Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words

The Ministry of EducationKazakh National University named afterFarabi


RESEARCH WORKTheoretical GrammarTheme: Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words


, 2011

Functional words

words are characterized by their ambiguous lexical meaning and by their capacity to organize grammatical relationships between words within a sentence. There are a relatively small and fixed number of function words (as opposed to verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, which are limited but expandable sets). Prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs are all considered function words. Most of these words are uninflected although a few are inflected and may take affixes.Verbs are verbs whose function is to characterize the main verbs they accompany with shades of meaning pertaining to tense and/or modality. Regarding tense, the core meaning of the verb can be modified to express perfect, progressive, or passive voices. Regarding modality, the main verb is altered to denote judgment or opinion in terms of ability, advice, expectation, intention/willingness, likelihood, necessity, permission/prohibition, or degrees of politeness. verbs are necessary to form questions and negatives in English. If auxiliary verbs are used only to serve these functions, they are referred to as dummy auxiliaries. Additionally, the auxiliaries 'do', 'does', and 'did' can be inserted preceding the main verb for emphasis. Modal verbs are distinguished from other auxiliary verbs by their inability to function as main verbs and their lack of complete conjugations (infinitive for example). are uninflected function words that serve to conjoin words, clauses, phrases, or sentences. There are three basic forms: single word (however), compound (as long as), and correlative (so... that). In terms of function, conjunctions can be grouped into additive (so, thus), adversative (but, instead), causative (so, because), and temporal (after, then). are not structural elements in a clause. Rather, they are external elements that establish grammatical relations (coordination, correlation, subordination) between clauses. Certain adverbial and prepositional phrases can also act as conjunctions (subsequently, in addition to that). are inflected function words employed as noun modifiers and that serve to alter the referents of noun phrases in terms of amount, location, possession, and general versus specific. In terms of form, determiners are simple (two, their, the) or compound (a number of, one half, a little). Also, possessive and demonstrative adjectives are considered determiners. determiner class is often divided into articles (a, an, the), determiners (both, neither, whichever), and quantifiers (much, various, little). are uninflected function words that combine with nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases to form prepositional phrases that can have, in turn, adverbial or adjectival relationships with other words. Prepositions can be simple (as, of) or compound (next to, in view of) forms. In terms of function, at least the following types of preposition can be distinguished: time (until, circa), location (along, amid), logical (since, given), possession (including, pertaining to), and movement (toward, to). can also occur in post position with: nouns (interest in, need for), adjectives (familiar with, sure of), participles (married to, made of), and verbs (give up, look forward). In this situation, the composite can be thought of as a unit. are inflected function words employed in place of nouns or noun phrases. In terms of form, pronouns are simple (nothing, herself) and compound (each other, one another). Also, some pronoun composites are used in relative clauses (all of whom, several of which). are classified into the following classes: subject personal (I, he, we), object personal (me, him, us), possessive (mine, his, ours), reflexive (myself, himself, ourselves), demonstrative (this, these, such), relative (who, all, that), indefinite (each, anybody, none), reciprocal (each other, one another), and interrogative (how, who, why). Additionally, reflexives also operate as so-called intensive pronouns when they are employed to emphasize an antecedent noun or pronoun (as in, "The boss himself prepared the coffee" or "I myself could not believe it").


Preposition at

/t/-1) у, в

) за

) на

) под

) с, рядом

) из, через, к

) до

) по, против

) used for stating where someone or something is

a) in a particular place: Theres a telephone box at the crossroads.someones ;at their house: Im babysitting at Sallys tomorrow night.home: He wants to spend more time at home with his family.work in the place where someone works: Dad should be at work by now.the doctors/dentists/hairdressers etc: Trevors at the doctors - hell be back soon.for saying where you stop on a journey: Does this train stop at Newport?or standing close to something, especially in order to do something: Lambert was seated at the piano.a particular part of a process, activity, programme, or book: At some point in the process things started to go wrong.for stating what someone is doing

a) used for saying that someone is doing something or taking part in an activity somewherea party/concert/meeting etc: We were at a party last night when you called.school/college etc; studying at an educational institution: Has Karen graduated, or is she still at college?

b) used for stating what state or situation someone or something is in: at rest/war/peace etc: The country was at war and life was difficult for everyone.

) used for stating when something happens:

a) used for stating the exact time when something happens: The match starts at 3 oclock.

b )used for saying when a particular situation existspresent/at the moment ; now: Everyones busy with exams at present.the time; when something happened in the past: Monica was born in 1972. We were living in Edinburgh at the time.the beginning/start/end of something: Its a style that was popular at the beginning of the 20th century.

c) during a particular period: What are you doing at the weekend?night; during any night: At night temperatures sometimes fall to 30 degrees below zero.

d) when someone is a particular age: Mozart was already composing music at the age of five.

) used for stating what someone reacts to used for stating what makes someone react in a particular way: Audiences still laugh at his jokes.

) used for showing prices, temperatures, speeds etc used for showing the level of prices, temperatures, speeds etc: Tickets are now on sale at £12 each.

) in a particular direction used for stating the direction in which you look, point, or aim something: gangs were shooting at police cars.

) trying to hold or hit someone or something used for stating what someone is trying to catch, hold, or hit: He grabbed at my sleeve, but I pulled away.

) continuing to do something used for showing that you repeat an action many times with small movements but without doing it completely: I muttered to myself, sipping at my coffee.

) used for stating what someone can do well used for stating the activity or subject that someone is skilful or not skilful in: Brownstein is an expert at cooking.good/bad at somethingIve never been very good at sports.

) used for giving phone numbers (American) used for stating the phone number where someone can be reached. The British word is on: You can reach us at 555-3964.allfor emphasis when you are saying or asking whether something is even slightly true, especially after words such as any, anything, anyone, or nothing: Has the situation improved at all?for saying that someone or something shows their best/worst etc qualities in a particular event or situation: This is an example of old-fashioned prejudice at its worst.lunch/dinner/breakfast etc used for saying that someone is having a meal: Im sorry, the person you want is at lunch.someones request/suggestion/invitation etc because someone has asked you to do something/suggested something etc: A meeting was arranged at the ambassadors request.at it(spoken) be at it if someone is at it, they are doing something that you do not approve of: Hes at it again, trying to cheat the customers.youre at it(spoken) used for telling someone to do something while they are doing something else: Im just going to clean my boots. Well, you can clean mine too while youre at it.

Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): at

trim grey head, with the deep furrow between the eyes, and those eyes staring as if at pain behind them, steadied Michael. (p.294)

Седая аккуратная голова, с глубокой складкой между бровями, и глаза, словно углубленные страданием, успокоили Майклаhe had rung up Green Street and been answered at last, he sat with the door of his study open, waiting for Old Forsyte to come. (p.294)

Позвонив на Грин-стрит и добившись наконец ответа, он пошел в кабинет и, открыв дверь, стал ждать "Старого Форсайта".looked at the old fellow, and compunction stirred within him-as ever, at any sign that he was appreciated. (p.288)

Сомс посмотрел на Грэдмена и ощутил легкие угрызения совести - как всегда, когда чувствовал, что его ценят.the mouth of the backwater he paused for a second, as if to print its buffness on his brain. (p.286)

На углу переулка он еще раз остановился, как будто хотел запечатлеть его в памяти.came a face straight from a picture of Her Majestys Government in 1850, round and pink, with a high nose, a small mouth, and little white whiskers; while at the end on the right was a countenance whose jaw and eyes seemed boring into a conundrum beyond the wall at Michaels back.(p.273)

Следующее лицо словно сошло с портрета "Министры ее величества королевы Виктории в 1850 году"- круглое и розовое, с прямым носом, маленьким ртом и беленькими бачками. Справа, в конце, сидел человек с выступающим подбородком и глазами, буравившими стену сзади Майкла.from the window, he leaned against the lacquered back of the jade-green settee, and stared at the wall space between the Chinese tea-chests.(p.267)

Отвернувшись от окна, он прислонился к лакированной спинке изумрудного дивана и стал разглядывать опустевшее пространство между двумя китайскими шкафчиками.much better he might become, his daughter, his reputation, and possibly his fortune, were not apparently at the disposition of his subconscious self. (p.256)

