from words. They are complex, and one must be careful using them. The prepositions also provided are the following: on conditions that; on the understanding, etc.agree to this only on the understanding that the rate of freight does not exceed.against the quality of vehicles may be submitted on conditions that the defects are found within 40 days.prepositional phrases are practically equal in meaning.

Subject to - a few contracts do without this phrase. Many promises can be made good only if certain things occur. The right procedure is to spell out these plausible impediments to the degree that you can reasonably foresee them.agreement is subject to the laws of ROK.wood goods hereinafter specified subject to a variation in the Sellers option of 20 per cent…there is another meaning of the prepositional phrase. It may express some condition.offer you, subject to your acceptance by cable, 1000 tons of ore.

Exclusive - its important in contracts. English is vast and its usage creates difficulties in many cases. Exclusivity as a term means that somebody is bored from dealing with another one in a specified area.the text of contracts there are many foreign words, first of all, Latin ones, such as pro rata and pari passu. Pro rata proves helpful when payments are to be in proportion refuting prior formulas in a contract, for example:is to be paid per day and pro rata for any part of the running day.

Pari passu is used when several people are paid at the same level or time out of a common be considered pari passu.clichй words as inferior / superior are often used to describe the quality of goods.the natural weight be superior or the contents of foreign admixture inferior…had specially selected the goods which were superior to the samples in every respect.and claims may arise in connection with inferior quality of the goods, late delivery or non-delivery of goods.

Ad hoc is also a Latin word, not often used in contracts nowadays.means now an arbitrary court for a concrete trial. Such Latin words as ultima, proxima are now archaic and rarely used.the excess is discovered only on arrival of the goods at their ultima destination in the U.K.the contrary, such a Latin adjective as extra, which means additional, keeps being widely used in official English, and is quite common for the colloquial style.order to obtain delivery we have had to incur extra expenses for which we hold you responsible.extra payment is to be effected for any excess weight.few words are borrowed from French. The most widespread of them is force majeure, which is an essential clause of almost any contract and serves to describe some unpredictable events that may happen to goods while being delivered or other reasons, and amicably, which means friendly.often the parties amicably agree upon a settlement of the claim in question.Sellers and the Buyers shall take all measures to settle amicably any disputes., in contracts and letters one can come across a definite number of clichй words and word combinations which make up lexical peculiarities of this kind of business documents. They all are rather bookish and belong to formal style of written English, not being used in informal English and rarely used in spoken formal English. Almost all of them have corresponding equivalents in Kazakh or can be translated with the help of analogues.addition to them, there are English adverbials derived from the adverbs here, where, there which are frequently used in a contract law document and throughout the law genre for reasoning and inferencial judgement across the official style and the public administration services paperwork, thus indicating a legal context-bound style of writing or the document writers stylistic preferences. They are used in official documents with the meaning of in, under, across, complying with, or related to, or following from the document under study. A slight difference between them relates to the stylistic and usage preferences of the text writer, rather than the meaning proper, and is similar to the one in-between demonstrative pronouns this and that, as in; …any conditions attaching there to; … and..everything herein contained.

+ after, by, in, etc. -› hereafter, hereby, herein, hereof, herewith. [22; 218]combination with certain adverbs and prepositions the usual meaning of here as this, this place, or this time, etc. is extended to a broader meaning of under consideration, in this instance or case pertaining to a document, contract, agreement, statute, law, etc. under study to shape out, for example:of the effective date hereof all previous agreements between the parties hereto as regards the subject herein shall become null and void.= to it - осы?ан= in this document - осы ??жаттаto General Conditions on Sale endorsed hereon…= on this document - осы ??жатта+ after, by, in, etc. -› thereafter, thereby, therein, thereof, therewith [22; 218] Being a word element, in fact a prefix, with the usual meaning of that, that place, or that time, etc., there is combined in contract texts with certain adverbs and prepositions to shape out.expenses connected therewith being born by…= with it - осымен біргеexamination of the goods and objection thereto…= to it - осы?анgoods to be shipped as soon thereafter as suitable tonnage obtainable. thereafter = from that time - б??ан дейінSellers shall not be responsible for any damage resulting to the Buyers therefrom.= from it / them - одан, ол жа?тан+ in, by, upon, for, etc -› wherein, whereby, whereupon, wherefore, whereto wherewith, etc. [22; 218]adverb with the meaning of in, to or at which place or situation a reference is made in the text under study, changes its meaning depending on the combination it enters, for example whereas means because of the fact that.adverbial whereas expresses every mans idea of how a contract begins and means that the parties have been engaged in a series of transactions resulting in a dispute over accounting between them, for example:surplus is to be paid for by the Buyers, whereas short weight is to be refunded by the Sellers.more compound word with the adverb where is whereby, which means by which and refers to the present contract.example:have concluded the present contract whereby it is agreed as follows…us consider the usage of the above discussed adverbials in contracts and their ways of translation into the source language:

. The equipment shall mean that Equipment specified in Annex B attached hereto and located at the site stated in Annex A (hereinafter - the Site).

Жабды?тар - б?л В ?осымшасында?ы, сонымен ?атар А ?осымшасында да к?рсетілген жабды?тарды білдіреді (одан ?рі «Объект»).

2. The Contractor hereby warrants that to the moment of the Contract signing, the Contractor possesses all permissions (licenses, permits, and authority) issued by the relevant authorities required for the provision of Services under the Contract, relevant Emergency Call-Out and Purchase Order, The Contractor shall obtain all required permits and/or licenses on its own (without involving the Purchaser) and at his own expense within the whole validity of the Contract.

Мердігер б?л келісімшарт?а ?ол ?оя отырып, келісімшартта ?арастырыл?ан ш??ыл ша?ырулар мен т?тынушыны? тапсырмаларына ?ызмет к?рсетуге ?ажет ??зырлы органдар ар?ылы берген барлы? р??сат етілген ??жаттар (лицензия, р??саттама ж?не ?кілеттілік) бар екеніне кепілдік береді. Мердігер келісімшарт за?дылы?тарына ба?ына отырып, ?з есебінен барлы? ?ажетті р??саттама мен лицензияларды ?з бетімен (т?тынушыны? ?атысымынсыз) ?абылдайды.

3. Should the Purchaser fail to make payment as provided in the Contract, the Contractor may suspend progress of the works. Herewith, the Contractor shall give at least (ten) calendar days prior written notification to the Purchaser of its intension to suspend the works.

Егер т?тынушы келісім талаптарына сай т?лемін ?темесе, мердігер ?ызмет к?рсетуді то?тату?а ???ылы. М?ндай жа?дайда, мердігер он к?ннен кем емес уа?ыт ішінде т?тынушыны ?зіні? осындай туында?ан ойы ж?нінде хабардар етуі тиіс.

4. Should the Contractor fail to perform Services under the Contract, the Contractor shall immediately notify the Purchaser in writing. Herewith, the Contractor shall be responsible to return to the Purchaser the cost of paid, but not performed Services, within 30 days.

Келісімшартта ?арастырыл?андай ?ызмет к?рсетуге м?мкіндігі болма?ан жа?дайда, мерлігер ол туралы дереу т?тынушы?а хабарлауы тиіс. Ж?не де мердігер т?тынушы?а к?рсетілмеген ?ызметке т?ленген соманы 30 (отыз) к?н ішінде ?айтару?а міндетті.

