Neologism in modern English

THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTANUZBEK STATE WORLD LANGUAGES UNIVERSITYENGLISH PHILOLOGY FACULTYLEXICOLOGY DEPARTMENT


QUALIFICATION PAPERIN MODERN ENGLISH


Written by the student Nosirova Aziza: Umarova M.V.


TASHKENT 2011


CONTENTS


IntroductionI

.1 Neologisms. Their meanings and division by their structure

.2 The appearance of neologisms during the English Renaissance

.3 The types of neologismsII

.1Sociolinguistic aspects of mathematical education based on neologisms

.2Neologisms from the point of view of semantic and phonetic factors

.3 Differentiation with respect to Time Axis of neologisms (based on word - building)list of the used literature


INTRODUCTION


Neologisms are the main problem of modern scientific research. A lot of new objects and processes are continually created in technology. We can find new ideas and variations in social life, science. Neologisms can be defined as newly coined lexical units that acquire new sense. Peter Newmark proposed to review twelve types of neologisms and discuss the translation of particular instances by the way of the appropriate contextual factors. Every time neologisms appeared in our life. The 16th century was the period of the great course in literature called Renaissance. A lot of writers used new words in their poems and stories in order to enrich the English language. But some of neologisms are short-lived. They appeared and disappeared.

The subject matter of the qualification paper is lexical-semantic features of neologisms in modern English.

The object of the research work is the types of neologisms: the old words with new senses, derived words, abbreviations, collocations, new coinages.

The main aim of this work is to describe neologisms by their structure, to give examples of neologisms of old and new senses, to compare their meanings, to describe neologisms from the point of view of phonetic factors and semantics.

The following tasks have been solved in our qualification paper:

1.The contextual factors and comparative procedures of neologisms (all factors are in the frame of reference to compare neologisms) page 10.

.To show examples of neologisms according to their structure in some languages.

The actuality of this theme is that neologisms are very important in our life, especially now, because we have a development of science and technology, the new courses in the field of literature, art and music etc. And there are a lot of new words created in different fields. All these mean that the actuality of this theme is very important. Sometimes people even dont know the meaning of some abbreviations because they are new. Indeed, sometimes with the abbreviations such as AIDS, the unabbreviated form may be so specialized that it is unknown to most people - a point not missed by the compilers of quiz games, who regularly catch people out with a well-known abbreviations and another types of neologisms.

The result achieved and their novelty. Lexical-semantic features of neologisms in modern English, which more distinguished as the whole unit being in the mutual connection, have been studied. As the result of the investigation of patterns the new data of structural and semantic properties of the analyzed neologisms which determine the criteria of including frame groups into the microsystem have been revealed. Description of neologisms was conducted taking into account the active interaction of a person with objective reality, while word perception is connected with subjective assessment and has reflection on the language of the certain society.

The theoretical meaning. This theme is not so spread, but a lot of language scientists describe neologisms in their books. It is a very interesting theme to study. New notions come into being, requiring new words to name them. Sometimes a new is introduced for a thing or notion that continues to exist, and the older name ceases to be used. The number of words in a language is therefore not constant; the increase as a rule, more than makes up for the leak-out. It means that the vocabulary of any language does not remain the same but changes constantly.

The practical value. The theme of this qualification paper can be used as an aid for lectures of lexicology and it also can be used as a topic for discussion for students of Language Universities.

The structure of the work consists of the following parts: introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion and the list of the used literature.introduction to this work is based on the choice of this theme, the actuality of the aim and specific problems. Also considered are the theoretical meaning and the practical value of this work.first chapter shows the division of neologisms by their structure.the second chapter the appearance of neologisms during the English Renaissance is considered.the third chapter the types of the neologisms were described.forth chapter shows neologisms from the point view of semantic and phonetic factors.fifth chapter studies sociolinguistic aspects of mathematical education based on neologisms.sixth chapter studies neologisms as a word-building.conclusion generalizes all the results of the work and forms its primary conclusions.


CHAPTER I


.1 NEOLOGISMS. THEIR MEANING AND DIVISION BY THEIR STRUCTURE


Neologism - 1) The use of new words or old words with new meaning: His particular grievance was neologisms… even the newspaper, he complained, had got into the habit of using the adjective off-coloured - properly applied only to certain diamonds - to describe the pigmentation of half-caste people _New Yorker);

) New word or expression or a new meaning for an old word: Such neologisms are clipped words like lube for lubricating oil and co-ed for coeducational; back-formations like to televise (1931) from television…; artificial or made-up formations like carborundum, cellophane and pianola (Simeon Patter);

) The introduction of new view of doctrines, especially on religious subjects (The world encyclopedia).are perhaps the non-literary and the professional translators biggest problem. New object and processes are continually created in technology. New ideas and variations on feelings come from the media. Terms from the social sciences, slang, dialect coming into the mainstream of language, transferred words, make up the rest. A few years ago, three hundred new words were said to be counted in four successive numbers of the French weekly language express. It has been stated that each language acquires three thousand new words annually. In fact, neologisms cannot be quantified, since so many hover between acceptance and oblivion and many are short-lived individual creations. What is obvious is that their number is increasing steeply and as we become more language as well as self-conscious, articles, books and specialist and general dictionaries devoted to them appear more commonly. Since they usually arise first in a response to a particular need, a majority of them have a single meaning and can therefore be translated out of context, but many of them soon acquire new (and sometimes lose the old) meanings in the Target Language.can be defined as newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense. Unless they are opaque, obscure and possibly cacophonous (compare yum and yuck), neologisms usually attract and please everyone, but purists are so attached to Graeco-Latin conventions. (Once there was a fuss about oracy) that they jib at so-called violations of English grammar (who did you get it from?). Unlike the French, the English have no basis from which to attack new words. Most people like neologisms and so does the media and commercial interests exploit this liking. Multinationals with their ingenious advertising, make efforts to convert their brand names (Coke, Tipp-Ex, Tesa, Bic, Schweppes, etc.) into eponyms (i.e. any word derived from a proper noun including acronyms) and in appropriate cases you have to resist this attempt when you translate.is any word which is formed according to the productive structural patterns or borrowed from another language and felt by the speakers as something new. Example: tape-recorder, supermarket, V-day (Victory day). The research of cosmic space by the Soviet people gave birth to new words: Sputnik, spaceship, space rocket. For that period all these words were new..Buranov and A.Muminov in their book A practical course in English lexicology (1990) said that neologisms may be divided into:

) Root words: Ex: jeep - a small light motor vehicle, zebra - street crossing place etc;

) Derived words: Ex: collaborationist - one in occupied territory works helpfully with the enemy, to accessorize - to provide with dress accessories;

) Compound: Ex: air-drop, microfilm-reader.words are as a rule monosemantic. Terms, used in various fields of science and technology make the greater part of neologisms. New words belong only to the notional parts of speech: to nouns, verbs, adjectives etc.are mainly formed by:

)Word formation (mainly production types).: -gen, -ogen: carcinogen (biological term);

ics: psycholinguistics, electronics;

nik: filmnik; folknik;

) Semantic extension: heel - a tractor (old meaning: heel - the back part of foot); to screen - to classify;

) Borrowing: telecast, telestar (Greek), sputnik.also deal with metaphor. The translation is concerned with certain particular problems: metaphor, synonyms; proper names, institution and cultural terms, grammatical, lexical and referential ambiguity, clishй, quotations; cultural focus, overlap and distance, idiolect; neologisms; jargon, the four categories of key terms.can be categorized as:)formal - completely new words. These are rare - the locus classicus is the 17th century word for gas (from chaos) - in the semantic translation. If they are original, they should be transcribed, and recreated, if recently coined. Brand names should be transcribed or given their TL brand names;)eponyms - recently based on proper names, including inventors and names of firms and towns. (For the purposes of translation theory at any rate, I am extending the meaning and area of eponym to include all instances of transferred use of proper names, e.g. macadamise, Stalingrad, academic. The secondary meaning of antonomasia (use of a proper name to express a general idea) is also included within my definition of eponym. The translator often has to be careful not to transcribe these (boycotter, but not limoger) and in particular beware of the Western nations chauvinism about their medical vocabulary (Roentgen, Graves, Hodgkin, Wilson etc).;)derived - formed with production prefixes (i.e. de-, mis-, non-, pre-, pro-) and suffixes (e.g. -ism, -ize, -ization), e.g. misdefine, non-event, encyclopaedism, taxon, paraclinique, etc. If such neologisms are transparently comprehensible, the translator can cautiously naturalise them, assuming that Latin and Greek roots are acceptable in the TL - particularly in technological texts;)new collocations, e.g. urban guerrilla, unsocial hours, route fleurie, ouvrier spйcialisй (skilled worker). Normally it is unwise to attempt a loan or through translation unless the translator is officially authorized to do so, otherwise he has to normalise. Is scenic route acceptable for route fleurie?)phrasal (nouns or verbs) - trade-off, zero-in, etc. The translator has to normalise these in the TL usually by translating into two or three words;)acronyms (now a translation label for any combination of initial letters or syllables, and apparently the most productive element in European languages). International acronyms are usually translated (e.g. EEC, CEE, EG) - national acronyms are usually retained with, if necessary, a translation of their function, rather than their meaning, e.g. CNAA-CNAA, degree-awarding body for higher education colleges (non-university) in the United Kingdom; EDF, the French Electricity Authority, ZUP, areas for priority housing development. Words derived from acronyms have to be normalised (e.g. cйgйtiste, member of CGT, the French TUC, onusien (related to UNO); smicard, minimum wage earner;)blends (portmanteau words), i.e. combinations of two words, highly productive. These either become internationalisms for at least European languages if they have Latin/Greek roots (e.g. meritocracy, tachygraph, eurocrat, bionics, many medical terms) or they are borrowed (e.g. sovkhoz, sovnarkom, sovpreme) or adopted (e.g. motel). If no recognized equivalent exists they should be translated (e.g. Abkьft, mania for abbreviations, ecotage, environment cult, but workaholic ergomane (?)). Opaque blends such as ruckus should where possible have both components (ruction, rumpus) translated;)semantic, old words with new meanings, e.g. sophisticated, viable, credible, gay, base (F), Base (G). These should be normalised (i.e. translated by a normal word) but base should perhaps replace the patronizing rank and file and the excruciating grassroots, as an old word with a new meaning (cf. chalk face);)abbreviations (shortened form of word). These are commoner in French and German than English: e.g. Uni, Philo, Beeb, vibes, bac, Huma; they are normalised (i.e. translated unabbreviated), unless there is a recognized equivalent (e.g. bus, metro, plus sci-tech terms)..Newmark proposes to review twelve types of neologisms and discuss the translation of particular instances by way of the appropriate contextual factors. P.Newmark is a professor and he has many years of experience in teaching translation techniques. In the below frame you can see types, contextual factors and translation procedures for the translation of neologisms.