Как бы он себя хорошо ни чувствовал, его дочь, его репутация и, возможно, даже его состояние не зависели от его подсознательного "я".was silent at dinner, and went up afterwards to his picture gallery, to think things over. (p.256)

За обедом он молчал, а потом прошел в свою картинную галерею, чтобы все обдумать.half an hour he stood at the open window, alone with the summer evening; and the longer he stood there, the more clearly he perceived that the three were really one.(p.256)

Полчаса он простоял у открытого окна, наедине с летним вечером; и чем дольше он стоял, тем лучше понимал, что в его жизни все связано одно с другим.fortune-well, he had better make another settlement on Fleur and her child at once, in case of accidents; another fifty thousand.(p.257)

Его состояние... да, надо будет на всякий случай теперь же перевести на имя Флер и ее ребенка ещe пятьдесят тысяч. came away from the Board, however, without any sense of power at all.(p.256)

Однако, уходя с собрания, он чувствовал полный упадок сил.words of Michael stirred something deep in Soames; but, far from giving it away, he continued to gaze at the white monkey.(p.251)

Слова Майкла задели что-то глубоко в душе Сомса; но, не выдавая своих переживаний, он продолжал смотреть на "Белую обезьяну".looked mechanically at the fellows cuffs-beautifully laundered, with a blue stripe; at his holland waistcoat, and his birds-eye tie-a regular dandy. He would give him a second barrel! (p.242)

Сомс машинально посмотрел на манжеты этого человека, отлично выглаженные, с голубой полоской; на его пикейный жилет и пестрый галстук - настоящий денди. Ничего, сейчас он ему закатит вторую порцию!would Fleur hang it? In the hall, he shouldnt be surprised-good light there; and the sort of people they knew wouldnt jib at the nude.(p.239)

Куда Флер повесит картину? Возможно, в холле - там хорошее освещение, а тех, кто у них бывает, вряд ли особенно смутит обнаженное тело. Интересно, куда девались все картины с нагой натурой?a tangent his thoughts turned towards the object of his pilgrimage-the P. P. R. S. and its half-years accounts.(p.239)

По странной ассоциации Сомс вспомнил о цели своего похода - об ОГС и полугодовом отчете.his suggestion, they were writing off that German business wholesale-a dead loss of two hundred and thirty thousand pounds.(p.239)

По его предложению они постановили просто списать эти германские дела - чистого убытку на двести тридцать тысяч фунтов!! better have a rotten tooth out at once and done with; the shareholders would have six months to get used to the gap before the general meeting.(p.239)

Но лучше вырвать гнилой зуб сразу и покончить с этим; акционеры за шесть месяцев до общего собрания привыкнут к потере.made no reply; he was evidently thinking: How on earth I missed those things when they first came on the market! Then, raising his umbrella, and pointing it as if at the book trade, he asked: Young Butterfield-hows he doing?(p.228)

Сомс не отвечал; он, очевидно, думал: "И как это я пропустил эти вещи, когда они только что появились на рынке?" Он поднял зонтик и, словно указывая на все издательское дело, спросил: А как молодой Баттерфилд с этим справляется?five minutes before noon he snapped his tray to-not a bally balloon left!(p.205)

Без пяти двенадцать он сложил лоток - ни единого шара не осталось!would slip her forehead against his eyes if he looked at her too hard, and kiss his lips till his head was no longer clear.(p.203)

Она прижмется лбом к его глазам, если он станет слишком пристально смотреть на неe, и зацелует его так, что у него голова закружится.

in

[in]-1) в, во

) в течение, во время, в то время как

) через

) на, над

) в, на, с, поcan be used in the following ways:a preposition (followed by a noun ): The children are in the garden. They met in 2009.an adverb (without a following noun): Come in and sit down. the verb to be: Is Philip in? No, hes gone out.an adjective: It was the in thing to do.for showing where somebody or something is.

a) inside a container, room, building, vechile, etc: He had left his passport in his coat pocket.

b. within an area, city or country: The books are printed in Hong Kong.

c) at home, or at your office: I asked to speak to the manager but he wasnt in.

d) within an object, space or substance: The bacteria in our drinking water. the air, in the sky, in space: It was the the astronauts first experience of living in space.

e) at a specific part of something: Further details can be found in Section 90. the middle/ centre: a new department store in the centre of London.

f ) held or enclosed by something: They lay together in each others arms.

g ) a ball that is in during a game such as tennis or basketball is within the area of play. smth

a ) into your home, or place of work: I invited her in for a drink.

b) moving into a place or space: The door was open so I just walked in.

c. looking or pointing into something: Look in the top drawer of my desk. somewhere 3a. used for saying that a train, bus, plane or ship arrives somewhere: The ferry wont be in for another hour. 3b. arriving at your home or olace of work: Im going to be late, so dont expect me in till after ten. for showing when smth happens

a) during a particular period, year, month or season, or during a part of the day: In winter the lake freezes over.

b. at the end of period of time in the future: Wait, Ill be with you in a minute or two.

c. within a period of time: Unemployment has risen by over 15% in the past period. 4d. used for saying how long it is since something last happened: It was the Presidents first public appearance in three months.

e. during the time that someone is involved in smth, or is experiencing something: Owens brother died in the war. for talking about numbers and amounts

a. used for saying how many units of money, weight, measurement etc make up a larger unit: There are 1000 kilograms in a tonne.

b. used for saying how big groups of people or things are when they do something: People began to arrive in twos and threes.

c. used for saying how common something is by showing it as a number in relation to the total number: One in twelve of the adult population suffers from stress.

d. used for saying that a number is within a particular range, especially a temperature, a score, or someones age:the twenties/ fifties/ seventies etc: Damage is estimated in the thousands of dollars. your teens / twenties/ thirties etc: My daughter is in her mid-thirties now.

e. British used for showing something such as a rate of tax: Income tax now stands at 22 pence in the pound. for saying areas of activity

a. used for saying what organized activity someone does with other people: Bailey was in the long-distance cycle race.

b. used for saying what type of work someone does: Shes a teacher and her husband works in publishing.

c. used for saying what area of work or activity you are talking about: The crisis in farming.

d. used for saying what subject someone studies: A university degree in economics. for describing a particular state, situation, or relationship.

a. used for describing the state or condition of someone or something: The army retreated in confusion.

b. used for saying what the situation is for someone or smth: Their lives were in danger.

c. used for describing the relationship between people and organizations: Are we all in agreement. smth used for saying what someone is wearing: A man in a clowns hat came and sat beside her. for saying what changes used for saying what things change, increase, improve, etc: The recent rise in oil prices. for talking about the way sth is done

a. using a particular method or style: You have to pay in cash.

b. used for describing a particular type of behaviour or way of speaking: We all sat in silence.tears (= crying ): some of the children were in tears.

c. using a particular language:English/ Spanish etc, There are instructions in eight languages. for describing ways of writing, drawing, or painting

a. used for stating what you use for writing, painting, drawing: in ink/ pencil/ chalk/ oils etc A short note written in pencil.

b. using a particular type or style of writing: Write your name and address in capital letters.as part of smth used for saying what group someone or smth is part of smth: Beckham is back in the England team. for describing how things are arranged

a. arranged in a way that forms a particular shape or pattern: We all sat round in a circle.

b. arranged according to a particular order: The names are listed in alphabetical order.for referring to colours used for saying what colour decorations, clothes etc are: Are these curtains available in green?for referring to the weather affected by a particular type of weather: Flags were fluttering in the breeze. for mentioning the book, film etc. where sb/smth appears

a. used for mentioning a story, play, film, etc. where a character or event appears or happens: The disaster is vividly recalled in James Camerons film Titanic.

b. used for mentioning a film or paly where an actor appears: Whos in the new movie with Brad Pitt?