. Should the Contractor make the repair at its own cost, the aggregate liability of the Contractor for remedial work shall not exceed that portion of the Contract price attributable to the remedial work. Herewith, the cost of required spare parts and/or consumables shall be paid by the Contractor separately.

Мердігер ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ?з есебінен ж?ргізетін болса, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына танытатын б?кіл жауапкершілік к?лемі келісімшарт б?лігіні? ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына б?лінген ба?асынан аспауы керек. Сонымен ?атар, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына ?ажет ?осал?ы б?лшектер мен материалды? шы?ындарды да ?зі к?тереді.

. At the Purchasers written request any additional remedial work on the equipment which is not within the Contractors obligations under this Contract and is within the Contractors competence may be carried out by the Contractor at a time scope and cost to be agreed by the Parties in the additional agreement to this Contract and with the use of appropriate Material plus reimbursement of additional expenses of the Contractor. Herewith the conditions of this Contract shall apply unless otherwise agreed by the Parties in writing.

Т?тынушыны? жазбаша тапсырысы бойынша б?л келісімшартта?ы мердігер міндетіне кірмейтін кез-келген ?осымша ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ж?ргізе алады, біра? ол ?шін мердігерді? жеткілікті т?жірибесі мен біліктілігі болуы керек. М?ндай ж?ндеу ж?мыстары осы келісімшарт?а ?осымша жасал?ан ж?мысты? мерзімі, к?лемі, ба?асы, сондай-а? жеткізу жолдары мен ?ажет материалдарды пайдалану, мердігерді? ?осымша шы?ындары ?арастырыл?ан келісім бойынша ж?зеге асады. Сонымен ?атар, екі жа?ты? жазбаша жаса?ан келісімінде ?арастырылма?андары осы келісімшартты? шарттарына с?йкес іске асырылады.

. The Contractor warrants provision of Services of high quality, to the full extent, and within the determined deadlines. The Contractor shall make good with all reasonable speed any defective work done under the Contract and which has been notified in writing to the Contractor within the warranty period for such works: which is six (6) month of such work having been done. Subject to the provisions of this Clause 6 such making good shall be the Contractors sole liability to the Purchaser in respect of any defective work and in respect of any damage, loss or injury attributable thereto.

Мердігер жо?ары сапада ж?не белгіленген мерзім ішінде ?ызмет к?рсетуге кепіл береді. Ж?мысты? орындал?ан к?нінен бастап 6 (алты) айды ??райтын кепілдеме ?ызметті? мерзімі ішінде т?тынушыны? жазбаша т?рдегі ша?ымына байланысты келісімшарт?а с?йкес орындал?ан кез-келген сапасыз ж?мысты ?ыс?а мерзімде ?алпына келтіруге бар к?ш-жігерін салады. 6-шы бап?а с?йкес ж?мысты орындау кезінде туында?ан залал, за?ым, кез-келген а?аулар мен сапасыз ж?мыстарды ?алпына келтіру мердігерді? т?тынушы алдында?ы ерекше жауапкершілігі болып табылады.

. In case of failure to respond to Emergency Call-Out Services within ten (10) days, the Purchaser is entitled to impose a penalty of 0.1% of the relevant cost of such Services and Works for each day of delay of the above deadlines, but not exceeding 3% of the relevant cost of such Services and Works. The payment of such Liquidated Damages shall be in full and final satisfaction for the Contractors liability for any delay. All other times quoted by the Contractor constitute estimates only and shall not be construed as fixed times for completion and no liability shall attach for any delay thereto.

Егер 10 (он) к?н ішінде мердігер ш??ыл ша?ырту бойынша маман жібере алма?ан жа?дайда, т?тынушы ?р кешіктірілген к?н ?шін айып т?лем ретінде есептен 0,1% алып отыру?а ???ы?ы бар, алайда б?л ?ызметті? жалпы ба?асыны? 3% нан к?п болмауы керек. Мердігерді? кез-келген кешіктіруіне айыпп?л т?леуі шы?ынны? орнын толтыратын жолы болып табылады. Мердігер ?сын?ан бас?а да мерзімдер, ?ызмет к?рсетуді? алдын-ала мерзімі ретінде ?арастырылады, б?ндай мерзімні? б?зылуына мердігер еш?андай жауапкершілік танытпайды.examples with here/ there, where + … show that they are not always translated with the help of their dictionary equivalents. To translate them into Kazakh a translator usually chooses the contextual meaning of the expressions: одан ?рі, б?л, м?ндай жа?дайда, ж?не де, сонымен ?атар, сонымен, or they are omitted in translation.this power of attorney the adverdials hereinafter, hereby, whereof, are used several times in accordance with the style requirements of the English document:Text:this Power of Attorney given on the 5 day of January 2011 ХХХ, the company incorporated and registered in the Republic of Kazakhstan, having its registered office at: XXX Prospect, XX, Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter called «the Company») hereby appoints Mr. E. Amanov, Consultant on International Affair's of the Company, the true and lawful Attorney (hereinafter called «the Attorney») of the Company to represent and act in the name and on behalf of the is hereby declared that the Company ratifies and confirms and agrees to ratify and confirm whatsoever the Attorney shall do or purport to do by virtue of this Power of Attorney.witness whereof this Power of Attorney has been executed this fifth day of January 2011.Text:

Республика Казахстан, ХХ ?аласы, ХХ да??ылы, 2011 жылды? бесінші ?а?тары, Республика Казахстанда ?алыптас?ан ж?не тіркелген «ХХХ» компаниясы Компанияны? халы?аралы? ?атынастары бойынша ке?есші - Аманов Е. мырзаны Компанияны? атынан ж?не тапсырмасымен оны ?кілетті ету ж?не ?рекет ету ?шін Компанияны? ?азіргі ж?не за?ды Сенімдісі (одан ?рі «Сенімді» деп аталады) ретінде сеніп та?айындады.

Компания бекітеді, растайды ж?не Сенімдіні? осы сенімхат негізінде жаса?ан немесе жасау?а ынталы н?реселеріні? барлы?ын бекітуге, растау?а келіседі деп б?л сенімхатпен м?лімденді.

Осыны? ку?сінде б?л Сенімхат бір мы? то?ыз ж?з то?сан жетінші жылды? бесінші ?а?тарында ресімделді.

Another feature of the style under study is the use of words in their logical dictionary meaning. There is no room for words with contextual meaning or for any kind of simultaneous realization of two meanings, as in the other matter-of-fact styles, for example:original sentence:

The line shall be shipped and delivered on FOB conditions to the port indicated by the Buyer. The Seller shall be in charge to pay all the expenses connected with transportation up to the frontier, and then the Buyer shall undertake all the taxes and duties existing on the territory of ROK.term words used in their logical dictionary meanings are rendered into Kazakh by their equivalents:shipped - тиелінедіdelivered - жеткізілінеді- ФОБBuyer - cатып алушыSeller - cатушы- шы?ындар- тасымалдау- салы?- алым [19]translation:

Ба?ыт Сатып алушы белгілеген порт?а ФОБ шарты бойынша тиелінеді ж?не жеткізілінеді. Сатушы шекара?а дейінгі тасымалдаумен байланысты барлы? шы?ындарды т?леуге міндетті, ал содан кейін Сатып алушы КР территориясында кезігетін барлы? салы? пен алым т?лемін ?зіне алады.