Neologisms. These are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily and often even spring up on newspaper pages, e.g. lunik, a splash-down (the act of bringing a spacecraft to a water surface), a teach-in (a form of campaigning through heated political discussion), backlash or white backlash (a violent reaction of American racists to the Negroes' struggle for civil rights), frontlash (a vigorous antiracist movement), stop-go policies (contradictory, indecisive and inefficient policies).above-listed peculiarities of brief news items are the basic vocabulary parameters of English newspaper style.vocabulary of brief news items is for the most part devoid of emotional colouring. Some papers, however, especially those classed among "mass" or "popular" papers, tend to introduce emotionally coloured lexical units into essentially matter-of-fact news stories, e.g.

"Health Minister Kenneth Robinson made this shock announcement yesterday in the Commons." (Daily Mirror)

"Technicians at the space base here are now working flat out to prepare GeAiini 6 for next Monday's blast-off." (Daily Mail)

"Defense Secretary Roy Mason yesterday gave a rather frosty reception in the Commons to the latest proposal for a common defense policy for all EEC countries." (Morning Star)as vocabulary is, it is not so much the words and phrases used in brief news items that distinguish them from other forms of newspaper writing. The vocabulary groups listed above are also commonly found in headlines and newspaper articles. The basic peculiarities of news items lie in their syntactical structure.the reporter is obliged to be brief, he naturally tries to cram all his facts into the space allotted. This tendency predetermines the peculiar composition of brief news items and the syntactical structure, of the sentences. The size of brief news items varies from one sentence to several (short) paragraphs. And generally, the shorter the news item, |\ the more complex its syntactical structure.following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as their grammatical parameters.

Translation of neologisms.

The English language is very rich in neologisms - the word has been created recently and perhaps will not live in the language for a long time. It is very seldom that we find equivalent for the translation of neologisms and for the most part we use descriptive translation and word-for-word translation /people of good will, top level talks.usually make out the meaning of the new words with the help of the context, but it is also necessary to take into consideration the way of their formation.


The frame of reference for the translation of neologisms

TypeContextual factorsTranslation proceduresExisting lexical items with new senses. Words. Collocations New forms New coinages Derived words (including blends) Abbreviations Collocations Eponyms Phrasal words Transferred words (new and old referents) Acronyms (new and old referents) Pseudo-neologisms Internationalisms1.Value and purpose of neolog 2. Importance of neolog to a) SL culture; b) TL culture; c) general 3. Recency 4. Frequency 5. Likely duration 6. Translators authority 7. Recognized translation 8. Existence of referents in TL culture 9. Transparency or opaqueness of neolog 10. Type of text 11. Readership 12. Setting 13. Fashion, clique commercial 14. Euphony 15. Is neolog likely to become internationalism? 16. Is neolog (acronym) being formed for prestige reasons? 17. Milien 18. Status and currency of neologism in SL 19. Is neolog in competition with others?Transference (with inverted commas) TL neologisms (with composites) TL derived word Naturalisation Recognised TL translation Functional term Descriptive term Literal translation Translation procedure combinations (coup lets etc.) Through-translation Internationalism

Neologisms. These are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily and often even spring up on newspaper pages, e.g. lunik, a splash-down (the act of bringing a spacecraft to a water surface), a teach-in (a form of campaigning through heated political discussion), backlash or white backlash (a violent reaction of American racists to the Negroes' struggle for civil rights), frontlash (a vigorous antiracist movement), stop-go policies (contradictory, indecisive and inefficient policies).above-listed peculiarities of brief news items are the basic vocabulary parameters of English newspaper style.vocabulary of brief news items is for the most part devoid of emotional colouring. Some papers, however, especially those classed among "mass" or "popular" papers, tend to introduce emotionally coloured lexical units into essentially matter-of-fact news stories, e.g.

"Health Minister Kenneth Robinson made this shock announcement yesterday in the Commons." (Daily Mirror)

"Technicians at the space base here are now working flat out to prepare GeAiini 6 for next Monday's blast-off." (Daily Mail)

"Defence Secretary Roy Mason yesterday gave a rather frosty reception in the Commons to the latest proposal for a common defence policy for all EEC countries." (Morning Star)as vocabulary is, it is not so much the words and phrases used in brief news items that distinguish them from other forms of newspaper writing. The vocabulary groups listed above are also commonly found in headlines and newspaper articles. The basic peculiarities of news items lie in their syntactical structure.the reporter is obliged to be brief, he naturally tries to cram all his facts into the space allotted. This tendency predetermines the peculiar composition of brief news items and the syntactical structure ^,of the sentences. The size of brief news items varies from one sentence to several (short) paragraphs. And generally, the shorter the news item, |\ the more complex its syntactical structure.following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as their grammatical parameters.) Complex sentences with a developed system of clauses, e. g.

"Mr. Boyd-Carpenter, Chief Secretary to the Treasury and Paymaster-General (Kingston-upon-Thames), said he had been asked what was meant by the statement in the Speech that the position of war pensioners and those receiving national insurance benefits would be kept under close review." (The Times)

"There are indications that BO AC may withdraw - threats of all-out dismissals for pilots who restrict flying hours, a spokesman for the British Airline Pilots' association said yesterday," (Morning Star)) Verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun constructions, e.g.

"Mr. Nobusuke Kishi, the former Prime Minister of Japan, has sought to set an example to the faction-ridden Governing Liberal Democratic Party by announcing the disbanding of his own faction numbering 47 of the total of 295 conservative members of the Lower House of the Diet." (The Times)) Syntactical complexes, especially the nominative with the infinitive. These constructions are largely used to avoid mentioning the source of information or to shun responsibility for the facts reported, e. g.

"The condition of Lord Samuel, aged 92, was said last night to be a 'little better.'" (The Guardian)

"A petrol bomb is believed to have been exploded against the grave of Cecil Rhodes in the Matopos." (The Times)) Attributive noun groups are another powerful means of effecting brevity in news items, e.g. 'heart swap patient' (Morning Star), 'the national income and expenditure figures' (The Times), 'Labour backbench decision' (Morning Star), 'Mr. Wilson's HMS fearless package deal' (Morning Star).) Specific word-order. Newspaper tradition, coupled with the rigid rules of sentence structure in English, has greatly affected the word-order of brief news items. The word-order in one-sentence news paragraphs and in what are called "leads" (the initial sentences in longer news items) is more or less fixed. Journalistic practice has developed what is called the "five-w-and-h-pattern rule" (who-what-why-how-where-when)and for a long time strictly adhered to it. In terms of grammar this fixed sentence structure may be expressed in the following manner: Subject-Predicate (+Object)-Adverbial modifier of reason (manner)- Adverbial modifier..of place-4Adverbial modifier of time, e.g.

"A neighbour's peep through a letter box led to the finding of a woman dead from gas and two others semiconscious in a block of council flats in Eccles New Road, Salford, Lanes., yesterday." (The Guardian)has been repeatedly claimed by the authors of manuals of journalistic writing that the "five-w-arid4i" structure was the only right pattern of sentence structure to use in news reports. Facts, however, disprove this contention. Statistics show that there are approximately as many cases in which the traditional word-order is violated as those in which it is observed. It is now obvious that the newspaper has developed new sentence patterns not typical of other styles. This observation refers, firstly, to the position of the adverbial-modifier of definite time. Compare another pattern typical of brief news sentence structure:

"Derec Heath, 43, yesterday left Falmouth for the third time in his attempt to cross the Atlantic in a 12ft dinghy." (Morning Star)

"Brighton council yesterday approved а Ј 22,500 scheme to have parking meters operating in the centre of the town by March." (The Times)and some other unconventional sentence patterns have become a common practice with brief news writers.are some other, though less marked, tendencies in news item writing of modifying well-established grammatical norms. Mention should be made of occasional disregard for the sequence of tenses rule, e.g.

"The committee -which was investigating the working of the 1969 Children and Young Persons Act - said that some school children in remand centres are getting only two hours lessons a day." (Morning Star)is ordinarily looked upon as a violation of grammar rules in any other kind of writing appears to bЈ a functional peculiarity of newspaper style.


1.2 THE APPEARANCE OF NEOLOGISMS DURING THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE

the 16th century there was a flood of new publications in English, prompted by a renewed interest in the classical languages and literatures, and in the rapidly developing fields of science, medicine, and the arts. This period, from the time of Caxton until around 1650, was later to be called the Renaissance, and it included the Reformation, the discoveries of Copernicum, and the European exploration of Africa and the Americas. The effects of these fresh perspectives on the English languages were immediate, far-reaching and controversial.focus of interest was vocabulary. There were no words in the language to talk accurately about the new concepts, techniques, and inventions which were coming from Europe, and so writers began to borrow them. Most of the words which entered the language at the time were taken from Latin, with a good number from Greek, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. Then, as the period of word-wide exploration got under way, words came into English from over 50 other languages, including several indigenous languages of North America, Africa, and Asia. Some words came into English directly; others came by way of an intermediate language. Many came indirectly from Latin or Italian via French.writers, such as Thomas Elyot, went out of their way to find new words, in order (as they saw it) to enrich the language. They saw their role as enabling the new learning to be brought within the reach of the English public-whether this was access to the old classical texts, or to the new fields of science, technology, and medicine. There were many translations of classical works during the 16th century, and thousand of Latin and Greek terms were introduced, as translators searched for an English equivalent and could not find one. Some, indeed, felt that English was in any case not an appropriate vehicle for the expression of the new learning. English, in this view, did not compare well with the tried and tested standards of Latin or Greek, especially in such fields as theology or medicine. It was a language fit for the street, but not for the library.as now, the influx of foreign vocabulary attracted bitter criticism, and people leaped to the languages defense. Purists opposed the new inkhorn terms, condemning them for obscurity and for interfering with the development of native English vocabulary. Some writers (notably, the poet Edmund Spenser) attempted to revive obsolete English words instead - what were sometimes called Chaucerisms - and to make us of little-known words from English dialects. Algate (always), sicker (certainly), and yblent (confused) are examples. The scholar John Cheke used English equivalents for classical terms whenever he could, such as crossed for crucified and gainrising for resurrection.increase in foreign borrowings is the most distinctive linguistic sign of the Renaissance in English. Purist opinions did not, in the event, stem the influx of new words - nor have it ever, in the history of this language.