c. used for mentioning a book, newspaper etc where you can read or see smth: I saw the house advertised in the local paper.for showing in what way sth is true used for saying what aspect of someone or something you are referring to: The words are similar but there are is a difference in meaning.or drawn to complete sth written or drawn where sth is needed: Fill in your name and address at the top of the form.sth with a particular feeling used for describing someones feelings when they do sth: In my enthusiasm I quite forgot Dr Zieglers warning.or received given or sent to someone or received by someone: Have you sent in your application form?for saying what a particular substance contains used for saying what product, food, or drink contains a particular substance: Do you take milk in your tea?to buy used for saying that sth is available in a shop: Smoked salmon? Well have some in on Wednesday.for stating who is batting in cricket British a player or team that is in during a game of cricket is batting.for saying who or what has particular qualities used for saying the person or thing that has the qualities needed for a particular job or situation: In Nelson Mandela the people had a leader that they could respect and admire. if a politician or political party is in, they have been elected: We hope things will get better now the Tories are in. in (= be elected) The labour candidate got back in with an increased majority.smth that is in is fashionable: Pale colours are definitely in this summer. in thing (to do) We used to go to boring cocktail parties just because it was the in thing to do.the sea is high if the tide is in or comes in, the sea has reached or is reaching its highest level on the land.inwards used for saying that smth breaks or fails inwards: They kicked the door in and charged through.in at smth to be present when smth happens: Karpati had been in at the birth of the Socialist movement. in for smth informal to be going to to experience smth, especially unpleasant: It looks as if were in for some stormy weather. in for it (= be likely to be punished): When Mum finds out, youll be in for it.in on smth to take part in smth that is being planned or discussed: I dont know what they agreed to because I wasnt in on the deal.in day out/ week in week out etc continuously or frequently over a period of days, weeks etc: I dont know how you can stand eating the same thing day in day out.doing smth used for saying that as a result of doing one thing, you also do smth else: In trying to solve one problem, I created another.length/ width/ height/ area etc used when showing measurements: The rear garden is nearly 30 metres in length.that used for introducing an explanation of what you have just said, showing in what way it is true: The new system is better in that it provides faster access to the internet. their hundreds/ thousands/ millions British used for saying how many people or things do smth, without being exact: Londoners came out on the streets in their thousands./ flood/pour in used for saying that large numbers of people or things, or large amounts of smth, arrive somewhere: The Red Cross made in appeal, and the money started rolling in.

Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy):in

just touched her hand, nodded, as if implying approval of the baby, and came walking back, but, in a mirror, Michael saw his lips quivering.(p.298)

Сомс погладил ей руку и, как бы выражая свое одобрение младенцу, кивнул и пошел к двери, но в зеркале Майкл увидел, что губы у него дрожат.the midst of excited expectation he retained enough modernity to think: No more blurb! Go and eat your breakfast quietly! (p.295)

Несмотря на лихорадочное ожидание, он все-таки сумел остаться современным и сказать себе: "Нечего распускаться! Ступай и спокойно позавтракай".his sight remarked a round hole burnt in his trouser leg-he hadn't even noticed the smell; hadn't even realized that he had been smoking.(p.294)

Мельком он заметил круглую дырочку, выжженную в левой штанине, - он даже не заметил запаха гари, он даже не помнил, что курил.air here is too clear for sentiment of any kind; and passion in exile soon becomes sickly.(p.293)

Здесь слишком чистый воздух для всяких сентиментов, а страсть в изгнании быстро чахнет.publisher in Michael was dead during that hour in the telephone booth, the friend alive and kicking hard.(p.292)

В течение этого часа разговоров по телефону издатель в нем молчал, зато друг бился за своего друга. calling in at two big booksellers, he made for his club, and closeted himself in the telephone booth.(p.291)

Он зашел к двум крупным книготорговцам, потом отправился в свой клуб и заперся в телефонной будке.the Connoisseurs, and the Palace, and Whitehall; past all preserves whence nature was excluded, deep in the waters of primitive emotion Soames sat, grey, breathless.(p.290)

Мимо "Клуба знатоков", мимо дворца, по Уайтхолу, мимо всех заповедных мест, откуда была изгнана природа, охваченный самыми примитивными чувствами, ехал Сомс, посеревший от волнения.found her, a little youthful in costume, drinking Chinese tea, which she did not like-but what could one do, others teas were common.(p.288)

Он застал ее в платье, не совсем подходящем ей по возрасту, за чашкой китайского чая; она его, правда, терпеть не могла, но что поделаешь, всякий другой чай - вульгарность., he might as well tell Gradman at once that he must exercise his own judgment in the future.(p.286)

Что ж, пожалуй, надо сразу сказать Грэдмену, что он может теперь вести дела по собственному усмотрению.from the horror of seeing himself in print, he was beginning to feel that he had been extravagant.(p.286)

Он не только боялся, что о нем заговорят газеты, он еще вдруг почувствовал, что вел себя экстравагантно: никогда не следует выходить из себя! have been familiar with the City all my life, and I have not been in the habit of meeting with suspicions and ingratitude.(p.285)

Я всю жизнь работаю в Сити и не привык к подозрениям и неблагодарности.the question for us shareholders would seem to be whether a Board who placed confidence in such a person, and continued it after their suspicions were aroused, are the right people to direct this important concern.(p.277)

И перед нами встает вопрос: может ли правление, которое доверяло подобному лицу и продолжало ему доверять после того, как против него возникли подозрения, - может ли такое правление стоять во главе солидного предприятия?heard Soames say: In these circumstances we came to the conclusion that there was nothing for it but to wait and see.(p.275)

Майкл услышал слова Сомса: Ввиду таких обстоятельств, мы пришли к заключению, что остается только ждать у моря погоды.centre of the platform was a door, and in front, below it, a table, where four men were sitting, fiddling with notebooks.(p.272)

Сзади эстрады была дверь, а перед эстрадой, пониже, - столик, за которым четыре человека поигрывали блокнотами.faces were cast in an infinity of moulds, but all had the air of waiting for something they knew they would not get.(p.272)

Лица у них были самые разнообразные, но у всех было выражение, как будто они ждут чего-то, чего им, наверно, не получить.was musing on the colour scheme of green picked out with chocolate and chased with gold, when the door behind the platform was thrown open, and seven men in black coats filed in, and with little bows took their seats behind the quills.(p.273)

Он рассматривал зеленоватые стены с коричневым бордюром и золотыми орнаментами, когда дверь за эстрадой распахнулась и семь человек в черных сюртуках вошли и с легким поклоном уселись за стол, против гусиных перьев.had an odd conceit: a little thing in a white top-hat sat inside the brain, driving the features eight-inhand.(p.273)

Майклу пришла в голову нелепая фантазия: внутри черепа сидит маленький человечек в белом цилиндре и правит этими чертами, как четверкой.bearded man, a little behind on the Chairmans left, was already reading from a book, in a rapid monotonous voice.(p.273)

Бородатый человек, рядом с председателем, начал что-то читать по книге, быстро и монотонно. had a platform with a long table, behind which were seven empty chairs, and seven inkpots, with seven quill pens upright in them.(p.272)

В глубине была эстрада с длинным столом, за которым стояло семь пустых стульев; на столе - семь чернильниц с семью гусиными перьями, торчавшими стоймя.had thought better of the Press, and took up a position in the passage, whence he could watch for a chance.(p.271)

Майкл передумал насчет прессы и просто решил занять наблюдательный пост в коридоре и ждать случая.


Preposition of

function word preposition

Of /?v/-1) у

) из

) от

) из-за

) в

) в результате, по причине

) о, об, относительноwith or part of someone/something used for saying who or what has a particular feature, aspect, or quality: We were impressed by the size of the building.

saying which specific thing

a) used for saying which specific thing belonging to a more general type you are referring to: I had a feeling of duty towards him.

b) used for giving a specific age, amount, value etc: She met Charles at the age of 20.

) saying who or what does something

a) used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or what does the action:is clearly the work of more than one person.

b) used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or what is affected by the action: the baptism of children

) saying who something belongs to used for saying who something belongs to: ended up living in the house of Jeannes oldest brother.

) showing or describing someone/something concerning or showing someone or something: She had a photograph of him beside her bed.

) saying what something is part of used for saying what something is part of: He moved to the far side of the bed.

) containing or consisting of something

a) used for saying what something contains: He handed her a glass of water.

b) used for saying what type of thing is in a particular quantity or group: a kilo of riceof insects

c) used for talking about individual pieces of a substance: a grain of sugar/sand

d) used for saying what group a particular person or thing is from: Shes one of my best friends.