Other examples are taken from the text of a contract.Text:line is insured by the Seller to the amount of XXX - USD. In case of any damage during the transportation the losses shall be refunded to the Buyer. The Seller shall provide the Buyer with 1 year guarantee for the line and all the necessary technical documentation. In the case of break down the specialist of the Seller shall be ready to assist to the Buyer free of charge within 2 years after the date of purchase. - А?Ш доллар- ба?ыт- са?тандыру

free of charge - тегін т?рде [19]Text:

Сатушы XXX А?Ш долларрымен ба?ытты са?тандыр?ан. Тасымалдау барысында ?андай да бір за?ымны? пайда болу жа?дайда шы?ындар ?темі Сатып алушы мойынына ж?ктеледі. Сатушы Сатып алушыны ба?ыт пен барлы? ?ажетті техникалы? ??жаттар ?шін 1 жылды? кепілдікпен ?амтамасыз етеді. Сыны? пайда бол?ан жа?дайда Сатушыны? маманы Сатып алушы ба?ытты сатып ал?аннан кейін 2 жыл ішінде о?ан тегін т?рде к?мек к?рсетуге дайын т?рады.

Source Text:

This agreement is made the 24 day of October 2011 between

NN Ltd, a legal entity duly established and acting under the laws of Great Britain, wih registered office situated at YY Road, hereinafter called the Contractor, on the other hand,…greement - келісім.

legal entity - за?ды ?йымContractor - мердігер

hereinafter - ?рі ?арай [19]Text:

Б?л келісім ?азанны? 24 ж?лдызында 2011 жылы жасалды:

«NN Лтд» ?лыбританияны? за?ына с?йкес негізі ?алан?ан за?ды ?йым. Мына мекен-жай бойынша тіркелген: YY Road, Rugby, ?рі ?арай «мердігер» деп аталады.

Source Text:

The scope of Services shall include the supply by the Contractor of spares inwith the provisions of Annex D and Clause 8 of Annex A.- жеткізуContractor - мердігер- ?осал?ы б?лшектер [19]Text:

Мердігерді? ?осал?ы б?лшектерді жеткізуі D ?осымшасына немесе А ?осымшасыны? 8-бабына с?йкес ?ызмет к?леміне кіреді.

Белгілі бір ж?мысты ?з мойнына алып, келісілген ба?а бойынша орындап беретін азамат.

Source Text:

Upon a written request of the Authorized Representative of the Purchaser, provide a service Engineer on an Emergency Call-out basis for the purpose of restoring the Equipment to normal operation in the event of a breakdown. The availability of the Emergency Call-out service, the procedure for obtaining a Service Engineer and the response time are as specified in Annex A. - т?тенше жа?дай [23; 75]


Жабды?тар істен шы?ып ?ал?ан жа?дайда олады? ж?мыс?а ?абілеттілігін орнату ма?сатымен т?тынушыны? у?кілетті ?кіліні? жазбаша тапсырысы бойынша т?тенше жа?дайда сервис инженерімен ?амтамасыз ету. Сервис инженеріні? т?тенше жа?дай болып жат?ан орын?а бару м?мкіндігі, оны? ?ызмет к?рсету т?ртібі, сондай-а? маманны? бару мерзімі А ?осымшасында к?рсетілген.

Words with emotive meaning are also not to be found in business correspondence. Even in the style of scientific prose some words may be found which reveal the attitude of the writer, his individual evaluation of the fact and events of the issue. But no such words are to be found in business style, except those which are used in business letters as conventional phrases of greeting or close, as Dear Sir; yours faithfully. [5; 26]

Source Text:Sir,you know, in May and June of the present year a check on activities of our company was carried out by the department of labour and social protection of the А. region, in accordance with the Labour Legislation of ROK. In this connection, we ask you to sign the enclosed documents on the results of this check and as well as to sign a report that responsibility will not be taken upon by public individual, but by the Company in general. Besides, signatory will not perform the legal operations by signing these documents as administrative penalty was paid.faithfully, N.check - тексерісdocuments - берілген ?ужаттар (салын?ан)

responsibility - жауапкершілік

signatory - ?ол ?оюшы

legal operations - ???ы?ты? шаралар- ?кімшілік айып [19]Text:

??рметті M. мырза,

Сіз білетіндей осы жылды? мамыр ж?не маусым айларында біздін мекемены? ?ызметтеріне ?Р е?бек за?ында ?арастырыл?андай А. ауданыны? е?бек ж?не ?леуметтік ?ор?ау департаменті тексеріс ?ткізді. Осы?ан орай?, сізден осы тексеріс н?тижелеріне с?йкес ?осылып берілген ?ужаттар?а ?ол ?оюы?ызды с?раймыз ж?не сонымен бірге, жауапкершілікті ?о?амды? т?л?а ?ана емес, жалпы компания да алатынлы?ын хабардар етеміз. О?ан ?оса, б?л ??жаттар?а ?ол ?оюшы?а еш?андай ???ы?ты? шаралар ?олданылмайды. Себебі, ?кімшілік айып т?ленген

Ізгі ниетен, N.

The techniques which present difficulties in translation of words used in business documents are, in our opinion, borrowings from another terminological system within the same language or other languages. Terminological systems may be regarded as intersecting sets because some terms belong simultaneously to several terminological systems. There is no harm in this if the meaning of terms and their definitions remain constant, or if the respective branches of knowledge do not meet, if this is not so, much ambiguity can arise, which may cause difficulties for translation. For example, the English word capacity can be translated into Kazakh as «дебит», «к?лем», «сыйымдылы?, іштілік», «?абілет». Let us consider the following examples:capacity - ж?к к?теру ?абілеті.carrying capacity - электр тарма?ыны? шегіне жеткен ?улеті.capacity - ???ырды? дебиті жылылы? сыйымы. [19]more examples with the word currency:intervention - валюта бас?ыншыл?ыmonopoly - валюта монополиясыaccount - валюталы? шот. [19]fact, each of the subdivisions of the official style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions which differ from the corresponding terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style. Thus, in finance we find terms like extra revenue; taxable capacities; liability to profit tax. Terms and phrases like high contracting parties; to ratify an agreement; memorandum; pact; protectorate; extra-territorial status; plenipotentiary will immediately brand the utterance as diplomatic. In legal language, examples are: to deal with a case; summary procedure; a body of judges; as laid down in; the succeeding clauses of agreement; to reaffirm faith in fundamental principles; to establish the required conditions; the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law.

The vocabulary of business documents is characterized not only by the use of special terminology but the choice of lofty (bookish) words and phrases which are borrowed from other languages:

plausible (=possible); to inform (=to tell); to assist (=to help); to cooperate (=to work together); to promote (=to help something develop); to secure (=to make certain) social progress; with the following objectives/ends (=for these purposes); to be determined/resolved (=to wish); to endeavour (=to try); to proceed (=to go); inquire (to ask).