Some Renaissance loan words in English

From Latin and Greek, adapt, agile, alienate, allusion, anachronism, anonymous, appropriate, assassinate, atmosphere, autograph, benefit, capsule, catastrophe, chaos, climax, conspicuous, contradictory, crisis, criterion, critic, delirium, denunciation, disability, disrespect, emancipate, emphasis, encyclopedia, enthusiasm, epilepsy, eradicate, exact, exaggerate, excavate, excursion, exist, expectation, expensive, explain, external, extinguish, fact, glottis, habitual, halo, harass, idiosyncrasy, immaturity, impersonal, inclemency, jocular, larynx, lexicon, lunar, malignant, monopoly, monosyllable, necessitate, obstruction, pancreas, parasite, parenthesis, pathetic, pneumonia, relaxation, relevant, scheme, skeleton, soda, species, system, tactics, temperature, tendon, thermometer, tibia, tonic, transcribe, ulna, utopian, vacuum, virus.or via French, anatomy, battery, bayonet, bigot, bizarre, chocolate, colonel, comrade, detail, docility, duel, entrance, equip, explore, grotesque, invite, moustache, muscle, naturalized, passport, pioneer, probability, progress, shock, surpass, ticket, tomato, vase, vogue, volunteer.or via Italian, balcony, ballot, cameo, carnival, concerto, cupola, design, fuse, giraffe, grotto, lottery, macaroni, opera, piazza, portico, rocket, solo, sonata, sonnet, soprano, stanza, stucco, trill, violin, volcanoor via Spanish and Portuguese

Alligator, anchovy, apricot, armada, banana, barricade, bravado, cannibal, canoe, cockroach, cocoa, corral, desperado, embargo, guitar, hammock, hurricane, maize, mosquito, mulatto, negro, potato, port (wine), rusk, sombrero, tank, tobacco, yamother languages(Malay), bazaar (Persian), caravan (Persian), coffee (Turkish), cruise (Dutch), curry (Tamil), easel (Dutch), flannel (Welsh), guru (Hindi), harem (Arabic), horde(Turkish), keelhaul (Dutch), ketchup (Malay), kiosk (Turkish), knapsack (Dutch), landscape (Dutch), pariah (Tamil), raccoon (Algonquian), rouble (Russian), sago (Malay), sheikh (Arabic), shekel (Hebrew), shogun (Japanese), troll (Norwegian), trousers (Irish Gaelic), turban (Persian), wampum (Algonquian), yacht (Dutch), yoghurt (Turkish).

1)Lexical creation

Anglo-Saxon forms, borrowings, and the use of affixes account for most of what appears within the English lexicon, but they do not tell the whole story. People do some creative, even bizarre things with vocabulary, from time to time, and a fascinating topic in lexicology is to examine just what they get up to. The general term for a newly-created lexeme is a coinage: but in technical usage a distinction can be drawn between nonce words and neologisms.nonce word (from the 16th-century phrase for the nonce, meaning for the once) is a lexeme created for temporary use, to solve an immediate problem of communication. Someone attempting to describe the excess water on a road after a storm was head to call it a fluddle - she meant something bigger than a puddle but smaller than a flood. The new-born lexeme was forgotten (except by a passing linguist) almost as soon as it was spoken. It was obvious from the jocularly apologetic way in which the person spoke that she did not consider fluddle to be a proper word at all. There was no intention to propose it for inclusion in a dictionary. As far as she was concerned, it was simply that there seemed to be no word in the language for what she wanted to say, so she made one up, for the nonce. In everyday conversation, people create nonce-words like this all the time.there is never any way of predicting the future, with language. Who knows, perhaps the English-speaking world has been waiting decades for someone to coin just this lexeme. It would only take a newspaper to seize on it, or for it to be referred to in an encyclopedia, and within days (or months) it could be on everyones lips. Registers of new words would start referring to it, and within five years or so it would have gathered enough written citations for it to be a serious candidate for inclusion in all the major dictionaries. It would then have become a neologism - literally, a new word in the language.neologism stays new until people start to use it without thinking, or alternatively until it falls out of fashion, and they stop using it altogether. But there is never any way of telling which neologisms will stay and which will go. Blurb, coined in 1907 be the American humorist Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), proved to meet a need, and is an established lexeme now. On the other hand his coinage of gubble, to indulge in meaningless conversation, never caught on. Lexical history contains thousands of such cases. In the 16th century - a great age of neologisms - we find disaccustom and disacquaint alongside disabuse and disagree. Why did the first two neologisms disappear and the last two survive? We also find effectual, effectuous, effectfull, effectuating, effective. Why did only two of the five forms survive, and why those two, in particular? The lexicon is full of such mysteries.

2)Bagonizing

However many words there are in English, the total will be small compared with those which do not yet exist. Native speakers, however, seem to have a mania for trying to fill lexical gaps. If a word does not exist to express a concept, there is no shortage of people very ready to invent one. Following a ten-minute programme about neologisms on BBC Radio 4 in 1990, over 1000 proposals were sent in for new English lexemes. Here are a dozen of the more ingenious creations.- a pre-conference drink- the tendency of a dog on a leash to want to walk past poles and trees on the opposite side to its owner- the guarantee that in any group photo there will always be at least one person whose eyes are closed- a smokers cough- physical violence associated with the game of soccer- said of people who care about litter- said of people who dont care about litter- the cause of nightly noise when you live in a neighborhood full of cats- someone who complains about everything- what happens to your breakfast cereal when you are called away by a 15-minute phone call, just after you have poured milk on it- that part of the toilet seat which causes the phone to rink the moment you sit on it- the time that elapses between when hiccups go away and when you suddenly realize that they have- a compulsive desire to invent new words

Loadsalexemes

Loadsamoney, an informal label for someone who flaunts wealth, first came to notice in the mid-1980s as the name of a character invented by British alternative comedian Harry Enfield. It caught on, and was given a boost in May 1988, when Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock used it to label the Conservative governments policy of encouraging the creation of wealth for its own sake. Journalists began referring to a Loadsamoney mentality and the Loadsamoney economy, and gradually the prefix began to take on a life of its own. Later that year we find in various newspapers: loadsasermons, loadsaglasnost, loadsaspace, loadsapeople.affixes seem to have found new life in the 1980s. Mega-, for example, was used with dozens of forms, such as -trendy, -sulk, -worry, -terror, -plan, -bid, -brand, and -city. The suffixing use of -friendly was found not only with user- (its original usage), but also with audience-, customer-, environment-, farmer-, girl-, nature-, and many more. Sexism brought a host of other -isms, such as weightism, heightism and ageism. Rambo-based coinages included Ramboesque and Ramboistic. Band-aid gave birth to Sport-aid and Nurse-aid. And the Watergate affair of the mid-1970s lived on linguistically, -gate continuing to attach itself to almost any proper noun where there may be a hint of wicked goings-on, as in Irangate, Lloydstage, and the remarkable Gospelgate (for the wrongdoing of US televangelists).

Thingummybob and whatsisname

It is by no means clear how we should spell most of the items in the following list - and accordingly they tend to be omitted from dictionaries, whose focus is generally on the written language. They are nonetheless an important element in the English lexicon, providing speakers with a signal that they are unable to retrieve a lexeme - either because it has slipped their mind or perhaps because there is a lexical gap in the language. Such nonsense words occur in many variant forms and pronunciations, just some of which are recorder here.


Deeleebob Deeleebobber Diddleebob Diddleydo Diddleything Diddleythingy Dignus Dingdong Dingy Dooda Doodad Doohickey Gadget GeegaGewgaw Gimmick Gizmo Goodie Hootenanny Lookit Oojamaflop Thingamabob Thingamabobbit Thingamajig Thingummy Thingummybob Thingy ThingybobWhatchacallem Whatchacalit Whatchamacallit Whatever Whatsisname Whatsit Whatsits Whatnot Whosis Whosit Whosits Widget

In addition those with sharp ears (for such forms are often said very rapidly) will hear many idiosyncratic items - such as gobsocket, jiminycricket, and this splendid blend (from a professor of linguistic, no less) thingummycallit.

3)Literary neologizing

The more creative the language context, the more likely we are to encounter lexical experiments, and find ourselves faced with unusual neologisms. The stretching and breaking of the rules governing lexical structure, for whatever reason, is characteristic of several contexts, notably humor, theology, and informal conversation, but the most complex, intriguing and exciting instances come from the language of literature.pages illustrate the range of neologisms used by several modern authors, with pride of place given to the chief oneiroparonomastician (or dream-pun-namer - the term is Anthony Burgesss), James Joyce. Joyce himself called Finnegans Wake the last word in stolentelling, a remark which seems to recognize that the extraordinary lexical coinages in his novel have their roots in perfectly everyday language. Certainly, it is our grassroots linguistic awareness which enables us to disentangle some of the layers of meaning in a Joycean neologism. However, untutored native intuition will not sort everything out, as considerable use is also made of elements from foreign languages and a wide range of classical allusions.style largely depends on the mechanisms involved in the simple pun, but whereas puns generally rely for their effect on a single play on words, it is usual for Joyces forms to involve several layers of meaning, forming a complex network of allusions which relate to the characters, events, and themes of the book as a whole. There is also a similarity to the portmanteau words of Lewis Carroll, though Carroll never tried to pack as much meaning into a portmanteau as Joyce routinely did.Joyce (1882-1941) was a writer of that period.Joysprick (1973), Anthony Burgess presents an illuminating analysis of the linguistic processes involved in the development of what he calls Joyces jabberwocky. These successive drafts (a-c) of Finnegans Wake, published in the 1920s, show that the style is carefully engineered, despite its apparent randomness and spontaneity. Each version introduces extra connotations, puns, and allusions, and a growing intricacy of lexical structure. The version, which appears in the book (d), is included for comparison.