) in names or titles used after names and titles for talking about the relationship between a person and a place or organization: He listed the kings and queens of England.

) describing materials or fabrics used for saying what substance is used for making something: was wearing a shirt of soft pink cotton.

) in datesused for giving dates and periods of time: the 27th of November

) in descriptions of feelings used after some adjectives for saying a person or thing that a feeling is directed towards: You should be ashamed of yourself!

) linking one noun describing another used for saying what type of person or thing has been described by another noun: He was an angel of a child.

) saying who has a quality used for saying which person behaves in a particular way in a situationwas nice/sweet/stupid etc of someone: It was nice of you to help me.

) giving the cause of something used for saying what causes something: the beneficial effects of red wine

) saying what quality someone has used for mentioning a quality that someone or something has: He was a man of great charm.

6)created by someone used for saying who wrote a book or play, produced a work of art etc: the wonderful paintings of Picasso

) linking a time and an event used for describing when something happens in relation to something else: She didnt invite him till the evening of the party.

) giving the time (American)used in saying the time to mean a particular number of minutes before the hour: Its twenty of two 1.40.Its a quarter of nine 8.45.

)describing relationships used for saying who has a particular relationship with someone else: Lori is the daughter of my fathers sister.

) saying what happened during a period of time used for saying what type of activity or situation lasts for a particular period of time: We had weeks of problems with the new computer system.

) indicating the best, biggest etc used for saying the period of time for which someone or something is the biggest, best, most important etc: Reynolds was named businessman of the year in 1998.for describing the importance of a quality that something has: It was really more of a comment than a question.

(british) used for saying that you often do something at weekends/on Sundays etc: I generally do the gardening of a Sunday.

Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy):of


He went out to a closet under the stairs, and, from beneath four pairs of curtains done up in mouth-preserver and brown paper, took out the picture.(p.298)

Он пошел в чулан под лестницей и из-под четырех пар пересыпанных нафталином и завернутых в бумагу занавесок достал картину.you've published the things I left behind, send any royalties to me care of my governor.(p.293)

- Если ты издал то, что я оставил, передай, что мне причитается, моему отцу.book-he said-was bound to get the goat of the old guard and the duds generally; it would want a bit of the drum-beating from the cognoscenti. (p.291)

Эта книга, говорил он, обязательно должна вызвать злобу старой гвардии и вообще всяких снобов; поэтому надо, чтобы сочувствующие ее поддержали. had pitched on Old Forsyte, who, of all, was least to blame; for if Bart had only held his tongue, they would certainly have lumped him into the vote of confidence.(p.291)

Они прицепились к "Старому Форсайту", который меньше всех виноват. Ведь если бы Барт держал язык за зубами, они, конечно, и его бы включили в вотум доверия. Все очень естественно и нелогично.just repeated each other, like a lot of shareholders, or got their precious sentiments out of The Daily Liar. (p.289)

Они просто повторяют друг друга, как эта свора пайщиков, или вычитывают свои драгоценные убеждения в "Ежедневном лгуне".under its influence or that of the Chinese tea-which, made in the English way, of a brand the Chinese grew for foreign stomachs, always upset him - he was soon telling her the whole story.(p.288)

Под влиянием ли этого, или от китайского чая, заваренного по-английски из смеси, специально изготовляемой в Китае для иностранцев, и плохо действовавшего на него, последний неожиданно для себя рассказал ей всю историю.the mouth of the backwater he paused for a second, as if to print its buffness on his brain.(p.286)

На углу переулка он еще раз остановился, как будто хотел запечатлеть его в памяти.a tale of trust deeds executed, leases renewed, houses sold, investments decided on-in that back room up there; what a mint of quiet satisfaction in estates well managed!(p.287)

Сколько было подписано доверенностей, возобновлено договоров, продано домов, распределено вкладов там, в его кабинете; какое удовлетворение он испытывал от правильного управления имуществом!the Bank of England, he had a feeling of walking away from his own life.(p.286)

Проходя мимо Английского банка, он почувствовал, будто уходит от своей собственной жизни.acumen, his judgment, his manner of dealing with affairs-aspersed!(p.286)

Его проницательность, его осведомленность, его деловой опыт - все опозорено!amount of eating your cake and wanting to have it could take the place of common honesty.(p.286)

Нельзя обыкновенную честность подменить сидением меж двух стульев.from the horror of seeing himself in print, he was beginning to feel that he had been extravagant.(p.286)

Он не только боялся, что о нем заговорят газеты, он еще вдруг почувствовал, что вел себя экстравагантно: никогда не следует выходить из себя!

I have no objection whatever to having the Board in, he said in a rather jeering voice, and passing a vote of no confidence in their presence.(p.280)

Я бы ничего не имел против того, чтобы пригласить директоров, - начал он с некоторой насмешкой в голосе, - и провести вотум недоверия в их присутствии.

) There is a question, which no one has touched on, of how far, if we turn them out, we could make them liable for this loss.(p.280)

Но возникает другой вопрос, которого еще никто не коснулся: можем ли мы, дав им отставку, взыскать с них убытки?

) The impression made by this speech was of quite a different order from any of the others. (p.281)

Эта речь произвела совсем иной эффект по сравнению с остальными.

) When a Government makes a bad mistake of judgment, the electorate turns against it as soon as it feels the effects.(p.279)

Когда правительство делает ошибку, избиратели восстают против него, как только почувствуют на себе последствия этой ошибки.

) Mr. Tolby, being our informal Chairman, was out of order in proposing a vote of no confidence; if that be so, I should be happy to do so, myself.(p.279)

Мистер Толби, будучи нашим неофициальным председателем, может быть, нарушил порядок, самолично предложив вотум недоверия; в таком случае я с радостью вношу это предложение от своего лица.

) All hands were held up, with the exception of Michaels, of two women whose eager colloquy had not permitted them to hear the request, and of one shareholder, just in front of Michael, so motionless that he seemed to be dead.(p.277)

Все подняли руки, за исключением Майкла, двух женщин, которым оживленный разговор помешал услышать предложение, и одного пайщика, который сидел впереди Майкла неподвижно, как мертвый.

) I take it from you, then, sir, he said, that these two directors represent the general attitude of the Board, and that the Board were content to allow a suspected person to remain manager.(p.276)

Если я вас правильно понял, сэр, - начал он, - эти два директора представляют общую позицию правления, и правление ничего не имело возразить против того, что находившийся на подозрении человек оставался директором-распорядителем.

) There appears to have been gross over-confidence; a recent instance of the sort must be in all our minds.(p.277)

Очевидно, мы слишком слепо доверяли нашему правлению; пример такого рода излишнего доверия, вероятно, всем вам памятен.

on


On /?n/-1) на, у, около

)по

) во время, в течение

) о, об, относительно, по поводу

) в, после

) при, под, с,изcan be used in the following ways:a preposition: She was lying on the floor. happened on a hot summer's day.an adverb: Put your clothes on now.the bus stopped he got on.the verb to be: Is the central heating on?a surface or an object: 1a) touching and supported by the top surface of smth: was asleep on the floor in a heap of blankets.left a note for you on the kitchen table.was the first man on the moon?

b) onto a surface: dropped her books on the desk.could hear the rain falling on the roof.

c) touching, sticking to, or hanging from a surface or object:were several interesting posters on the wall.had a lot of blood on his arm.key is hanging on a hook in the hall.a particular time used for saying the day or date when smth happens: 's coming home on Wednesday.birthday is on the 27th of November.met on a rainy day in January.by a part of your body used for saying which part of your body is supporting you:propped himself up on an elbow and looked me in the eye.gets down on her knees every night and prays for her family.you skate backwards on one leg?a particular place: 4a)in a particular area, or on a particular type of land:house was built on a beautiful piece of land.princess is buried on a small island.

b) in a particular road or street:'s grandparents live on Crescent Drive.

c) at the side of a river or area of water:hotel stands on the water's edge just outside Henley.a list included in a list:future of the charity will be one of the items on the agenda.against smth used for saying which thing a part of your body accidentally hits or touches causing you to be hurt:cut my hand on a piece of glass from the broken window.smth used for saying that you are wearing a piece of clothing, jewellery etc, or for saying which part of your body it covers: on, put your socks on, you'll be late for school.at smb/smth if your eyes are on someone or smth, you are looking at them:fixed her grey eyes on me once again., or being broadcast:

a) being broadcast by radio or television:usually listen to the news on the radio while I'm driving to work.