In the case when a term is borrowed from the terminological system within the same language we suggest that the definition of a term should be helpful or if possible to use its equivalent. For that we can recommend that a translator should refer to terminological dictionaries or ask experts in this field for the equivalent referent of the term.of a term allow us to overcome the problem of term translation in this way. A term - sign of the language is used to name a definite special notion in this language. An interpreters aim is to find a sign in the other language for naming just the same special looks like this: term 1 - special notion - term 2it is said in I.V. Arnolds book «The English Word» [24; 114] the notional content of a word is expressed by the denotative meaning i.e. the lexical meaning is the realization of the notion by means of a definite language system. In the case when a term was formed as a result of conversion or semantic shift we can suggest the use of a generic term, i.e. words that are called semantically wide. They denote in a most general way objects, actions, states, etc., for example, the word «run» is used in the expressions run the bank, run out of something, running broker, running costs, running - down clause.

If we use the general meaning of the word «run» in these expressions then we get the following:

run the bank - manage the bankout of something - to use up or finish somethingbroker - a person who acts for buyers and sellers of bills of exchange and who arranges payment of the bills for a fee.costs - overheads, a regular cost of running a businessdown clause - a condition in a marine isurance policy stating that insurance will be paid if a ship collides with another vessel.the case of semantic shift the use of the definition is more convenient:translation of word-combinations also presents difficulties. These difficulties are mostly connected with the fact that in different word-combinations one and the same word may have different meanings, for example:flow - еркін дебитflow - м?найды? ат?ыламасыflow - турбулентті а?ысflow - е? ?олайлы ж?мсауflow - ?олма-?ол а?шасыны? ?оз?алысы [19]we see that the semantic variety of attributives in these term combinations is rather large and depends a lot on the situation.translation presents the word in the target language which is not motivated for laymen we can suggest the use of definitions for such words, for example:- депозит (салым, кепіла?ы)/ indorse - индоссолау (табыстау, жазбасын жасау)a bill - векселді акцептеу (вексельге ризалы? беру, вексельді ?абылдау) [19]should know the differences in the meaning of the following expressions which are often used in business letters because many firms as additional stimulus for their clients are ready to level down the original prices. For this purpose various kinds of discounts and allowances are - ?олма-?ол т?лемге арнал?ан же?ілдік - ?з шотын ?ыс?а мерзімде т?лейтін сатып алушылар?а беріледі;discount - сатып алынатын тауарды? санына же?ілдік - тауарды к?п м?лшерде сатып алатын сатып алушылар?а беріледі;discount - сауда же?ілдігі - тауар сату, оны са?тау, есеп бас?аруында белгілі функциялар ат?арушы, тауар айналымы ?ызметтерін ?ндірушілерге ?сынылады;discount - маусымды? шегірме - маусымды? тауарлар сатып алатын ж?не ?ызметтер ат?аратын клиенттерге ?сынылады.

Есептеулерден ба?а тізімдегі ба?аларды? бас?а же?ілдік т?рлері т?сіндіріледі:in allowance - тауар айырбастау есептеуі - ескі тауарды беру шартына сай жа?а тауар ба?асыны? азаюы (б?л к?бінесе автомобильдер ж?не ?за? пайдалану?а арнал?ан бас?а тауарларды сатуда жиі ?олданылады);allowance - жарнамалы? есептеу (немесе жарнамалы? шегірме) - жарнамалы? нау?андар ж?не тауар айналымында ?атыс?аны ?шін береді.

We translated all terms with the help of descriptive or explanatory translation. [25; 105]

Special attention should be paid to words which seem to be correspondence two English verbs confirm and acknowledge are often used and can be translated into the Kazakh language as «??птау, растау, д?лелдеу». However, the verbs are not full synonyms. So, «to confirm» is used, when it is necessary to confirm either the maintenance of something or the fact of the consent with something (to confirm ones letter, an order, prices, etc.). And the verb «to acknowledge» is more often used in expression «ал?анын растау».s compare:

) Please, acknowledge receipt.

) We confirm our prices.example is with the words works - factory - mill; plant; enterprise - зауыт; фабрика.

In the Kazakh language the branch principle is put as a basis of a choice of a word «зауыт» or «фабрика». If it is a question of the enterprise of light or a food-processing industry we speak about «фабрика», and «зауыт» is an enterprise of the heavy industry.the English language not all so unequivocally operates «салалы? ?станым» and the degree of processing of raw material is simultaneously considered. At the initial stage of processing in the light, food and wood industry the word «mill» (for example, cotton mill - ма?та иіретін фабрика is used; sugar mill - ?ант зауыты), and in the heavy industry - «works» (for example, steel works - болат зауыты, etc.) Here we have used approximate translation, i.e. with the help of a corresponding analogue.a high degree of processing irrespective of branch the word «factory» is used (for example, automobile factory - к?лік зауыты; textile factory - то?ыма фабрикасы and so on.).word «plant» can be translated as «?ондыр?ы; саймандар комплектісі». Therefore, if it is an enterprise, which produces power, or processes chemicals, or makes machines and equipment used in industy, we can use the word «plant» (for example: N-plant - АЭС; turn-key plant - дайын зауыт (a loan translation is used)).

«К?сіпорын» in the general sense of the word - «enterprise». Here realization of idea of business is more likely emphasized, instead of connection with technologies or manufacture.

«Тауар жиыны» has three alternative conformities in English language. They are «lot», «consignment» and «cargo». However these three synonyms have various shades of meaning: «lot» - is the most neutral synonym, it means «ерекшеленген тауар б?лігі»; as a rule «cargo» is translated as к?пшілік тауарды? жиыны (ж?к), and «consignment» is translated as к?ліктер, ??рал-саймандар немесе бас?а даналап сатылатын тауарды? жиыны. [25; 119]

There is often a question of storage of the goods and of warehouse in the texts of commercial correspondence and documentation. The word «?ойма» (in the meaning ?оймалы? ?й, б?лме) is translated as «warehouse» or often translated as «storehouse.» «Stock» is a stock of the goods in a warehouse, however, a number of word combinations with this word are translated with the help of the word «?ойма». So, «from stock» - ?оймадан, «from consignment stock» - консигнациялы? ?оймадан, «in stock» - ?оймада. Though the main meaning of the word «storage» is са?тау, the expression «storage expenses» is translated as «?ойма шы?ындары», or «са?тау?а ж?мсал?ан ?аражаттар». As you see, these words and expressionsare rendered with the help of descriptive or explanatory translation. [25; 151]Kazakh word «к?лік жапсырмасы» corresponds to English terms «bill», «waybill» and «consignment note». So, on air transport «air waybill» is used, or it is differently called «air consignment note». At auto transportation is called «road waybill». Sending a cargo with the railway, we use «railway bill» or «railway consignment note». Thus, a way bill is the form of receipt used when shipping goods by road, rail or air carriers.

We have come to the conclusion that the special vocabulary of business documents, i.e. terms, clichй and set expressions can be rendered in the following ways:

1)borrowing the term from the source language and transferring it unchanged into the source language;

2)transcribing and or\ transliterating the term in the source language using the alphabet of the target language, modern tendency being that of a maximal phonetic approximation of the technical terms in the source and target languages;

)using a loan translation whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the target language;

)providing a descriptive translation of a given expression.up all that has been said above we think that some words should be said about dictionaries. So as to acquire the terminological system of a business document one should know terms with which he/she operates with. To know a term means to know its definition where special notion is reflected. And being a translator, we should know their equivalents in the other language. All that is impossible without the usage of specialized dictionaries:

  1. terminological dictionaries - dictionaries to know what a term means;
  2. translation dictionaries - dictionaries to know the equivalents of a term in the target language.