(a)Tell me, tell me, how could she cam trough all her fellows, the daredevil? Linking one and knocking the next and polling in and petering out and clyding by in the east way. Who was the first that ever burst? Some one it was, whoever you are. Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, Paul Pry or polish man. Thats the thing I always want to know.

(b)Tell me, tell me, how could she cam through all her fellows, the nectar she was, the diveline? Linking one and knocking the next, tapping a flank and tipping a jetty and palling in and petering out and clyding by on her east way. Wai-whou was the first that ever burst? Someone he was, whoever they were, in a tactic attack or in single combat. Tinker, tailor, soldier, Paul Pry or polishman. Thats the thing I always want to know.

(c)Tell me, tell me, how cam she camlin trough all her fellows, the neckar she was, the diveline? Linking one and knocking the next, tapting a flank and tipting a jutty and palling in and pietaring out and clyding by on her eastway. Waiwhou was the first thurever burst? Someone he was, whuebra they were, in a tactic attack or in single combat. Tinker, tilar, souldrer, salor, Pieman peace or Polistamann. Thats the thing want to know.

(d)Tell me, tell me, how cam she camlin trough all her fellows, the neckar she was, the diveline? Casting her perils before our swains from Fonte-in-Monte to Tidingtown and from Tidingtown tilhavet. Linking one and knocking the next, tapting a flank and tipting a jutty and palling in and pietaring out and clyding by on her eastway. Waiwhou was the first thurever burst? Someone he was, whuebra they were, in a tactic attack or in single combat. Tinker, tilar, souldrer, salor, Pieman Peace or Polistamann. Thats the thing Im elways on edge to esk.good way of developing an understanding of how Joyces neologisms wok is to try to imitate them, or parody them.suggests a game to fill long winter evenings. In response to an instruction to punbaptise the names of the months from the viewpoint of a confirmed drunkard, he gives us:this means that a lot of writers use literary neologizing in their novels and stories.

4)Neologistic compounds

A lot of writers and poets used Neologistic compounds. Some Liverpool poets as Adrian Henry (b.1932), Roger McGough (b.1937), and Brian Patten (b.1946) can show Neologistic compounds in their poems.lexicoining is but one of the several techniques described in earlier pages available to any author who wishes to neologize. For example, there may be a novel use of affixes:

by owl-light in the half-way housegentleman lay graveward with his furies;

(Dylan Thomas, Altarwise by Owl-light, 1935-6)an unusual word-class conversion:slipped thro the frenchwindowsarminarmed across the lawn

(Roger McGough, The Fish, 1967)


But innovative compounds are particularly widespread, and deserve special space.staid set of compound lexemes which was illustrated before does not even begin to capture the exuberant inventiveness which can be seen in English literature from its earliest days. Old English was dominated by its creative compounding, as seen in such forms as hronrad sea (literally, whale-road), and, much later, Shakespeare made considerable use of Neologistic compounds: pity-pleading eyes and oak-cleaving thunderbolts. Sometimes several items are joined in a compound-like way:

base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited-pound, filthy woosted-stocking, a Lilly-livered, action-taking,, glasse-gazing super-seruiceableRogue

(King Lear, II.ii.15)

is not a great remove from here to the Joycean juxtapositions of Ulysses, 1922:

broadshouldered deepchested stronglimbed frankeyedfreely freckled shaggy-bearded widemouthedlongheaded deepvoiced bareknedhairylegged ruddyfaced sinewyarmed hero.

to the lexical creations of Gerard Manely Hopkins, mixing hyphenated and solid forms:


This darksome burn, horseback brown,rollrock highroad roaring down…windpuff-bonnet of fawn-frothand twindles over the broth…

(Inversnaid, 1881)

course, simply to print a series of words without spaces between them is hardly to create a compound, except at a most superficial level. A real compound acts as a grammatical unit, has a unified stress pattern, and has a meaning which is in some way different from the sum of its parts. Many literary compounds do none of this, and have a solely graphic appeal, as in this later line from Roger McGoughs poem:you took of your other gloveis perhaps a phonetic implication in such forms, suggestive of a difference in rhythm or speed of utterance when read aloud; but there is no grammatical or semantic change involved. A different kind of point is being made: to break graphic convention for its own sake reinforces the iconoclastic, irreverent tone with which the Liverpool Poets of the 1960s came to be identified.

Orwellian compound speak

times 3.12.83 reporting bb dayorder doubleplusungood refs unpersons rewrite fullwise upsub antefilingNewspeak message, sent for re-editing to Winston Smith, in George Orwells Nineteen Eight-Four, is given the following Oldspeak (standard English) translation:reporting of Big Brothers Order for the Day in The Times of December 3rd 1983 is extremely unsatisfactory and makes references to Non-existing persons. Rewrite it in full and submit your draft to higher Authority before filing.uses three kinds of words: the A vocabulary consists of everyday items, B vocabulary is ideological; and the C vocabulary contains technical terms. The B vocabulary comprises only compound words. Orwell describes it as a sort of verbal short-hand, often packing whole ranges of ideas into a few syllables. Its aim is to impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them. Examples include: doublethink, goodthink, oldthink, crimethink, oldspeak, speakwrite, thoughtcrime, sexcrime, prolefeed, dayorder, blackwhite, duckspeak.forms could be inflected in the usual way. For example, goodthink (orthodoxy on Oldspeak), could generate goodthinking, goodthinkful, goodthinkwise, goodthinker, and goodthinked. (There are no irregular forms in Newspeak). Other terms in Newspeak are not so much compounds as blends, involving fragments of either or both of the constituent lexemes: Pornsec (Pornography Section), Ficdep (Fiction Department), Recdep (Records department), and Thinkpol (Thought Police).novel gives the impression that there are hundreds of such forms. Indeed, one of the characters (Syme) is engaged in the enormous task of compiling the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary. In fact, there are only a few dozen Newspeak terms mentioned in the novel and its Appendix, though several of them are used repeatedly.


1.3 THE TYPES OF NEOLOGISMS


)The old words with new senses

Firstly lets take the existing words with new senses. These do not normally refer to new objects or processes and therefore are rarely technological. However, creneau, which started as a metaphor as creneau de vente (therefore is a pseudo-neologism) can normally be translated technically as market outlet or informally as range of demand for a particular type of product depending on the three types: 1) expert, 2) educated generalist, who may require extra explanations of the topic of the SL culture, 3) the ignorant, who may need explanations at various levels. All these types belong to the type of readership.term gay appears to have been deliberately used by homosexual to emphasise their normality. It is no longer slang-translations such as schwul or homo will not do. Possibly when homosexuality loses al its negative connotations, there will be no need for this sense of gay but it is likely to stay - it has gone into French and German as gay. You cannot go back in language - a colloquial term is not usually replaced by a formal term. To sum up, old words with new senses tend to be non-cultural and non-technical. They are usually translated either by a word that already exist in the TL, or by brief functional or descriptive term.collocations with new senses are a translators trap: usually these are normal descriptive terms which suddenly become technical terms; their meaning sometimes hides innocently behind a more general or figurative meaning.

: in English in German

unsocial hours Studen auberhalb derArbeitzeit

high-rise Hochhaus

real-time (computers) Echtzeit

collocations with new senses may be cultural or non-cultural. If the referent (concept or object) exists in the TL, there is usually a recognised translation or trough-translation. If the concept does not exist or the TL speakers are not yet aware of it, an economical descriptive equivalent has to be given. There is also the possibility of devising a new collocation in inverted commas, which can later be slyly withdrawn.also have to be aware of the reverse tendency, which is to use technical collocations such as critical mass or specific gravity an a generalized sense - this often leads to jargon which can be corrected in the translation of informative texts.

2)Derived words

The great majority of neologisms are words derived by analogy from ancient Greek (increasingly) and Latin morphemes usually with suffixes as -ismo, -ismus, -ija etc., naturalised in the appropriate language. In some countries (e.g. pre-War Germany, Arabic-speaking countries) this process has been preferred. E.g. television - Fernsehen. However, now that this word-forming procedure is employed mainly to designate (non-cultural) scientific and technological rather than cultural institutional terms, the advance of these internationalisms is wide-spread. Normally, they have naturalised suffices. Many are listed in Babel appears to be the main non-European language that imports them., this does not mean that the translator can apply the process automatically. For example: Bionomics has given way to ecology, and ergonomics (second sense) to biotechnology. He has to consult the appropriate ISO (International Standards Organisation) glossary to find out whether there is already a recognized translation; secondly, whether the referent yet exists in the TL culture; thirdly, how important it is and therefore whether it is worth transplanting at all. If he thinks he is justified in transplanting it (has he the necessary authority?), and he believes himself to be the first translator to do so. P. Newmark should put it in inverted commas.example: televideo - appears to be an earlier version of video, which has several meanings (tape, recorder, cassette). Not however that most of these words are virtually context-free.we should note the medical neologisms.: chronopharmacology and etc., particularly approved chemical names of generic drugs can often be reproduced with a naturalized suffix (French -ite, English -itis; French -ine, English -in). But bear in mind that Romance languages do this more easily than others, since it is their home territory, and you should not automatically naturalize or adopt a word like anatomopathologie (1960).languages combine two or more academic subjects into a single adjective thus medico-chirurgial, medico-pedagogique, etc, in a manner that Shakespeare was already satirizing in Hamlet (II.2) (pastoral-comical, tragical-historical, tragical-comical-historical-pastoral etc) such combinations should normally be separated into two adjectives in the translation.: medical and surgical, both medical and surgical, but physio - (from physiology), physico - (physics) and bio - are common first components of interdisciplinary subjects.