9b) taking place or happening somewhere:'s a wedding on in the church.smth concerning a particular subject:have to write a report on the Civil War for homework.:

a) used for saying that someone is continuing to do smth: talked on through the night.

.11b) continuing to move forwards:talked on beside the river to a café they knew.or into a vehicle in or into a bus, train, plane etc: got on the train at Bournville.a particular type of machine or equipment:

a) used for saying which type of machine or equipment is used for doing smth: Much of the work is done on computer.

b) used for saying in what form music, films, information etc are recorded:Grinch was released last year on video., or in use if a machine or piece of electrical equipment is on, it is in use or working:had left her light on and I went in to turn it off.part in a journey used for saying that someone takes part in an activity in which they travel or see something: He has been going on expeditions since he was eleven years old.a drug using a particular drug: Shes on antibiotics for a mild eye infection.someone is a member of something if someone is on a team, committee etc, they are a member of it: There are only three directors on the board.immediately (formal) used for saying that an event is followed immediately by another event or that the two events happen at the same time: On being made aware of complaints, he informed the committee.something to live or work

a )eating or drinking only a particular type of food or drink in order to stay alive: Using a cave as shelter, the two men survived on wild berries and raw fish.

b) using a particular type of fuel or electrical power in order to operate:on something: Why cant they make a car that runs on water?

c) used for saying how much money you have to buy the things that you need in order to live: He was just managing to survive on a small student grant.for showing who or what is affected used for saying who or what is affected by something: The rough weather had little effect on the ship.for giving phone numbers (british) used for giving the phone number which you can use to talk to someone.(The American word) is at: Call us on 0800 0900017.with something compared with someone or something: Subscriptions are down by 66,000 on last year and that is a serious situation.for by someone(spoken) used for saying who will pay for something: Drink up! The next rounds on me.used for saying that an actor or performer can be seen appearing on the stage or screen: Wait! Shell be on in a couple of seconds.:

)Be/go on about(informal) keep talking about someone or something, especially when other people think it is boring: Shes always on about her children.

)Be/go on at someone (british) (informal)

to keep asking someone to do something, or keep complaining about their behaviour, in a way that annoys them: Dads always on at me to get a better job.

)be on for something (spoken) want to do something: Are you still on for a trip to the coast on Thursday?

)from now/then/that moment etc on at a particular time and continuing to happen: The new rules will apply to all members from now on.From that moment on, I knew that I wanted to be a doctor.

)have something onhave an arrangement to do something: Have you got anything on this weekend?a lot on( be very busy): Ive got a lot on this week, so I wont be able to see you.

)to be carrying something, for example in a pocket or bag: Can you pay, I dont seem to have any money on me.

) (just) not on (british: Informal) used for saying that something cannot be allowed or that it is impossible: His son has been given preferential treatment.

)on and on for a long time: The opera seemed to go on and on for hours.

)on someones face for saying that someones face has a particular expression: There was a look of horror on her face.

)on someones left/right or to the left/right side of someone or something: Johnny was sitting on my left.

)what is someone on? (spoken) when you cannot understand why someone has done or said something: He expects us to finish this in two days? What is he on?

)what is someone on about? (british spoken)when you do not understand what someone is talking about: Whats he on about now?re on (spoken) youre for saying yes when someone has invited you to compete or do something difficult or dangerous: I bet I can sell more tickets than you. OK, youre on.


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): on

the ground floor once more, he had the most intense desire to sing.(p.298)

Когда он опять спустился в нижний этаж, им овладело сильнейшее желание запеть.brain, his heart, ranging for relief, lighted on the strangest relief which could possibly have come to him.(p.292)

Его мозг, его сердце в поисках облегчения вдруг напали на странную мысль.reaching the Poultry, he decided to go to Green Street and see Winifred-queerly and suddenly homesick for the proximity of Park Lane, for the old secure days, the efflorescent privacy of his youth under the wings of James and Emily.(p.288)

Выйдя снова в Полтри, он решил идти на Грин-стрит и повидать Уинфрид - странно и неожиданно он почувствовал тоску по Парк-Лейн, по прежним спокойным дням, по своему замкнутому и благополучному детству под крылышком Джемса и Эмили.a tale of trust deeds executed, leases renewed, houses sold, investments decided on-in that back room up there; what a mint of quiet satisfaction in estates well managed!(p.287)

Сколько было подписано доверенностей, возобновлено договоров, продано домов, распределено вкладов там, в его кабинете; какое удовлетворение он испытывал от правильного управления имуществом!so with the speech which followed. It came from a shareholder on the right, with reddish hair, light eyelashes, a clipped moustache, and a scraped colour.(p.280)

Последовавшая затем речь была совсем иного рода. Произнес ее пайщик справа, рыжеволосый, со светлыми ресницами, подстриженными усами и нечистым цветом лица.

It is all very well, the polished shareholder went on, when any thing of this sort happens, to blame a directorate, but, speaking as a director myself, I should be glad to know whom one is to trust, if not ones manager.(p.279)

Очень легко, - продолжал вылощенный джентльмен, - когда случается такая история, бранить правление, но я сам состою директором и хотел бы знать, кому можно доверять, как не своему директору-распорядителю? should be interested to know how you would have handled such a situation if you had been on the Board. It is extremely easy to condemn other people!(p.279)

Мне любопытно было бы узнать, как бы вы сами стали действовать на месте нашего правления.gentleman on your extreme left-Mr. Forsyte, I think-spoke of an accidental incident.(p.276)

Джентльмен крайний слева, - кажется, мистер Форсайт, - говорил о "случайном инциденте".

Six weeks ago, however, he heard Soames intone, an accidental incident seems to have warned your late manager that Sir Lawrence and I still entertained suspicions, for I received a letter from him practically admitting that he had taken this secret commission on the German business, and asking me to inform the Board that he had gone abroad and left no property behind him.(p.275)

Однако шесть недель назад, - продолжал Сомс, повысив голос, - из случайного инцидента ваш бывший директор-распорядитель, очевидно, понял, что сэр Лоренс и я еще не отказались от наших подозрений, ибо я получил от него письмо, в котором он фактически признает, что брал втайне комиссионные за эти германские страховки, и просит меня уведомить правление, что он уехал за границу, не оставив никакого имущества.saw none, and it was suddenly borne in on him why they wore moustaches: They could not trust their mouths!(p.274)

Но он ничего не увидел и вдруг понял, зачем они носят усы: они не доверяют своим ртам. in front of him was clearly the new manager, on whose left Michael observed his own father.(p.273)

Дальше сидел, очевидно, новый директор-распорядитель, возле которого Майкл увидел своего отца.lay down on the sofa at the foot of the bed, whence, without sound, he could raise himself and see her.(p.269)

Он прилег на диван, недалеко от кровати, откуда он мог бесшумно привстать и смотреть на нее.the night of the Monday following, after Fleur had gone to bed, Michael and Soames sat listening to the mutter of London coming through the windows of the Chinese room opened to the brooding heat.(p.266)

Вечером в следующий понедельник, когда Флер легла спать, Майкл и Сомс сидели в китайской комнате; в открытые окна вливался лондонский шум и томительная жара.that first day of the Eton and Harrow match all the forfeited heat of a chilly summer had gathered and shimmered over Michael, on the top of his Bank bus; shimmered over straw hats, and pale, perspiring faces, over endless other buses, business men, policemen, shopmen at their doors, sellers of newspapers, laces, jumping toys, endless carts and cabs, letterings and wires, all the confusion of the greatest conglomeration in the world-adjusted almost to a hairs-breadth, by an unseen instinct.(p.259)