2.3 Style Rendering on Structure Level

of official documents not only requires sufficient knowledge of terms, phrases and set expressions, but also depends on the clear comprehension of the structure of a sentence and some specific grammar and syntactical patterns, which are characteristic of this style because business documents have definite compositional pattern and design. It is well known that languages differ in their grammatical structure. Apart from having different grammatical categories they differ in the use of those categories that seem to be similar. This naturally results in the necessity to introduce some grammatical changes in the translated version of any text. These changes depend on the character of correlation between the grammatical norms of the source language and the target language.across an unknown term in the text, a translator can consult a dictionary. Coming across such a phenomenon as the nominative absolute construction, for instance, a translator can find it time-consuming to search for an equivalent conveying its meaning, unless he or she already knows the corresponding pattern.

Every word in the text is used in a particular grammatical form and all the words are arranged in sentences in a particular syntactic order. Grammaticality is an important feature of speech units. Grammatical forms and structures, however, do not only provide for the correct arrangement of words in the text, they also convey some information which is part of its total contents. They reveal the semantic relationships between the words, clauses and sentences in the text; they can make prominent some part of the contents that is of particular significance for the communicants. The syntactic structuring of the text is an important characteristic identifying either the genre of the text or its authors style. Though the bulk of the information in the original text is conveyed by its lexical elements, the semantic role of grammatical forms and structures should not be overlooked by the translator. The importance of the grammatical aspects of a source text is often reflected in the choice of the parallel forms and structures in a target language, as in the following example:

In compliance with the existing Company safety procedure, every employee working in the field is obliged to follow training and pass exam for obtaining certificate of hydrogen sulphide.

Компанияда бекітілген ?ауіпсіздік техникасы ережелеріне сай кен орнында ж?мыс жасайтын ?рбір ж?мысшы міндетті т?рде жатты?у курсынан ?тіп, к?кіртсутекпен ж?мыс жасау сертификатын алу ?шін арнайы емтихан тапсыруы керек.

In many cases, however, equivalence in translation does not try to mirror the grammatical forms in the source text. There are no permanent grammatical equivalents and the translator can choose between the parallel forms and various grammatical transformations. He may opt for the latter for there is never an absolute identity between the meaning and usage of the parallel forms in the source and target languages. For instance, both English and Kazakh verbs have their infinitive forms. The analogy, however, does not preclude a number of formal and functional differences. As we know the English infinitive has perfect forms, both active and passive, indefinite and continuous, which are absent in Kazakh. The idea of priority of action expressed by the Perfect Infinitive is not present in the meaning of the Kazakh Infinitive and has to be rendered in translation by some other means.

Or both English and Kazakh conditional clauses can be introduced by conjunctions or asyndetically. But the English form is bookish while its Kazakh counterpart is predominantly colloquial. As a result, it is usually replaced in the target text by a clause with a conjunction, for example:

Had the Director adopted the proposal, it would have been an important step towards the solution of the problem.

Егерде директор ?сынысты ?абылда?анда, б?л м?селені? шешілуіне жасал?ан мы?ты ?адам болар еді.

We shall consider the translation peculiarities of certain English constructions which may cause special difficulties while translating. One of the most peculiar features of business document grammar is a wide use of so called verbals or non - finite forms of the verbs. The English system of non-finite forms of the verb comprises the infinitive, the - ing-form or the gerund and the participles. In Kazakh we also have three non-finite forms of the verb but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language: есімше, к?семше, т?йы? етістік.non-finite forms of the verb have a double nature, nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a noun.tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute (like those of the finite forms), but relative; the form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, future or past; it shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb form or prior to it.the verbals can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive). The verbal element stands in predicate relations to the nominal element, i.e. in a relation similar to that between the subject and their predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence. [26; 132]translation of verbals, thus, is very specific and can present certain difficulties.

One of the most frequently used verbals in business letters is the infinitive. According to Trofimova A.S. there are six types of patterns in which the infinitive is to be regarded as a verb adjunct:

  1. an adjunct to an active verb;
  2. an adjunct to a passive verb
  3. a complex adjunct to an active verb;
  4. a prepositional complex adjunct to an active verb;
  5. a wh - infinitive adjunct;
  6. an adjunct to a verb in a sentence with a function of the subject.

The groups of the infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb, the infinitive as an adjunct to a passive verb and the infinitive as a complex adjunct to an active verb are used in commercial correspondence and in contracts in particular. The last three types of the infinitive are very rarely used in business correspondence or might be used just occasionally.infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb always follows a head-verb. In business correspondence it is lexically dependent and commonly found after the following verbs: to agree, to appear, to arrange, to continue, to decide, to expect, to fail, to hesitate, to hope, to intend, to like, to manage, to need, to offer, to omit, to plan, to prefer, to prepare, to propose, to regret, to secure, to try, to want, to wish. [27; 32]

An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest «stem» form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.on the function the Infinitive plays in the sentence it can be translated by different parts of speech or even a subordinate clause. For example, as an attribute the infinitive often has a modal significance - it expresses an action thought of as obligatory or possible. In this function the infinitive can be rendered into Kazakh by an infinitive, for example:case of violation of payment deadlines by the Purchaser, the Contractor has the right to claim a penalty of 0.1% for each day of delayed payment, but not exceeding 5% of the due amount.

Егер т?тынушы т?лемді уа?ытында ?темеген жа?дайда, мердігер ?р кешіктірілген к?н ?шін есептен 0,1% айып ?тем талап етуге ???ы?ы бар, біра? т?ленбеген соманы? 5% нан к?п болмауы керек.an adverbial modifier of purpose the infinitive can express an independent idea that adds some new information about its subject; the adverb only is omitted in translation, for example:president announced his resignation only after the failure of his drive to push through the merger of the two companies last summer.

Президент ?зіні? ?ызметтен кетуын ?ткен жазда оны? екі мекемені біріктіру ?рекеті с?тсіздікпен ая?тал?аннан кейін ?ана жариялады.

In agreements and contracts the infinitive in the function of the adverbial modifier of purpose can be rendered not only by a noun but by an infinitive as well, for example:the normal test equipment [which can be hand carried to site] to carry out the work under the Contract.

Келісімшарт бойынша ж?мыс ж?ргізуге арнал?ан сына? ??рыл?ымен (?олмен жеткізуге м?мкін болатын) ?амтамасыз ету.

Make available the equipment as necessary to enable the service engineers work to be carried out without delay for an emergency call-out.

Ш??ыл ша?ыртумен келген сервис инженерді? еш кедергісіз ж?мыс ат?аруы ?шін ?ажет ??ралдар?а ?ол жетімді болдыру?а.

Upon Contractors written request, provide for the service engineer, an assistant engineer, foreman or senior electrician or equivalent grade of technician as necessary for the work being carried out to comply with current health and safety legislation.

Мердігерді? жазбаша с?ранысы бойынша сервис инженерді денсаулы? са?тау ж?не ?ауіпсіздік ж?нінде орнатыл?ан за?дар?а с?йкес ж?мысты? орындалуына ?ажет инженер к?мекшісі, мастер немесе а?а электрикпен ?амтамасыз етуге?рекеті с?тсіздікпен ая?тал?аннан кейін ?ана жариялады.