3)Abbreviations

Abbreviations have always been a common type of pseudo-neologisms, probably more common in French and German that in English. Example: Uni, Philo, sympa, Huma, fac, fab, video; they are normalised (i.e. translated unabbreviated), unless there is a recognized equivalent (e.g. bus, metro, plus science-technical terms)., one of the most noticeable features of present-day English linguistic life, would for ma major part of any super dictionary. Often thought to be an exclusively modern habit, the fashion for abbreviations can be traced back over 150 years. In 1839, a writer in the New York Evening Tatler comments on what he calls the initial language… a species of spoken shorthand, which is getting into very general use among loafers and gentlemen of the fancy, besides Editors, to whom it saves much trouble in writing…. He was referring to OK (all correct), PDQ (pretty damn quick) - two which have lasted - GT (gone to Texas), LL (liver loafers), and many other forms introduced, often with a humorous or satirical intent, by society people.fashionable use of abbreviation - a kind of society slang - comes and goes in waves, though it is never totally absent. In the present century, however, it has been eclipsed by the emergence of abbreviations in science, technology, and other special fields, such as cricket, baseball, drug trafficking, the armed forces, and the media. The reasons for using abbreviated forms are obvious enough. One is the desire for linguistic economy - the same motivation which makes us want to criticize someone who uses two words where one will do. Succinctness and precision are highly valued, and abbreviations can contribute greatly to a concise style. They also help to convey a sense of social identity: to use an abbreviated form is to be in the know - part of the social group to which the abbreviation belongs. Computer buffs the world over will be recognized by their fluent talk of ROM and RAM, of DOS and WYSIWYG. You are no buff if you are unable to use such forms, or need to look them up (respectively, read-only memory, random-access memory, disk operating system, what you see is what you get). It would only irritate computer-literate colleagues and waste time or space (and thus money) if a computer-literate person pedantically expanded every abbreviated form. And the same applies to those abbreviations which have entered everyday speech. It would be strange indeed to hear someone routinely expanding BBC, NATO, USA, AIDS, and all the other common abbreviations of contemporary English. Indeed, sometimes (as with radar and AIDS), the unabbreviated form may be so specialized that it is unknown to most people - a point not missed by the compilers of quiz games, who regularly catch people out with a well-known (sic) abbreviation. As a test, try UNESCO and UNICEF, AAA, SAM and GI (context: military), or DDT and TNT (context: chemistry).are 6 types of abbreviation: initialisms, acronyms, clipping, blends, awkward cases, facetious forms.- items which are spoken as individual letters, such as BBC, DJ, MP, EEC, e.g., and USA; also called alphabetizes. The vast majority of abbreviations fall into this category. Not all use only the first letters of the constituent words: PhD, for example, uses the first two letters of the word philosophy and GHQ and TV take a letter from the middle of the word.- initialisms which are pronounced as single words, such as NATO, laser, UNESCO, and SALT (talks). Such items would never have periods separating the letters - a contrast with initialisms, where punctuation is often present (especially in older styles of English). However, some linguists do not recognize a sharp distinction between acronyms and initialisms, but use the former term for both.- a part of word which serves for the whole, such as ad and phone. These examples illustrate the two chief types: the first part is kept (the commoner type, as in demo, exam, pub, Gill), and the last part is kept (as in bus, plane). Sometimes a middle part is kept, as in fridge and flue. There are also several clippings which retain material from more than one part of the word, such as maths (UK), gents, and specs. Turps is a curiosity, in the way it adds an -s. Several clipped forms also show adaptation, such as fries (from French fried potatoes), Betty (from Elizabeth) and Bill (from William).- a word which is made up of the shortened forms of two other words, such as brunch (breakfast+lunch), heliport (helicopter+airport), smog (smoke+fog), and Eurovision (European+television). Scientific terms frequently make use of blending (as in the case of bionic), as do brand names (a device which cleaned your teeth while you used the phone might be called Teledent) and fashionable neologisms.lexical blend, as its name suggests, takes two lexemes which overlap in form, and welds them together to make one. Enough of each lexeme is usually retained so that the elements are recognizable. Here are some longstanding examples, and a few novelties from recent publications.+ hotel = motel+ editorial = advertorial+ Tunnel = Chunnel+ Cambridge = Oxbridge+ Harvard = Yarvard+ language = slanguage+ estimate = guesstimate+ aerial = squaerial+ cartoons = toytoons+ analyser = breathalyzer+ influenza = affluenza+ commercials = informercials+ condominium = dockominiummost cases, the second element is the one which controls the meaning of the whole. So, brunch is a kind of lunch, not a kind of breakfast - which is why the lexemes are brunch and not say lunkfast. Similarly, a toytoon is a kind of cartoon (one which generates a series of shop toys), not a kind of toy.seems to have increased in popularity in the 1980s, being increasingly used in commercial and advertising contexts. Products are sportsational, swimsational, and sexsational. TV provides dramacons, docufantasies, and rockumentaries. The forms are felt to be eye-catching and exciting; but how many of them will still be around in a decade remains an open question.cases - abbreviations which do not fall clearly into the above four categories. Some forms can be used either as initialisms or acronyms (UFO - U F O or you-foe). Some mix these types in the one word (CDROM, pronounced see-dee-rom). Some can form part of a lager word, using affixes (ex-JP, pro-BBC, ICBMs). Some are used only in writing (Mr, St- always pronounced in full in speech).forms: TGIF - Thank God Its Friday, CMG - Call Me God (properly, Companion of St Michael and St George), GCMG - God Calls Me God (properly, Grand Cross of St Michael and St George), and above al AAAAAA - Association for the Alleviation of Asinine Abbreviations and Absurd Acronyms (actually listed in the Gale Dictionary).

4)Collocations

Where there is an accepted collocation in the SL, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the TL, if it exists. A collocation consists basically of two or three lexical (sometimes called full, descriptive, substantial) words, usually linked by grammatical (empty, functional, relational) words, e.g. a mental illness. The collocates within a collocation define and delimit each other by eliminating at least some of their other possible meanings; the defining may be mutual and equally balanced, but more often it is closer for one collocate than for the other. Thus to pay attention, since it reduces the number of senses in which pay can be used to one. The word attention is not so radically affected, but it excludes attention in the sense of care, solicitude. To buy a hat is not a collocation, since it does not appreciably delimit the sense of buy or hat. However, collocations shade off into other grammatically linked word-groups without a sharp division.collocation is the element of system in the lexis of a language. It may be syntagmatic or horizontal, therefore consisting of a common structure; or paradigmatic or vertical, consisting of words belonging to the same semantic field which may substitute for each other or be semantic opposites. These become collocations only when they are arranged syntagmatically.collocations can be divided into seven main groups:) Verb plus verbal noun. Examples: pay attention, suffer a defeat, run a meeting, make a speech. The verb is the collocate for which the translator must find the appropriate equivalent. The verbs in these collocations merely have an operative function (they mean do) and no particularized meaning since the action is expressed in the noun. Some verbal nouns have a small range of collocates; others, like discourse, Lob, Dients, have one obvious collocate (pronouncer, spenden, leisten).) Determiner plus adjective plus noun. The appropriate adjective has to be found for the noun. There is a much wider range of choices than in (a), and the force of this category of collocation is usually only established by contrast with another language. Thus a large apple but une grosse pomme; a tall man but un home grand; un grand home but a great man; un beau garcon but a good looking man; a pretty girl but not (usually) a pretty boy. Some nouns have one particularly suitable adjective in an extensive variety of areas, particularly for physical qualities (e.g. woman: dark, slim, middle-aged, short, young) which, for other objects, would require different adjectives, whilst other nouns (e.g. criticism) have a narrow sheaf of adjectives for each segment of a variety of areas (approfondi/grundlich; anodine/nichtssagend).) Adverb plus adjective. The most suitable adverb must be looked for. These collocations tend to clichй (e.g. immensely important). The collocation is much rarer in Romance languages, where its equivalent transposition is adjective plus adjectival noun, e.g. dune immense importance. Note however: vachement dur, damn hard or bloody hard. This collocation, which is more restricted and less frequent (therefore far less important) than (a) and (b) is much at the mercy of fashion.) Verb plus adverb or adjective. This is much smaller category: the adverb or adjective must be looked for. Examples: work hard, feel well, shine brightly, and smell sweet.) Subject plus verb. There are two groups: first, the noun and verb may mutually attract each other: the dog barks, the cat purrs, the bell rings, and teeth chatter. In some cases, particularly when referring to animals, the verb usually has no other subject. In the second group, there is merely a fairly high expectation that a particular verb will follow the subject: the door creaks, le clocher pointe, les champs se deroulent, and here the right verb must be looked for. In French, some of these verbs are often found as past participles or in adjectival clauses qualifying their subjects (used as etoffement with low semantic content), and then they require no translation in English: la maison qui se drese sur la colline, the house on the hill.) Count noun plus of plus mass noun. This restricted collocation consists of a term denoting a unit of quantity and the word for the substance it quantifies. The appropriate unit must be looked for in the TL, e.g. a loaf of bread, a cake of soap, a pinch of salt, a particle of dust, etc, if it exists.) Collective noun plus count noun. The collective noun has to be discovered: e.g. a bunch of keys, a flock of geese or sheep, a pack of cards or hounds.and less easily categorized collocations include nominalizations (in particular, nouns premodified by one or more nouns), introducing the name of an object (or unit of quantity) by a term for its size, composition, purpose, origin, destination, etc., which is now rapidly superseding the noun plus of plus noun collocation; the whole range of phrasal verbs, and various items of a sequence including activity/agent/instrument/object/attribute/source/place, etc.: e.g. bake/baker/oven/bread/fresh,new,stale,musty/flour,yeast/bakery.and semantically, clichйs are a subgroup of collocations in that one of their collocates has diminished in value or is almost redundant, as often in grinding to a halt, filthy lucre, etc., and the translator may be entitled to replace a clichй with a less common collocation, if it clarified the content without distorting it.collocations may be based on well-established hierarchies such as kinship (fathers and sons), colours (emerald is a bright green), scientific taxonomies and institutional hierarchies where the elements of the culture for each language often have their own distinct linguistic likeness (Abbild), although the extralinguistic object may be the same. Alternatively they may consist of the various synonyms and antonyms that permeate all languages.may be classified under three heads:)Objects which complement each other to form a set (land, sea, air), or a graded series (ratings, petty officers, officers).)Qualities (adjectives or adjectival nouns) which are contrary, which may have middle term (e.g. interested/disinterested/uninterested), or are contradictory. Contradictory polar terms are shown formally, i.e. through affixes: perfect/imperfect, loyal/disloyal. (Suffixes have much stronger force than prefixes: cf. faithless/unfaithful). Contrary polar terms are usually shown lexically: hot/cold, young/old, faithful/treacherous. In a text, such collocations usually appear as alternatives, e.g. hard or soft; clear, obscure or vague.)Actions (verbs or verbal nouns). In two-term collocations, the second term is converse or reciprocal: attack/defend; action/reaction. In three-term collocations, the second and third terms represent positive and negative responses respectively: offer/accept/refuse, besiege/hold out/surrender/. Actions may also complement each other as in (a); walk/run, sleep/wake.are two types of synonym collocation. The main type is the inclusive collocation which include (a) the hierarchies of genus/species/subspecies, etc., and may indicate the degree of generality (or particularity) of any lexical item, and with in the appropriate category (Oberbegriffe or super ordinates): e.g. the brass in the orchestra; pump or grease-gun; equity on the market. Fleche is a generic term for spire, and a specific term for fleche (slender spire perforated with windows); (b) synecdoche, where part and whole are sometimes used indiscriminately with the same reference (e.g. chariot/prote-outil, strings/violins); (c) metonymy, where Bonn and the West German government, the City and British bankers may again be interchanged. The second type of synonym collocation is usually an old idiom such as with might and main and by hook or by crook - which is likely to have a Germanic (auf Biegen oder Brechen) but not a Romance (coute que coute) one-to-one equivalent.are the lexical (not grammatical) tramlines of language. Where a translator finds current and equally common corresponding collocation in source and TL texts, it is mandatory to use them; they are among the invariant components of translation. They may be factual or extralinguistic, denoting institutional terms (e.g. le President Republique) as well as linguistic. A translator must be conversant with them not only to follow them but also to know when to break them (going off the tramlines) when they are broken in the SL text.collocations (noun compounds or adjective plus noun) are particularly common in the social sciences and in computer language. Thus, lead time, sexual harassment, claw back, cold-calling, Walkman (brand name for personal stereo), acid rain, norm reference testing, rate-capping, jetlag, lateral thinking, narrow money, graceful degradation, hash total.above represents varying problems. The computer terms are given their recognised translation - if they do not exist, you have to transfer them (if they appear important) and then add a functional-descriptive term - you have not the authority to devise your own neologism.