В этот первый день состязаний Итона с Хэрроу все скрытое тепло прохладного лета вдруг вспыхнуло и сейчас заливало Майкла, ехавшего на империале автобуса; жара заливала соломенные шляпы и бледные, потные лица, бесконечные вереницы автобусов, дельцов, полисменов, лавочников у дверей, продавцов газет, шнурков для ботинок, игрушек, бесконечные повозки, и автомобили, вывески и провода - всю гигантскую путаницу огромного города, невидимым инстинктом слаженную почти до предельной точности.pictures in this gallery, if he didnt mistake, were worth from seventy to a hundred thousand pounds; and, with the profits on his sales from time to time, they stood him in at no more than five-and-twenty thousand-not a bad result from a lifes hobby, to say nothing of the pleasure!(p.257)

По его вычислениям, собрание в этой галерее стоит от семидесяти до ста тысяч фунтов; и если считать, что он иногда продавал очень выгодно, то вся коллекция обошлась ему тысяч в двадцать пять, не больше. Неплохой результат увлечения коллекционерством, уже не говоря об удовольствии.seemed that he could not rely, after all, on this fellow with his twenty-five knots.(p.256)

Оказывается все же, что нельзя полагаться на этого француза с его двадцатью пятью узелками.he still felt only on the threshold of Fleurs heart, and was preparing to play second fiddle to the eleventh baronet, he was infinitely easier in mind since Wilfrid had been gone.(p.219)

Хотя он все еще чувствовал, что не проник дальше порога в сердце Флер, и готовился играть вторую скрипку при "одиннадцатом баронете", все же после отъезда Уилфрида ему стало много легче.he watched, with a sort of amused adoration, the way in which she focussed her collecting powers on an object that had no epoch, a process that did not date.(p.219)

Его забавляло и трогало, что Флер сосредоточила все свои коллекционерские инстинкты на чем-то, не принадлежащем ни к какой эпохе, одинаково свойственном всем векам.young man fulfilled with increasing success the function for which he had been engaged, on trial, four months ago.(p.209)

Молодой человек с неизменно возрастающим успехом выполнял должность, на которую был взят на пробу четыре месяца назад.the giant merry-go-round under its vast umbrella the thirty chain-hung seats were filled with girls and men.(p.206)

Тридцать подвесных кресел гигантской карусели под огромным зонтиком были заняты девушками и молодыми людьми.

to


To /tu:/-1) к, в, на

)до

) у

) для, под

) с

) по отношению к, в соответствии сcan be used in the following ways:the basic form of a verb to form the infinitive: I want to go home. ? Its nice to see you again.a preposition (followed by a noun): We drove to Newport.an adverb (without a following noun): I pulled the door to.as part of an infinitive. for forming an infinitive that is the subject, object or complement of a verb, or is the complement of an adjective, noun or pronoun: Easy to sit still in front of that thing! for showing the purpose of an action: he was accustomed to regard himself as worn out by his long travel instead of an infinitive in order to avoid repeating the verb: Elderson wont mention it; nor young Butterfield, if you tell him not to.somewhere for saying the place where someone or something goes: This three-day run to Washington was the last straw, and he was supporting it very well.for showing that someone goes somewhere for a particular event or activity: even if you went out to dinner, it was always the same: lobster-cocktails, shad, turkey, asparagus, salad, and ice cream.you tell, give or show somebody something. Used for saying who is told, given, or shown something: Why shouldnt he speak to her himself?or pointing towards something or somebody. Used for saying in which direction someone or somebody is facing or pointing: The young man was standing bare-headed, as if in reverence to the statue.to face/back to back (facing each otherfacing away from each other): They stood face to face, glaring at each other.for saying were somebody or something is. Used for saying where someone or something is in relation to the position of another person or thing: That great greenish bronze figure of seated woman within the hooding folds of her ample cloak seemed to carry him down to the bottom of his own soul.somebody is affected by something. for saying who or what is treated in a particular way: The individual-said the candidate-was in every respect superior to the nation of which he formed a part. for saying who or what is affected by a situation: It was mysterious to him. a particular relationship with someone or something.for explaining a relationship with people or things: Well, Im glad of that, it must be a relief to your mind. Related/married to: him if hes related to old Butterfield the gardener?for saying which person or organization someone does a particular job for: She is personal assistant to the Managing Director.something is connected or fastened. Used for saying where something is fastened or where a connection is: The carpet had been nailed to the floor.something changes or developsfor saying what condition or state someone or something is in after a change: He saw that the lights had changed to green.for saying what stage of development is reached: When will all this suffering come to an end?far as a limit. As far as a particular point or limit: The cancer had spread to his lungs.a particular time or date: To the end of her life, she was a tireless campaigner for peace....to: The shop stays open from 7 am to 9 pm.for saying how much time passes before a particular date, time, or event: Sales increased during the 13 weeks to September 30th.the hour. Used when telling the time, for saying how many minutes it is before the hour: Its twenty-five to twelve.for saying someones opinion. Used for saying whose opinion, attitude, or knowledge is being referred to: To most of us, work is an unpleasant necessity.seems/looks to someonemy mind/to my way of thinkingsomeones knowledge

causing a particular reaction. Used for saying what your reaction is when something happenssomeones surprise/delight/horror etc: To her surprise, she saw that he was crying.for showing how numbers are relatedfor showing the relationship between two numbers or amounts: The new model will do 60 miles to the gallon in town.for showing that a number of smaller units is equal to a larger unit: There are 10,000 square centimetres to a square metre.for giving the score in a game. Used for saying what the score is in a game: Our team won by five goals to three.or almost closed. If you push or pull a door to, you close it or almost close it: The door swung to behind her as she went out.for showing a possible rangewhen showing the whole range of numbers between and including the two that you mention: a toy suitable for children aged three to five...tot: he numbers from one to tenwhen showing how large a range of people or things is:...to: Ive written articles about everything from sexual morality to gardening.when you say that a number is within a particular range because you are not sure of the exact number: Only about 20 to 25 per cent of the population voted for this government.for something. Used for showing that something is an important or necessary part of something else: the answer to an important questionthere is a sound. Used for saying the particular sound that can be heard at the same time that something happens: I awoke to the sound of birds singing.something. Used for saying what something else is touching or pressing against: Clasping the child to her breast, she began to weep.

Phrases:

(all) to yourself. If you have someone or something to yourself, you do not have to share them with anyone else: My parents were away, so I had the house to myself.to one/a hundred to one etc. Used for saying how likely it is that something will happen: Its ten to one that the murderer will never be caught.


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy):to


Returning to the copper floor, Michael said: All right, sir! and stood back. (p.299)

Сойдя на медный пол, Майкл сказал: Вот и хорошо, сэр, - и отступил посмотреть.his father-in-law bowed to the Chairman and withdrew, Michael had restrained a strong desire to shout: Bravo!(p.290)

Когда его тесть поклонился председателю и вышел, Майкл еле удержался, чтоб не крикнуть "Браво! ".as to young Michael-the fellow had been there that afternoon and witnessed the whole thing; he'd no wish to go over it again. (p.289)

Что же касается молодого Майкла - он сам все видел и слышал; нечего еще раз пережевывать.

) Ten to one Fleur would not be down.(p.289)

Флер, наверно, не выйдет из своей комнаты.

) The men to whom a pound was a pound, and not a mess of chance and paper.(p.286)

Настоящие людей - это люди, для которых фунт есть фунт, а не слу-

чайный клочок бумаги.

) I do not tender my resignation to the meeting; I resign.(p.285)

Я не прошу собрание принять мою отставку - я ухожу!

) I shall be happy to carry it to the House of Lords, if necessary. (p.285)

Я с удовольствием доведу это дело до Палаты лордов, если нужно.

) I am not prepared to go on giving my services to people who dont value them.(p.284)

Я не считаю возможным отдавать свои услуги людям, которые их не ценят.

) And you owe it to me that you were called together today to pass judgment on the matter.(p.284)

Я добился того, что вас сегодня созвали для обсуждения этого вопроса.

) I am not conscious of having done anything but my duty from beginning to end of this affair.(p.284)

Я полагаю, что от начала до конца выполнял только свой долг.

) No more would old Gradman follow him with eyes like an old dogs, grudging sometimes, but ever submitting to infallibility.(p.282)

Не будет больше старый Грэдмен следить за ним глазами преданной собаки, иногда ворча, но всегда подчиняясь непогрешимому хозяину.