After the adjectives the last, the only and ordinal numerals the infinitive is translated as the predicate of an attributive subordinate clause, its tense form is determined by the context, for example:was the first high official to be admitted to the inner council of government, to the cabinet.

Ол кабинет м?жілісіні? жабылуына жіберілген жо?ар?ы д?режедегі бірінші шенеунік болды.

The Complex Object with the infinitive is translated as an object subordinate clause or a separate simple sentence:Contractor shall, at its own cost, obtain and maintain for the duration of this Contract the following insurances to be evidenced by brokers letters, acceptable and available to the Purchaser prior to the commencement of the Services.

Мердігер ?з есебінен т?тынушыны келісімшарт ?рекет ететін мерзім аралы?ында к?шке енген са?тандырумен ?амтамасыз етуі тиіс. Са?тандыру делдал хаттарына с?йкес расталып, ?ызмет к?рсетуден б?рын т?тынушы?а беріледі.English finite form is transformed into a Kazakh parenthesis and the English Infinitive into a Kazakh predicate, for example:, there appear to be two choices.

С?йтіп, екі та?дау бар екен.

The English Infinitive is transformed into a Kazakh predicate екені к?м?нді, for example:proposal is likely to work.

Осы с?йлемдерді? ?андайда біреуі ?серлі екені к?м?нді.the English predicate has an object by somebody, such predicate-object clusters are translated as a parenthesis пікірінше, осы?ан с?йкес, к?рсетуінше (белгіледі, суреттеді, etc.), for example:results were interpreted by Brown to be insufficient to draw any substantial conclusions.

Браунны? пікірінше б?л м?ліметтер ?андайда бір ма?ызды ?орытындылар шы?ару?а жеткілікті емес.

A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. To make a gerund, you add «- ing» to the verb, just as with a present participle. The term «verbal» indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.on the function the gerund plays in the sentence, it can be translated as:noun:

Banking on a loss of nerve within the board of trustees may turn out to be misguided.we see, in this example the gerund in the function of a subject is rendered in Kazakh by a noun and again such grammatical transformations as the replacement and transposition are used.

?ам?орлы? ке?ес м?шелеріні? ж?йкелеріне тиеді деген, ?ате есептеу болып шы?уы м?мкін.

Gerund in the function of a direct object or indirect object is translated into Kazakh usually by a noun:

Upon a written request of the authorized representative of the Purchaser, provide a service engineer on an emergency call-out basis for the purpose of restoring the equipment to normal operation in the event of a breakdown. The availability of the emergency call-out service, the procedure for obtaining a service Engineer and the response time are as specified in Annex A.

Жабды?тар істен шы?ып ?ал?ан жа?дайда олады? ж?мыс?а ?абілеттілігін орнату ма?сатымен т?тынушыны? у?кілетті ?кіліні? жазбаша тапсырысы бойынша т?тенше жа?дайда сервис инженерімен ?амтамасыз ету. Сервис инженеріні? т?тенше жа?дай болып жат?ан орын?а бару м?мкіндігі, оны? ?ызмет к?рсету т?ртібі, сондай-а? маманны? бару мерзімі А ?осымшасында к?рсетілген.

If during the performance of the Contract physical loss of or physical damage to material property belonging to the Purchaser arises directly from any act or omission by the Contractor then the Contractor shall be responsible for making good such loss or damage to property provided that the Contractors total liability for damage to the Purchasers property (including damage caused by the Contractors breach of the Contract, tort or breach of statutory duty) shall not exceed €1,500,000 (one million five hundred thousand Euro). The Contractor shall have no liability to the Purchaser for or in respect or in consequence of any loss of or damage to the Purchasers property that shall occur after the expiration of the warranty period.

Келісімшартты орындау барысында мердігерді? іс-?рекетіні? н?тижесінде н/е оны? ?атысынсыз бол?ан материалды? шы?ын н/е т?тынушы?а тиесілі м?лікке за?ым келген жа?дайда, мердігер оны т?зетуге жауапты. Т?тынушыны? за?ымдал?ан м?лкіне танытатын жалпы жауапкершілігі (за? б?зушылы?, мердігерді? келісімшартты б?зуынан туында?ан залал н/е за?мен белгіленген иіндеттерді орындамауын ?оса есептегенде) €1.500.000 (бір миллион бес ж?з мы? Евро) дан жо?ары болмауы тиіс. Мердігер кепілдеме кезе?і ая?тал?аннан кейін бол?ан кез-келген залал мен т?тынушы м?лкіні? за?ымдануына т?тынушы алдында жауапкершілік танытпайды.basis of this Contract is that repairs to the equipment are reasonably capable of being carried out as a field maintenance task. If after inspection it is the Contractors opinion that a major overall of a part of the equipment is required or that the effective repair properly entails the removal of a portion of the equipment to the Contractors Works then the cost of such major repairs and or such removal shall be the subject of a separate contract between the Parties. In such event no liability shall attach to the Contractor for any loss occasioned by the repairs not being carried out under the current Contract.

Б?л келісімшартты? негізгі б?лігін оъектте ж?ргізуге болатын ??ралдарды? ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ??райды. Егер тексеріс н?тижесінде мердігер жабды?ты к?рделі ж?ндеуден ?ткізу керек деген то?там?а келсе н/е ж?ндеу ж?мыстарыны? н?тижелі болуы ?шін жабды?ты? б?лігін мердігер шеберханасына жеткізу керек. М?ндай к?рделі ж?мысты? ба?асы мен мердігерге жеткізуі екі жа? арасында?ы б?лек келісімшартты? м?ні болып табылады. Сонымен, б?л келісімшартта ?арастырылмай ж?ргізілген ж?ндеу ж?мыстары н?тижесінде туында?ан шы?ын?а мердігер жауапты емес.in the function of an abverbial modifier is translated into Kazakh usually by a finite form of the verb in the subordinate clause:Contractor shall furnish the Purchaser, within 60 days after signing of the Contract with

-an original copy of properly formalised and apostilled tax residency certificate confirming the Contractors tax residency in the UK for the purposes of the double tax treaty between the UK and the Republic of Kazakhstan,

-Extract from the Trade Register (the register of shareholders or other similar document provided by the law of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) indicating the founders (participants) and the majority shareholders of the Contractor.

Келісімшарт?а ?ол ?ойыл?ан к?ннен бастап 60 (алпыс) к?н ішінде мердігер т?тынушы?а мыналарды тапсыру?а міндетті:

-?аза?стан мен ?лыбритания шарттарына с?йкес мердігерді? ?лыбританияда?ы жергілікті салы? коммитетіні? раста?ан р?сімделген ж?не за?дастырыл?ан сертификатты? т?пн?с?асы,

-Сауда тізімінен ?йымдастырушылар (?атысушылар) мен мердігер акционерлері к?рсетілген к?шірме (?лыбритания мен Солт?стік Ирландия за?намасымен растал?ан акционерлер тізімі н/е т.с.с. ??жаттар)

On receiving of the goods from suppliers of the Employer, and also on direct purchase from places of realization to examine integrity of the goods, and to count quantities of the goods according to a waybill, to check up packing of the goods which should correspond to rules of transportation.

Ж?мыс берушіні? жеткізушіден тауарды ал?анда ж?не де тікелей сауда к?терме жерден сатып ал?анда тауарды? б?тінділігін, тауарды? буып т?юсын, тізіміне ?арай санын тексеруіне

Provide reasonable access to telephone and e-mail facilities for use by the service engineers while performing services on the Purchaser site.