Sexual harassment is a universal concept at least in any culture where there is both greater sexual freedom and a powerful womens movement. For a German it will come out as Sexualschikane;

Lead time - a term for the time between design and production or between ordering and delivery of a product, has at present to be translated in context;

Claw back (retrieval of tax benefits) may not last;

Narrow money (money held predominantly for spending), is contrasted with broad money (for spending and/or as a store of value).brief discussion shows incidentally the difficulty of translating English collocations which appear arbitrarily to juxtapose nouns with verb-nouns because they indicate the two most significant meaning components, but have varied and sometimes mysterious case relations. Languages cannot convert verbs to nouns but, in the case of the Romance languages at least, suppress prepositions in such ruthless way, cannot imitate this procedure. For this reason, the English collocations are difficult to translate succinctly and an acceptable term emerges only when the referent becomes as important (usually as a universal, but occasionally as a feature of the SL culture) that more or less lengthy functional-descriptive term will no longer do.linguistics, a collocation is typically defined as the habitual co occurrence of individual lexical items. For the translator, for whom the collocation is the most important contextual factor collocation, in as far as it usefully affects translation, is considerably narrower; it consists of lexical items that enter mainly into high-frequency grammatical structures. Here are some examples if this in English and German languages.

. Adjective + noun. heavy labour - schwere Arbeit. economic situation - Konjunkturlage

. Noun +noun (i.e. double-noun compound). nerve cell - Nervenzelle. government securities - Staatspapiere. eye ball - Augapfel

. Verb + object, which are normally a noun that denotes an action, as in read a paper.. pay a visit - einen Besuch machen. score (win) a victory - einen Sieg erzielen. read an (academic) paper - ein Referant halten. attend a lecture - eine Vorlesung horen or besuchenare various degrees of collocability. Some words such as bandy and rancid may only have one material collocate (legs, butter) but figuratively they open up more choice (appearance, taste). They are always linked with the concept of naturalness and usage, and become most important in the revision stages of translation.I would like to give some examples of collocations from the dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English by Eric Partridge.House: is Australian coll., 1939. Another yard in which were the, the henhouse, the toolshed and what they calledthe little house.it mild: usually in imperative, dont exaggerate: a Canadian col.,of draw it mild.tea: tea without milk or sugar; coll., 1925

5)The translation of eponyms

Eponym, as P.Newmark thinks, is any word derived from a proper name (therefore including toponyms), are a growth industry in Romance languages and a more modest one in the English media. When derived from peoples names such words (Audenesque, Keynesian, Laurenthian, Hallidayan, Joycean, and Leavisite) tend to rise and fall depending on the popularity or vogue of their referent and ease of composition. When they refer directly to the person, they are translated without difficulty, but if they refer to the referents ideas or qualities, the translator may have to add these. In Italian, Thatcherism can sometimes (temporarily) be naturalised as Il Thatcherismo without comment. The Fosbury flop, a technical term for a method of high-jumping, can be transferred for specialist and succinctly defined for non-specialists. When derived from objects, eponyms are usually brand names, and can be transferred only when they are equally well known and accepted in the TL (e.g. nylon, but Durex is an adhesive tape in Australian English). Such generalized eponyms as Parkinsons Law (work, personnel, etc. expands to fill the time, space etc. allotted to it), Murphys or Sods Law (if something can go wrong, it will) have to be reduced to sense. Brand name eponyms normally have to be translated by denotative terms (ball point).general the translator should curb the use of brand name eponyms. New eponyms deriving from geographical names (the tasteless bikini has not been repeated) appear to be rare - most commonly they originate from the products (wines, cheeses, sausages etc.) of the relevant area - in translation the generic term is added until the product is well enough known. Many geographical terms have connotations, the most recent for English being perhaps Crichel Down (bureaucratic obstruction) with further details depending on context. Since such eponyms are also metonyms and therefore lose their local habitation (Midsummer Nights Dream) they also lose their names and are translated by their sense.Newmark proposes to divide eponyms into three categories, those derived from persons, objects and places.

Persons. In the first category, eponyms denoting objects usually derive from their inventors or discoverers; in translation, the main difficulty is that they may have an alternative name (e.g. Humboldt Current or Peru current), the authenticity of the discoverer may be implicitly disputed (Arnolds fold - valvule de Krause; Densons disease - maladie de Grancher), or more commonly, replaced by a technical term (Rontgenographie - radiography; Hutchinsons angioma - angiome serpigineux). In this category, there is a tendency for eponyms to be gradually replaced by descriptive terms (Davy lamp - Grubensicherheitslampe).biggest growth-point in eponyms in many European languages is the conversion of prominent persons names to adjectives (-ist) and abstract nouns (-ism) denoting either allegiance to or influence of the person, or a conspicuous quality or idea associated with them. This has always been common for French statesmen and writers (not artists or composers) where phrases like une preciosite giralducienne (like Giraudouxs) have a certain vogue. It extends now to statesmen whose name lends itself readily to suffixation - often the eponym declines with the personalitys fame (e.g. Bennite). Thus we have Thatcherism, Scargillism, Livingstonian - Reagan has to make do with Reaganomics (i.e., economic policy) - others are hampered by their names, e.g. Kinnock. Sometimes, mainly in French (gaullien, gaulliste), occasionally in English (Marxian, Marxist) a distinction is made between value-free and value-loaded eponyms through the suffixes -ian and -ist respectively. Sometimes one eponym, say Shakespearean, Churchillian, has many potential meanings which can be reduced to one only by considering the collocation and the context.main problem in translating eponyms derived from persons is whether the transferred word will be understood; thus the noun or adjective Leavisite is useful in English to summarize certain principles of literary criticism, but it would mean little in most TLs unless these were stated and, usually, related to F.R.Leavis. Such connotations (e.g., for Shavian, wit, irony, social criticism) need recording. In other cases, e.g., Quisling, Casanova, Judas, where not much else is known of the character, the eponym has a single connotative meaning and is often transferred. In such cases, if the readership is unlikely to understand an eponym, footnotes are usually unnecessary, but you have to decide whether it is worth transferring the name as well as the sense, depending on its cultural interest and its likelihood of recurrence or permanence in the TL. In some cases, where the interest of the proper name is purely local and probably temporary, only the contextual sense is translated; in others (Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe), the eponym is naturalized, though the connotation may differ somewhat between the source and target language.

Objects. In the second category, that of object, we are firstly discussing brand names which tend to monopolise their referent first in the country of their origin, then internationally, e.g. aspirin, Formica, Walkman, which in translation require additional descriptive terms only if the brand name is now known to the readership. Secondly, you have to consciously resist subliminal publicity for manufacturers of products such as Pernod, Frigidaire, Durex (adhesive tape in Australia), Tipp-Ex, Velcro, Jiffy bag, bic, biro, Tesa, sellotape (two pairs of cultural equivalents), Scotch (tape and whisky), translating them by a brief descriptive term (which is not always easy) rather than transferring them. Often it is too late. You have to accept TL standard terms, whether they are eponyms or recognised translations; jargon you must fight, either by eliminating it or by slimming it down.