) The country drives you to the wall, skins you to the bone, and expects you to give em public service gratis.(p.282)

Государство прижимает вас к стенке, обирает до нитки и еще ждет, чтобы вы ему служили без всякого вознаграждения.

) Damn it, sir, you put the chestnuts in the fire; its up to you to pull em out.(p.282)

Черт возьми, сэр! Ведь это вы заварили всю кашу, теперь ваше дело ее расхлебывать!

) Now, as to this particular case, weve had no reason to distrust the Board, so far; and, as I take it, the Board had no previous reason to distrust the late manager. (p.280)

В нашем частном случае у нас пока что нет оснований не доверять правлению; и, как я сужу, у правления не было в прошлом никаких причин не доверять бывшему директору-распорядителю.

) I think its going too far, at present, to propose anything definite like a vote of no confidence; it seems to me that we should call the Board in and hear what assurances they have to give us against a repetition of anything of the sort in the future.(p.280)

Мы зашли бы слишком далеко, если бы в настоящее время предложили что-нибудь определенное, вроде вотума недоверия; мне кажется, мы могли бы предложить правлению вернуться в зал и выслушать, какие они нам дадут гарантии против повторения чего-либо подобного в будущем.

) As to the policy of foreign insurance, it has been before us at two general meetings; and we have pocketed the profit from it for nearly two years.(p.279)

Что же касается страхования иностранных операций, то нам об этом сообщали на двух заседаниях, и мы в течение двух лет преспокойно получали с них дивиденды.

) The voice, which had not varied an iota, ceased its recital; and Michael saw his father-in-law return to his detachment-stork on one leg, about to apply beak to parasite, could have inspired no greater sense of loneliness.(p.275)

Голос, не изменившийся ни на йоту, замолк; и Майкл увидел, как его тесть вернулся в свое одиночество. Аист на одной ноге, собирающийся клю- нуть насекомое, и тот не казался бы таким одиноким.

) His neighbours to right and left were the same stout shareholders between whom he had slipped in; they both had thick lobes to their ears, and necks even broader than the straight broad backs of their heads.( p.272)

Справа и слева от него сидели те самые толстяки, с которыми он проскользнул в зал; у них были пухлые ушные мочки, а шеи были еще шире, чем плоские, широкие затылки.

) Michael heard the old fellow mutter through his beard half buried in a drawer to which he was returning the draft, and followed Soames out.(p.262)

- Майкл услышал, как старик что-то пробормотал в бороду, почти утонувшую в ящике стола, куда он прятал документы, и вышел вслед за Сомсом.

) Entering the room to which he had been ushered, he saw an old and pug-faced fellow with a round grizzled beard, a black alpaca coat, and a roomy holland waistcoat round his roomy middle, who rose from a swivel chair. (p.260)

Его провели в комнату, где он увидел старичка с лицом мопса, с окладистой седой бородкой, в черном люстриновом пиджачке и объемистом пикейном жилете на объемистом животике. Он привстал со своего стула-вертушки навстречу ему.


Linking words


Linking devices vary in three ways:

. Position in the text.linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words: but so because then until such asexamples of this type of linking word.type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words must start with a capital letter and are usually immediately followed by a comma:, Moreover, However, Nevertheless, Therefore, In conclusion, are used in this way.linking words, however, can either start a sentence or form a link between sentences. The choice is up to the writer.

. The function of linking wordsdevices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide.extra information to the main point, contrasting ideas, expressing cause and effect, showing exactly when something happened (narrating), expressing purpose (why?) and opinion, listing examples, making conclusions and giving emphasis.

. Grammatical differenceslinking words must be followed by a clause (Subject + Verb + Object)..g.. while why because although so where as whenlinking words should be followed by a noun phrase (Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund).g.. because of despite during in spite ofmajority of linking devices can be followed by either a noun phrase or a clause.is a list of the principal linking words in English, their function and if their position is usually fixed. words


Adding and ContrastingExpressing cause / reason*and as well as besides Moreover, Furthermore, What is more, In addition, not only.... but also another point is that relative clauses whowhere that,which whoseto whom whenwhat why*but However, Although despite In spite of Nevertheless, On the contrary, on the one hand on the other hand, whereas while but while In contrast, Neither...norbecause as since This is why because of Due to Owing to For this reason, Expressing effect / result *so so....that such a...that Therefore Thus Consequently, As a result, too...for/to not enough...for/toNarrationExpressing purposeFirst (of all) At first At the beginning In the beginning then next Before After After that afterwards When While during Soon prior toimmediately Once Suddenly As soon as on No sooner....than Hardly...when Finally Eventually At the end In the end At last To begin with, untilto so as to in order that so that for (Non-specific) Expressing opinion I would say that In my opinion, I think (that) I believe (that) Personally Apparently, Giving examplesSumming up / concludingEmphasisfor example, for instance, For one thing, this includes such as e.g.. (for example) i.e. (that is)All in all overall generally In conclusion, on the whole in the main To sum up,especially particularly Naturally, exactly because above all Whatever Whenever too / enough The more....

* Avoid starting a sentence with these words.linking words beginning with a capital letter often start a sentence, For those without, position in a sentence is optional.


Linking word however

-1) как бы ни

)однако

) тем не менееcan be used in the following ways:a way of showing how a sentence is related to what has already been said: Prices have been rising. It is unlikely, however, that this increase will continue.an adverb (before an adjective or adverb): However hard he tried, he could not control his feelings. (before much or many): However much they earn, they will never be satisfied. (starting a question): However did you manage to make him change his mind?a conjunction (joining two clauses): You can arrange the furniture however you want. ? However you look at it, its an enormous problem.adverb, conjunction

) used for giving surprising information used when you are saying something that seems surprising after your previous statement, or that makes your previous statement seem less true: president was confident of success. His advisers were not so sure, however.

) used for changing the subject used when you are changing the subject: m delighted I could be here today. However, I didnt come here to talk about myself.

) when the amount or degree does not make a difference used for saying that it makes no difference how good, bad, difficult etc something is or how much there is of something good/well/bad/badly/hard etc: She would still love him however badly he behaved.much/many: Were determined to have a wonderful holiday, however much it costs.long something takes: We are determined to solve this problem, however long it takes.

) used for emphasizing how (spoken) used instead of how in questions for emphasizing that you think something is surprising: The original documents got lost. However did that happen?

) in whatever way in whatever way someone chooses: We let the kids decorate their rooms however they want to.

However as linking word can be used in concession (indicates that the previous view is accepted with reservations).


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): however


They had come, however, to a policeman holding up his hand against the nose of a van horse, so that everything marked time.(p.6)

Но тут они оказались рядом с полисменом, поднявшим руку перед мордой ломовой лошади, так что еe движение разом остановилось., however, had established immediate contact with the architect-an element which Soames himself had never quite got over-and decided not to have more than three styles in her house: Chinese, Spanish, and her own.(p.7)

Однако Флер немедленно вошла в контакт с архитектором - сам Сомс так и не примирился с этой категорией людей - и решила, что в доме будут только три стиля: китайский, испанский и еe собственный. Комната налево от парадной двери, проходившая во всю глубину дома, была китайской: панели слоновой кости, медный пол, центральное отопление и хрустальные люстры.junk, however, was not devoid of the taste and luxury which overflows from the greater houses of England.(p.30)

Однако его "берлога" была обставлена со вкусом, с изысканностью, которая свойственна аристократическим английским семействам.was seldom to be found, however, in his nest, and was felt to be a rare bird, owing his rather unique position among the younger writers partly to his migratory reputation.(p.30-31)

Впрочем, его редко можно было застать в его гнезде, да и вообще его считали редкой птицей, и он занимал совершенно обособленное положение среди молодых литераторов, отчасти благодаря своей репутации постоянного бродяги.more wakeful early mornings had screwed him to the pitch of bringing his doubts to a head and knowing where he stood in the matter of the P.P.R.S.; and this sudden reminder that he was spending money here, there and everywhere, when there was a possibility, however remote, of financial liability somewhere else, sharpened the edge of a nerve already stropped by misgivings.(p.44)

Ещe две бессонные ночи до того взвинтили его, что он решил больше не скрывать своих подозрений и выяснить, как обстоят дела в ОГС. И неожиданное напоминание о том, что он тратит деньги как попало, когда в будущем, пусть отдаленном, придется, чего доброго, выполнять финансовые обязательства, совершенно натянуло его и без того напряженные нервы.

word in fact


In fact-1) фактически

)на самом деле

)вообще

)словом

) действительно(actual) fact

) used for saying what is really true, when this is surprising or different from what people think: was paid money for a job that did not in fact exist.