Сервис инженерін т?тынушы объектісінде ?ызмет к?рсету барысында телефон желісімен, электронды? поштамен ?амтамасыз етуге;analyzed the texts and sentences with the gerund in different functions we have come to the following conclusion: the gerund is mostly rendered into Kazakh by a verbal noun, or finite form of the verb.participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in - ing or - ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in - ing. Past participles end in - ed, - en, - d, - t, or - n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.

Participle I can be translated as:

an attributive clause, for example:States concluding this Treaty hereinafter refer to as the «Parties to the Treaty». ?азіргі келісім-шарт?а ?ол ?оюшы мемлекеттер, т?мендегіше «Келісім-шарт ?атысушылары» деп аталады.separate sentence, for example:treasury announced that in August the sterling area had a gold and dollar deficit of 44 million dollars bringing the gold and dollar reserve down to the lowest level reached this year.

?аржы министірлігі тамызда стерлинг айма?ы 44 миллион доллар?а те? алтын ж?не долларлы? тапшылы?ты бол?анын жариялады. Сайып келгенде, осы жылы алтын ж?не долларлы? ?орлары е? аз де?гейге жетті.II at the beginning of the sentence can be translated as:a part of the Complex Object construction, Participle I and Participle II can be translated as:object clause, for example:country would like to see its proposals approved by the General Assembly.

Ел Бас Ассамблея оны? ?сыныстарын ма??лда?анын ?алады.Nominative Absolute Construction with Participle I and II can be translated in different ways depending on the form of the Participle and the position of the construction in the sentence:

in preposition the Nominative Absolute Construction with Participle I and II performs the function of an adverbial modifier of cause or time:being too late for further discussion, the session was adjourned.

М?жіліс ая?талды, себебі тал?ылауды жал?астыру ?шін ?те кеш еді.

sometimes Participles may be omitted, but the subject-predicate relations in the Construction are still preserved:first conference a failure, another meeting at a ministerial level was decided upon.

Бірінші м?слихатты? с?тсіздігіне орай, та?ы бір министрлерді? де?гейінде кездесу ?ткізу туралы шешім ?абылданды.more examples of English participles translation into Kazakh:the authorized representative of the Purchaser with a written report, prepared in English, following each emergency call-out, giving details of place of work, the duration and scope work carried out, together with any recommendations or comments, as well as provide Act of performed Services (two originals), signed by the Contractor.

Сатып алушыны? у?кілетті ?кіліне орындал?ан ж?мысты? орны, жасал?ан ж?мысты? мерзімі мен к?лемі туралы ма?л?мат бар а?ылшын тілінде жазбаша есеп, о?ан ?оса кепілдеме мен т?сінік, сонымен ?атар орындал?ан ж?мыс туралы Акт (2 дана), ?з атынан ?ойыл?ан ?олы болуы керек.and provide for review of service engineer at each visit a record of routine service and maintenance and of all breakdowns and stoppages occurring on the equipment.

Сервис инженеріне ?р келген кезінде ?ызмет к?рету жоспарын ж?не ж?ндеу ж?мысы, сондай-а? барлы? сын?ан ж?не істен шы??ан жабды?тар ж?нінде жазба даярлау?а.

Provide such general site services and unskilled labour as may be reasonably required by the service engineer to fulfil the Contract. The Purchaser shall retain control of and be responsible for the safe working of these services and of the unskilled labour (including the personnel provided under Clause 2 Section 4, but in any case the Purchaser shall not be responsible for any negligence of the service engineer.

Келісімні? шарттарын орындау ?шін сервис инженеріні? с?ранысы бойынша объектті жалпы ?ызметтер мен е?бек тобымен ?амтамасыз ету. Т?тынушы осындай ?ауіпсіз ?ызметтер мен ж?мысшыларды ба?ылап, олар?а жауапты болады (2-б?лімні? 4-бабына с?йкес ?ызметші де соны? ішіне кіреді), алайда т?тынушы ?андай жа?дай болмасын сервис инженеріні? ??ыпсызды?ы ?шін жауапкершілік танытпайды.

Maintain and use the equipment in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer or original installer.

Жабды?ты? ?ндіруші немесе ?ондырушы ?сын?ан н?с?аулы?ты ескере отырып ?олданыс?а енуін ?ада?алау?а.the function of an attribute Participle I Active or Passive can be placed at the beginning of a statement (sometimes with conjunctions when, while) or at the end of a translated by:) a Kazakh deverbal form that is by a косемше with corresponding suffixes:spent the whole day preparing for his trade.

Ол б?кіл к?н ж?мысыны дайындалып ?ткізді.II in the function of an attribute can be translated by a participle or by the Kazakh deverbal form with the required words:averages are precisely the information required.

Д?л осы орташа м?ндер ?ажет етілген а?парат еді.

Low temperature tests were performed with the specimen completely submerged in liquid nitrogen or liquid helium environments.

Т?менгі температуралы сына?тар с?йы? азот?а немесе с?йы? гелийге ерітіндісіне толы?ымен батырыл?ан ?лгімен ж?ргізілді.

Generally speaking, the translation of the verbals consists of two stages: first it is necessary to understand its meaning and then find a corresponding way of expressing it in Kazakh. For the purpose of translation, grammar does not exist separately. It is not the grammatical form but the grammatical meaning that is of primary concern for a translator or an interpreter. A mistake in grammar (whether it is a misunderstood construction of the source language or a wrong variant in the target language) always tells on the sense and logic of the text. As soon as the sense and logic of the sentence stop to be transparent it is necessary to stop and look for a mistake in the translation.

The order of words in which the subject is placed after the predicate is called inverted word order, or inversion. While translating, the target sentence retains the word order of the source sentence in many cases:special interest should be the first article in Clause I.

I Болімде?і бірінші бап ерекше ?ызы?тырады.treated are such matters as theory construction and methodology.

Сонымен ?атар, теорияларды? жасалуы ж?не методология сия?ты с?ра?тар ?арастырылып жатыр.this material been examined from this viewpoint, the rules that he discovered would probably have gone unnoted.

Егер мына материал осындай белгілі бір т?р?ыдан ?арал?ан болса, оны? негізінде белгіленген за?дылы?тары бай?алмай ?алуы м?мкін еді.most common example of dissimilarity between the parallel syntactic devices in the two languages is the role of the word order in English and in Kazakh. Both languages use a «direct» and an «inverted» word order. But the English word order obeys, in most cases, the established rule of sequence: the predicate is preceded by the subject and followed by the object. This order of words is often changed in the Kazakh translation since in Kazakh the word order is used to show the communicative load of different parts of the sentence, the elements conveying new information (the rheme) leaning towards the end of non - emphatic sentences, for example:the Purchaser have no objections with regard to the performed services, the Purchaser shall sign the Act and return one original to the Contractor. Should the Purchaser have any objections, he shall provide a motivated refusal to sign the Act and indicate the reasons and time for the elimination of limitations. Should the Purchaser fail to sign the Act within 10 (ten) calendar days or fail to provide a motivated refusal to sign such Act the performed services shall be deemed as properly performed.predominantly fixed word order in the English sentence means that each case of its inversion (placing the object before the subject predicate sequence) makes the object carry a great communicative load. This emphasis cannot be reproduced in translation by such a common device as the inverted word order in the Kazakah sentence and the translator has to use some additional words to express the same idea:

К?рсетілген ?ызметке ескерту болма?ан жа?дайда, т?тынушы актке ?олын ?ойып, 1 данасын мердігерге ?айтарады. Ал егер ескерту бол?ан жа?дайда, т?тынушы актке ?ол ?оюдан бас тарта отырып, себептерін ж?не кемшіліктерді жою?а берген уа?ытын к?рсету. Егер он к?н ішінде орындал?ан ж?мыс туралы актке ?ол ?ойылмаса немесе ?арсылы? болмаса, к?рсетілген ?ызмет мінсіз орындалды деп саналады.