Geographical names. Thirdly, geographical terms are used as eponyms when they have obvious connotations: firstly the towns and villages of Nazi horrors (Belsen, Dachau, Veldrome, Drancy, Terezen, and Oradour), which you should transfer and, where necessary, gloss, since this is basic education. Secondly, beware of idioms such as meet your Waterloo - faire naufrage; il y aura du bruit a Landerneau - its just tittle-tattle; from here to Timbuktu - dici jusqua Landerneau. Lastly you should note the increasing metonymic practice, mainly in the media, or referring to governments by the name of their respective capitals or locations and institutions or ministers by their residences or streets (Whitehall - the British government; the Pentagon - US military leadership; Fleet Street - the British press).

6)New coinages

Its a well-known hypothesis that there is no such thing as a brand new word; if a word does not derive from various morphemes then it is more or less phonaesthetic or sunaesthetic. All sounds or phonemes are phonaesthetic, have some kind of meaning. Nevertheless, the etymology of name words, in particular, dialect words, is not known and can hardly be related to meaningful sounds.best known exception to the hypothesis is the internationalism quark, coined by James Joyce in Finnegans Wake (the word exists in German with another sense), a fundamental particle in physics., for instance the computer term byte, sometimes spelt bite, is also an internationalism, the origin of the y being obscure. Both these words have phonaesthetic qualities - quark is humorously related to quark., the main new coinages are brand or trade names (Bistro, Bacardi, Schweppes, Persil, Oxo) and these are usually transferred unless the product is marketed in the TL culture under another name; or the proper name may be replaced by a functional or generic term, if the trade name has no cultural or identifying significance. Thus Revlon may be transferred by a selection of various components (Revlon, lipstick, fashionable American).principle, in fiction, any kind of neologism should be recreated; if it is a derived word it should be replaced by the same or equivalent morphemes; if it is also phonaesthetic, it should be given phonemes producing analogous sound effects. For this reason, in principle, the neologisms in Finnegans Wake (riverrun, from over the short sea, to wielderfight his penisolate war) must be re-created systematically and ingeniously, always however, with the principle of equivalent naturalness in mind, whether relating to morphology (roots and inflexion) or sound (alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance).

neologism semantic sociolinguistic mathematical

CHAPTER II


.1 SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION BASED IN NEOLOGISMS.


)The notion of a developed language

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of human language is the range of purposes it served, the variety of different things that people make language do for them. Casual interaction in home and family, instruction of children, activities of production and distribution like building and marketing and more specialized functions such as those of religion, literature, law and government - all these may readily be covered by one person on one days talk.can define a developed language as one that is used freely in all the functions that language serves in the society in question. Correspondingly an undeveloped language would be one that serves only some of these functions, but not all. This is to interpret language development as a functional concept, one which related to the role of a language in the society in which it is spoken.the Caribbean island of Sint Maarten, the mother tongue of the habitants is English. Education and administration, however, take place in Dutch; English is not normally used in these contexts. In Sint Maarten, English is an undeveloped language. The islanders find it hard to conceive of serious intellectual and administrative processes taking pace in English. They are, of course, perfectly well aware that English is used in al these functions in Britain, the USA and elsewhere. But they cannot accept that the homely English that they themselves speak (although dialectally it is of quite standard type that is readily understood by speakers from outside) is the same language as English in its national or international guise.the same way, English in medieval England was not a developed language, since many of the social functions of language in the community could be performed only in Latin or in French.unnaturally, the members of a society tend to attach social value to their languages according to the degree of their development. A language that is developed, being used in all the functions that language serves in the society, tends to have a higher status, while an undeveloped language is accorded a much lower standing, even by those who speak it as their mother tongue.

2)The notion of a register

The notion of developing a language means, therefore, adding to its range of social functions. This is achieved by developing new registers.register is a set of meanings that is appropriate to a particular function of language, together with the words and structures which express these meanings. We can refer to a mathematics register, in the sense of the meanings that belong to the language of mathematics (the mathematical use of natural language, that is: not mathematics itself), and that a language must express if it is being used for mathematical purposes.language embodies some mathematical meanings in its semantic structure - ways of counting, measuring, classifying and so on. These are not by themselves sufficient to form the natural language component of mathematics in its modern disciplinary sense, or to serve the needs of mathematics education in secondary schools and colleges. But they will serve as a point of departure for the initial learning of mathematical concepts, especially if the teaching is made relevant to the social background of the learner. The development of a register of mathematics is in the last resort a matter of degree.is the meanings, including the styles of meaning and modes of argument, that constitute a register, rather than the words and structures as such. In order to express new meanings, it may be necessary to invent new words; but there are many different ways in which a language can add new meanings, and inventing words is only one of them. We should not think o a mathematical register as consisting solely of terminology, or of the development of a register as simply a process of adding new words.

3)Development of a register of mathematicsthe development of a new register of mathematics will involve the introduction of new thing-names: ways of referring to new objects or new processes, properties, functions and relations. There are various ways in which this can be done.

.Reinterpreting existing words. Examples from mathematical English are: set, point, field, row, column, weight, stand for, sum, move through, even, random.

.Creating new words out of native word stock. This process has not played a very great part in the creation of technical registers in English (an early example of it is clockwise), but recently it has come into favour with words like Shortfall, feedback, output.

.Borrowing words from another language. This has been the method most favored in technical English. Mathematics examples include degree, series, exceed, subtract, multiply, invert, infinite, probable.

.Calquing: creating new words in imitation of another language. This is rare in modern English, though it is a regular feature of many languages; it was used in old English to render Christian terms from Latin, e.g. almighty calqued on omnipotens. (Latin omnipotens is made up of omni-meaning all and potens meaning mighty; on this model was coined the English word all-mighty, now spelt almighty).

.Inverting totally new words. This hardly ever happens. About the only English example is gas, a word coined out of nowhere by a Dutch chemist in the early 18th century.

.Creating locutions. There is no clear line between locutions, in the sense of phrases or larger structures, and compound words. Expressions like right-angled, square on the hypotenuse, lowest common multiple are examples of technical terms in mathematics English that are to be classed as locutions rather than compound words.

.Creating new words out of non-native word stock. This is now the most typical procedure in contemporary European languages for the creation of new technical terms. Words like parabola, denominator, binomial, coefficient, thermodynamic, permutation, approximation, denumerable, asymptotic, figurate, are not borrowed from Greek and Latin - they did not exist in these languages. They are made up in English (and in French, Russian and other languages) out of elements of the Greek and Latin word stock.language creates new thing-names; but not all languages do so in the same way. Some languages (such as English and Japanese) favour borrowing; others (such as Chinese) favour calquing. But all languages have more than one mode of word-creation; often different modes are adopted for different purposes - for example, one method may be typical for technical words and another for non-technical. There is no reason to say that one way is better than another; but it is important to find out how the speakers of a particular language in fact set about creating new terms when faced with the necessity of doing so. The Indian linguist Krishnamurthi (1962) has studied how Telugu-speaking communities of farmers, fishermen and textile workers, when confronted by new machines and new processes, made up the terms which were necessary for talking about them.are not static, and changes in material and social conditions lead to new meanings being exchanged. The most important thing about vocabulary creation by natural processes is that it is open-ended; more words can always be added. There is no limit to the number of words in a language, and there are always some registers which are expanding. Language developers have the special responsibility of creating new elements of the vocabulary which will not only be adequate in themselves but which will also point the way to the creation of others.

4)Structural aspects

But the introduction of new vocabulary is not the only aspect of the development of a register. Registers such as those mathematics, or of science and technology, also involve new styles of meaning, ways of developing an argument, and of combing existing elements into new combinations.these processes demand new structures, and there are instances of structural innovation taking place as part of the development of a scientific register. For the most part, however, development takes place not through the creation of entirely new structures (a thing that is extremely difficult to do deliberately) but through the bringing into prominence of structures which already existed but were rather specialized or rare. Examples of this phenomenon from English can be seen in expressions like signal-to-noise ratio, the sum of the series to n terms, the same number of mistakes plus or minus, each term is one greater than the term which precedes it, a set of terms each of which stands in a constant mathematical relationship to that which precedes it. We can compare these with new forms of everyday expression such as it was a non-event (meaning nothing significant happened), which are derived from technical registers although used in nontechnical contexts.is no sharp dividing line, in language, between the vocabulary and the grammar. What is expressed in one language by the choice of words may be expressed in another language (or in the same language on another occasion) by the choice of structure. The open-endedness referred to earlier is a property of the lexicogrammar as a whole. There are indefinitely many meanings, and combinations of meaning, to be expressed on one way or another through the medium of the words and structures of a language; a more can always be added. This is a reflection of the total potential that every language has, each in its own way.the past, language development has taken place slowly, by more or less natural processes (more or less natural because they are, after all, the effect of social processes) taking place over a long period. It took English three or four hundred years to develop its registers of mathematics, science and technology, and they are still developing. Today, however, it is not enough for a language to move in this leisurely fashion; the process has to be speeded up. Developments that took centuries in English and French are expected to happen in ten years, or one year, or sometimes one month. This requires a high degree of planned language development. Not everyone involved in this work is always aware of the wide range of different resources by means of which language can create new meanings, or of how the language in which he himself is working has done so in the past. But there is, now, a more general understanding of the fact that all human languages have the potential of being developed for all the purposes that human society and the human brain can conceive.