2) used when you are adding something to what you have just said, especially something surprising: havent seen him for years. In fact, I cant even remember what he looks like.

In fact as linking word can be used to contrast smth.

Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): in fact


Thank you, he said, I have just had a bun-two, in fact. Excuse me!(p.156)

Спасибо, - сказал он, - я только что съел пирожок, нет, даже целых два. Извините меня!fact, if I only knew you were interested in the future, I should make more provision. (p.160)

Вообще, если бы я видел, что вы оба больше думаете о будущем, я бы сделал ещe кое-какие распоряжения. fact, just like a Government, you confused the issues, and made the best case you could for yourselves.(p.173)

Словом, совершенно как правительство, путать карты и стараться выйти сухим из воды.

Hm! Well-he-er-did his duty-quite against his interest-in fact, its ruination for him. He seems to be married and to have two children.(p.182)

М-м-гм. Видите ли, он... он исполнил свой долг, вопреки своим интересам, и действительно для него это - разорение. Кажется, он женат и имеет двоих детей.do anything, in fact, but alter the incidence of possession a little? (p.4)

Разве они вообще могут что-нибудь сделать, кроме как переменить немного распределение собственности?


Linking word indeed


Indeed-1) в самом деле

) действительноcan be used in the following ways:an adverb (following very and an adjective or another adverb): results were very good indeed.a way of showing how a sentence or phrase is related to what has already been said: would be difficult. Indeed it would be almost impossible.a sentence adverb (with an auxiliary verb or the verb to be, to emphasize the meaning of a whole sentence or clause): It is indeed an honour to have such an important guest with us today. ? Mr Benson wants to make a complaint. Does he, indeed?

) used for emphasizing the meaning of very: you very much indeed.

) (formal) used for adding a statement that supports and increases the effect of what you have just said:is certainly a fine musician. Indeed, I regard him as one of the greatest pianists of our time.

) (formal) used for emphasis in statements, questions, and short answers:

Do you remember Miss Hawkings? I do indeed.

)(formal) used for emphasizing that something is true when there is some doubt about it:was later proved that three of the pictures were indeed genuine Rembrandts.

) (spoken) used for showing that you are surprised or annoyed by what someone has told you:

He says hes too busy to see you now. Does he, indeed?

Indeed as linking word can be used in reinforcement (includes confirmation).


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): indeed


Ting-a-ling came, indeed, but only because he couldnt go, bristling and snuffling and turning his head back.(p.36)

И Тинг-а-Линг пошел: вырваться все равно было нельзя; но он все время оборачивался, фыркая и скаля зубы., only that tendency, inherited from his father, James, to lie awake between the hours of two and four, when the chrysalis of faint misgiving becomes so readily the butterfly of panic, had developed his uneasiness. (p.40)

И в самом деле, только привычка, унаследованная Сомсом от своего отца Джемса, - привычка лежать без сна между двумя и четырьмя часами ночи, когда из кокона смутного опасения так легко вылетает бабочка страха, - заставляла его беспокоиться.knew she was not playing the game according to La Garconne and Amabel Nazing; that, indeed, she was in danger of going away without having added to her sensations.(p.67)

Она знала, что ведет себя не так, как "La garconne" ["Холостячка" В. Маргерита] или Эмебел Нэйзинг; что ей даже угрожает опасность уйти, ничего не прибавив к своим "переживаниям".Gorse, indeed, had once attended, but one legal and two literary politicos who had been in contact with her, had complained of it afterwards.(p.68)

Правда, Неста Горз раз попала к Элисон, но один юрист и два литератора-политика, которые с ней там познакомились, впоследствии на неe жаловались. became full of air. And the girl, his wife, watched with her large eyes and spoke little; but she did not cry again, or, indeed, throw any water, warm or cold, on him who sold balloons.(p.89)

Бикет вдохновлялся все больше и больше. А маленькая его жена смотрела на него своими огромными глазами и молчала. Но плакать она перестала: ни слезами, ни упреками она не стала охлаждать пыл бедного продавца возду

Linking word besides


Besides-кроме тогоcan be used in the following ways:a preposition (followed by a noun): Did you talk to anyone else besides Joan?an adverb (without a following noun): Ive read all the books on the list and a few others besides.a way of starting a new statement and connecting it to the previous statement: I dont want to go shopping. Besides, I havent got any money.

) in addition to someone or something else that is being mentioned:lot of them are studying other things besides Italian.

) used when you are adding another stronger reason to support what you are saying:s too late to invite any more people. Besides, you know how Tim hates parties.

Besides as linking word can be used in the following ways:

)Concession (indicates that the previous view is accepted with reservations).

) Reinforcement (includes confirmation).


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): besides

, she saw as little of them as she could-they dated, belonged to the dramatic period, had no sense of life without beginning or end.(p.12-13)

Кроме того, она старалась встречаться с ними как можно реже. Они устарели, были слишком связаны с грустными воспоминаниями, они не умели воспринимать жизнь без начала и конца.felt, besides, that Solstis, an Englishman of Russo-Dutch extraction, was one of those who were restoring English music, giving to it a wide and spacious freedom from melody and rhythm, while investing it with literary and mathematical charms.(p.18)

Кроме того, они чувствовали, что Солстис, англичанин русско-голландского происхождения, - один из тех, кто возрождает английскую музыку, великодушно освобождая еe от мелодии и ритма и щедро наделяя литературными и математическими достоинствами., he had done things in the war, was a son of Lord Mullyon, would get the Mercer Prize probably, for Copper Coin.(p.20)

Кроме того, он выдвинулся на войне, был сыном лорда Мэллиона, вероятно, получит Мерсеровскую премию за "Медяки". , since Friday Ive been thinking. I want nothing, Fleur, except a blessing and your hand. (p.33)

А кроме того, я все время с пятницы думаю об этом. Мне ничего не надо, Флер, - только благословите меня и дайте мне руку., Wilfrid was going through torture, and it was not a pleasant thought! (p.101)

Кроме того, Уилфрид мучается - тоже не очень приятно думать об этом.


Linking word after all


After all-1) в конце-концов

) После того, какall is used in the following ways:

)used for saying that something is true despite what was said or planned before: Maybe she was right after all.Im sorry, but weve decided not to come after all.

)used when giving a reason to explain what you have just said: She shouldnt be working so hard - she is 70, after all. linking word after all can be used in concession (indicates that the previous view is accepted with reservations).


Examples from The White Monkey (by John Galsworthy): after all


Going too far-perhaps-if he intended to remain on the Board-and he had no wish to resign-after all, it was a big thing, and a thousand a year!(p.49)

Пожалуй, не стоит заходить слишком далеко, раз он собирается остаться в правлении; а желания уйти у него нет - в конце концов это прекрасное место - и тысяча в год!all, the little chap was-was on the side of Capital, had invested in those balloons!(p.87)

И ведь в конце концов этот бедняга тоже стоит...ну, на стороне капитала, тоже вложил сбережения в эти шарики! feeling, that not enough women were passing him here, became less poignant-after all, women knew the value of money, no extra shillings out of them! (p.87)

Сожаление, что мимо проходит мало женщин, значительно ослабело - в конце концов женщины знают цену деньгам, из них лишнего шиллинга не вытянешь!reflections sum-totalled in a decision to talk it over with old Mont after all. (p.171-172)

В конце концов он пришел к решению переговорить со "Старым Монтом". all, the ancients-like Old Forsyte, and his father in a very different way-had an anchor down.(p.230)

В конце концов люди пожилые, вроде его отца и "Старого Форсайта", правда, по-разному, но все же имеют какую-то опору.

Used literature


1. Macmillan English Dictionary For advanced Learners (New edition), 2011.

2. The White Monkey, John Galsworthy, 1953.

3. Oxford Russian Dictionary, 2006.


Теги: Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words  Диплом  Английский
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