The refusal to use a parallel structure in the target text may involve a change in the number of independent sentences by using the partitioning or the integrating procedures described above. It should be noted that a parallel form may prove unsuitable because of its different stylistic connotation. For instance, both English and Russian conditional clauses can be introduced by conjunctions or asyndetically:the Purchaser fail to make payment as provided in the Contract, the Contractor may suspend progress of the work. Herewith, the Contractor shall give at least (ten) calendar days prior written notification to the Purchaser of its intension to suspend the works.

Егер т?тынушы келісім талаптарына сай т?лемін ?темесе, мердігер ?ызмет к?рсетуді то?тату?а ???ылы. М?ндай жа?дайда, мердігер он к?ннен кем емес уа?ыт ішінде т?тынушыны ?зіні? осындай туында?ан ойы ж?нінде хабардар етуі тиіс.

Should the Contractor make the repair at its own cost, the aggregate liability of the Contractor for remedial work shall not exceed that portion of the Contract price attributable to the remedial work. Herewith, the cost of required spare parts and/or consumables shall be paid by the Contractor separately.

Мердігер ж?ндеу ж?мыстарын ?з есебінен ж?ргізетін болса, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына танытатын б?кіл жауапкершілік к?лемі келісімшарт б?лігіні? ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына б?лінген ба?асынан аспауы керек. Сонымен ?атар, ж?ндеу ж?мыстарына ?ажет ?осал?ы б?лшектер мен материалды? шы?ындарды да ?зі к?тереді.clauses of concession with an inverted predicate often serve emphatic purposes and can be translated with the help of Kazakh combinations бол?анымен, -?анмен; -?анмен; - генмен; сонда да:a principle, strange as it may seem, is championed in one form or another by certain scholars.

Осындай ?станым о?аш к?рінгенімен, бас?а т?рде де кейбір ?алымдар оны ?станады.

Useful as it is, the book has two general shortcomings.

Мына кітап ?аншалы?ты пайдалы бол?анымен, оны? екі ма?ызды жетіспеушілігі бар.

Thus, the difficulties that can of specific difficulty for a translator in the process of translation form English into Kazakh may the absence of those grammar form available in English. First and foremost it is the absence of gender and article in the Kazakh language. There are no deliberate equivalents for them and to solve this grammatical barrier in translation different ways are possible and few but powerful hints to help translator in such cases is the advice to take into account the context.translation usually finds it possible to make a relatively free choice among the possible grammatical arrangements of TT, provided the basic relationships expressed by the SL grammatical categories are intact.


The style of official documents is represented by the following substyles or variants:

-the language of business documents;

-the language of legal documents;

-the language of diplomacy;

-the language of military documents.other styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and, accordingly has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking and to reach agreement between two contracting parties.of the subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style.investigation has proved that the peculiar features common to all stylistic varieties of official documents are the use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions; the use of words in their logical dictionary meaning; absence of emotiveness; definite compositional pattern and design. It should be noted that the syntactical pattern of this style is as important as the vocabulary.a result of the study of official style texts we have come to the conclusion that transformations and translation methods used in rendering the style of official texts are determined by the general purposefulness and genre-stylistic inhering of the source text.

The main aim of official style rendering is to render a source information with maximum exactness and accuracy. This aim can be achieved through logical statement of facts, without any explicit emotionality and expression means such as metaphor, metonymic transpositions, and other stylistic elements which are widely used in the works of fiction.

The most typical features of official style texts are terms and terminological phrases, special vocabulary, set expressions, various types of clichйs and abbreviations. Unlike literary texts the genre of these texts can be defined by fixed semasiologically related linguistic means made in the form of terms. In the given situation terms are words and word-groups used to define particular objects and notions connected with economy, business, banking, marketing, financing, etc. These terms precisely denote the objects and phenomena, thus determining a univocal understanding of the translated information. So when using a variety of translation methods and transformations it is necessary to know the translation of the key term. In other words, business correspondence which is, by all means, dominated by terms and neutral common professional words can be characterized by certain uniformity.

The research has shown that the vocabulary of business documents, i.e. terms, clichй, set expressions abbreviations can be rendered in the following ways:

-borrowing the term from the source language and transferring it unchanged into the source language;

transcribing and or\ transliterating the term in the source language using the alphabet of the target language, modern tendency being that of a maximal phonetic approximation of the technical terms in the source and target languages;

-using a loan translation whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the target language;

providing a descriptive translation of a given expression.order to solve grammatical problems of translation translator should take into account the necessity to keep the main idea of the source text, as well as peculiarities of the target language. Discrepancy in grammatical systems of the two languages and impossibility to render the meaning of one or another word should be compensated by other grammatical, or sometimes, lexical means.translation analysis of business correspondence has revealed that the form of the letters and contracts are mostly stereotyped. Standardization of business correspondence is mostly peculiar to European languages, while the Kazakh language is not so abundant with fixed clichйs, that is why, translators have to use different transformations, particularly functional important to render the purport of the text as close to the original as possible. Translation should be neither literal nor loose, although the elements of the both translations can inevitably be found. Nevertheless, there should not be a loss of substantial information in the target text.of business correspondence is oriented to rendering of information, that is, it has an informative character. For this reason one of the main challenges of a translator during the translation of business correspondence is to keep the informative function and the style of the source text.analyzed the translation of business documents we have come to the conclusion that English business texts are abundant with the usage of verbals and their constructions, which are frequently changed into other parts of speech. Translation of English business documents into Kazakh requires quite many translation transformations, since the language structures of the two languages are rather different.

Generally speaking, the translation of the verbals consists of two stages: first it is necessary to understand its meaning and then find a corresponding way of expressing it in Kazakh. For the purpose of translation, grammar does not exist separately. It is not the grammatical form but the grammatical meaning that is of primary concern for a translator or an interpreter. A mistake in grammar (whether it is a misunderstood construction of the source language or a wrong variant in the target language) always tells on the sense and logic of the text. As soon as the sense and logic of the sentence stop to be transparent it is necessary to stop and look for a mistake in the translation.hus having made a quantitative analysis of the documents to determine the most frequently used transformations done in their translations, we have revealed that in translation of English business documents into Kazakh grammatical transformations are used more frequently than lexical ones, which proves the discrepancy of grammatical systems of the two the period of world community integration the significance of proper business document writing, as well as its proper translation cannot be overestimated. The increasing role of business English as a working language of the majority of international companies and organizations, and frequent use of business correspondence have led to the necessity of being able to understand and translate business documents in a proper way which is impossible without knowing translation techniques.


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