2.2 NEOLOGISMS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SEMANTIC AND PHONETIC FACTORS


Stephen Ullmann is the professor of the Roman languages in the University of Oxford. In his book Semantics and the Introduction to the Science of Meaning described some phonetic factors that can be seen in some marginal elements of language - neologisms, place-names, foreign words.factors - the phonetic structure of a word may give rise to emotive effects in two different ways. The first of these is onomatopoeia. Where there is an intrinsic harmony between sound and sense, this may, in suitable context, come to the fore and contribute to the expressiveness and the suggestive power of the word., for example, described the new word exactitude as a monster against which everybody protested at first, though in the end they became used to it. English words adopted into French have been subjected to a great deal of adverse criticism because of their alleged harshness: Keepsake, for instance, which was very fashionable in the early 19th century, was denounced in a magazine article as a hard word whose perilous pronunciation will prevent it from becoming popular.Italian poet Alfieri went even further: he wrote an epigram on the sonorous quality of the Italian word capitano, which was deformed and nasalised in French capitaine, and reduced to a mere captain in harsh English throats.Ullmann in his book also wrote about the loosing of emotive meaning of some words, and as an example, he took neologisms. He said that the more often we repeat an expressive term or phrase, the less effective it will be. This is particularly noticeable in the case of figurative language. When, a few years ago, the term bulge began to be used to denote an increase in the birth rate. It had the effect of an illuminating metaphor; now we are accustomed to it that we no longer visualize the image.terms are even more affected by the law of diminishing returns. We all know how quickly they go out of fashion. In our own time, modern forms of publicity and propaganda consume such words at an unprecedented rate and are constantly on the look-out for fresh alternatives: even such technical terms as supersonic have been drawn into their orbit., words may lose their evocative power as they pass from a restricted milien into common usage. When the English term sport was introduced into French in 1828, the writer who first used it was at pains to explain that the word had no equivalent in his own language. For several decades, sport remained an Anglicism of limited currency in French; as late as 1855, the purist Viennet protested against it in a poem about English words, which he read to the Institut:il, pour cimenter un merveilleux accord,Iarene en turf, et le plaisir en sport?then, the word has become part of everyday French has lost all evocative force. The same has happened to many successful neologisms. The adjective international for instance, was formed in 1780 by Jeremy Benthan who apologized for his temerity in coining a new term: The word international, it must be acknowledged, is a new one, though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible. Subsequently the word became an indispensable element of our political vocabulary and lost any air of neologism it may have had in Benthams day.more subtle are the movements of words up and social scale. One is quite surprised to learn that some ordinary English words such as joke or banter began their career as slang terms, and that many others - cajole, clever, fun, job, width, etc. - were stigmatized as low by Dr.Johnson., in the French la blaquer to joke, to banter is today a harmless colloquialism; yet little more than a century ago it must have had powerful social overtones.


2.3DIFFERENTIATION WITH RESPECT TO TIME AXIS OF NEOLOGISMS (BASED ON WORD-BUILDING)


The vocabulary of any language does not remain the same by changes constantly.the ever-changing field of political life and affairs new words are constantly coined. In this connection it is interesting to pay attention to the process of coining political euphemisms. Unemployment is substituted by the down-toned expressions: unused or underused manpower or redundancy. The problem of starvation is the problem of adequate nourishment, and the poor are only the underprivileged.few examples of neologisms showing the patterns according to which they are formed may be of interest. Automation automatic control of production is irregularly formed from the stem automatic - with the help of the very production suffix -tion. The corresponding verb to automated is a back-formation, e.g. to re-equip in the most modern and automated fashion. Re- is one of the most production prefixes; the others are anti-, de-, un-, the semi-affixes self- and mini- and many more. Antiflash (serving to protect the eyes) or the jocular anti-everything: She (the nurse) was anti-everything, except such of the patients who were good for a gossip (M.Dickens). Deglamorise (to make less attractive), rejuvenate (to make young again), rehouse (to move a family, a community etc. to a new house).prefix un- increases its combining power, enjoys a new wave of fashion and is now attached even to noun stem. A literary critic refers to the broken-down Entertainer (in John Osbornes play) as a contemporary unhero, the desperately unfunny Archie Rice. Unfunny here means not amusing in spite of the desire to amuse. A freer use of semi- affixes can be illustrated by mini-budget, mini-car, mini-skirt, midi-coat, midi-frock, self-service of restaurant, shop, etc. in which customers help themselves to food or goods and many more neologisms with self-.by mere juxtaposition of free forms has been a frequent pattern since the Old English period, e.g. brainstrust (a group of experts), quiz-master (chairman in competitions designed to test the knowledge of the participants). In the neologism back-room boys (men engaged in secret research) the structural cohesion of the compound is enhanced by the attribute function. Redbrick (universities), paperback (books).peculiarly English and steadily developing type is presented by nouns formed by a combined process of conversion and composition from verbs with postpositives, such as a hold up (armed robbery) from hold up (rob), fall out (airborne particles of radioactive matter), teach in (a student conference or a series of seminars on some burning issue of the day). This pattern is very frequent: read-in, sign-in, stay-in, and talk-in.technical and scientific inventions and notions are named by using the so-called combining forms, e.g. aqualung (from Latin combining from aqua and lung) - a portable diving apparatus. The change of meaning, or rather the introduction of a new, additional of a new, additional meaning, may be illustrated by the word network (a number of broadcasting station, connected for a simultaneous broadcast of the same programme). Another example is a word of American literary slang - the square. This neologism is used as a derogatory epithet for a person who plays safe, who sticks to his illusions, and thinks that only his own life embodies all decent moral values.is quite frequent, e.g. to orbit the moon, to garage a cra, to service a car.often two or more types of word-building combine in creating a neologism. Thus composition, substantiation and semantic change together are present in the personal name come back meaning a person who returns after a long absence.a general rule neologisms are at first clearly motivated. An exception is shown by those based on borrowings or learned coinages which, though motivated at an early stage, very soon being to function as indivisible signs. A good example is the much used term cybernetics (study of system of control and communication in living being and man-made devices), coined by Norbert Weiner from the Greek word kubernetes (steersman) + suffix -ics.are, however, cases when etymology is obscure, as in the noun boffin (a scientist engaged in research work) or in gimmick (a tricky device) - an American slang word that is now often used in British English. Etymology offered for the latter is only guesswork.the course of time the new word is accepted for some reason or the other and vanishes from the language. The fate of neologisms is hardly predictable, some of them are short-lived, others, on the contrary, become durable if they are liked and accepted. Once accepted, they may serve as a basis for further word-formation. Thus gimmick, gimmicky, gimmickry. Zip(an initiative word denoting a certain type of fastener) is hardly felt as new, but its derivatives, the verb to zip formed by conversion (to zip from one place to another) and the corresponding noun zipper appear to be neologisms.student of mass phenomena is naturally interested in appraising the number of units he has to deal with. It has proved no easy task. The difficulties confronting one in undertaking a word count are manifold. It is difficult to estimate the number of words in a language because of the so-called nonce-words that is words coined for one occasion. For example: I am sure I can help you publicity-wise with Beethovens birthday. After all this is really big thing. We must do whatever is best Beethovenwise. Or: Yes, I said, admiring the fishes and already getting a little whiskified (CARY). The surgeon rubbed his hands and ha-had. (M.Dickens).Huxley created very effective compound derivatives art-for-arter and trans-beasted (turned into beasts); …there was someone who could never believe that I was not an art-for-arter; as though our lives depended on getting there before the other trans-beasted passengers. And J.priestley Goes farther and derives a personal noun with the suffix -er out of a whole sentence: All they want to be is to be acquaintances, mere How-dyou-doers. Are we justified to count those as units of the vocabulary? Its a very difficult question for linguists.


CONCLUSION


This paper is dedicated to the peculiarities of the translation of neologisms.work was done according to the intensive developing branch of communicative theory of language - linguistic pragmatics based on material of neologisms.words and expressions or neologisms are created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance. In this work we can see the lexical creation of neologisms, during the English Renaissance and all types of neologisms according to their structure. The examples of some neologisms in different languages like German and French show us the appearance and disappearance of neologisms in language. Neologisms may be all-important and concern some social relationships, such as a new form of state e.g. Peoples Republic, or something threatening the very existence of humanity, like nuclear war. Or again they may be quite insignificant and short-lived, like fashions in dancing, clothing, hair-do or footwear. In every case either the old words are appropriately changed in meaning or new words are borrowed, or more often coined out of the existing I material according to the patterns and ways productive in the language at a given stage of its development.the statements made above defined the actuality which is carried out in the field of communicative linguists. Its main aim is to describe neologisms by their structure, to give examples, to show the creation of neologisms with the help of word-building techniques.to the stated aim, the tasks of the object of the study are as follows:

.The division of neologisms according to their structure;

.The appearance of neologisms during the English Renaissance and their lexical creation;

.The types of neologisms and their translation;;

.Neologisms from the point of view of semantic and phonetic factors;

.Sociolinguistic aspects of mathematical education based on neologisms;

.Differentiation with respect to time axis of neologisms based on word-building.of interpretation and translation of neologisms were used for the analysis of this material.results of the analysis of this topic have proved all the aforementioned specific tasks.


THE LIST OF THE USED LITERATURE


Books:

1.Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. 1959

.Ахманова О.С. Принципы и методы лексикологии как социолингвистической дисциплины. 1971

3.J.Buranov, A.Muminov. A practical course in English Lexicology. 1990

.Ilyish B.A. The structure of Modern English. 1965

.M.Halliday. Language as social semiotic. The social interpretation of language and meaning. 1994

.A.Hill. Introduction to linguistic structure. - New York, 1958

.D.Crystal. The Cambridge encyclopedia of English language. 1995

.A.Koonin. English Lexicology. - Moscow, 1940

.P.Newmark. A textbook of translation. 1988

.S.Robertson. The development of modern English. - New York, 1950

.J.A.Sheard. The words we use. - New York, 1954

.L.P.Smith. The English language. - London, 1912 (notes)

.Shalant, and Soyoo Hyunjoo Park "The Sun and the Moon."

.The Advanced Learner's Dictionary by A. Hornby, E. Gatenby, H. Wake-field; The Universal English Dictionary by H. Wild and Л General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies by M, West.

.V.V. Vinogradov. Investigation of English phraseology A.V. Kunin (A.B. Кунин).

.V.I. Dal "dictionary of vivid Russian language"

17.А.И. Смирницкий. Лексикология английского языка. М., 1956

18.Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. М., 1955).

19.V. Arnold, A.I. Smirnitsky the interpretation of these term in the textbooks on lexicology

.A.A.Schachmatov. Syntax. Schachmatov's work

.V. Kunin English Idioms.3d ed. M., 1967

.Collins-Whiley dictionary. 1995

.V.K.Muller, S.K.Boyanus. English-Russian Dictionary. - Kiev, 1996

.The Oxford Russian dictionary, edited by Paul Falla, revised by Colin Howlett. - Oxford, New York, 1997

.Roget P.V. The sources of English words and phrases New addition London 1975.

.M.C. Modie English idioms and how to use them, London 1972.

.Rakhmatullayev Sh. Инглиз тилининг фразнологик лу?ати 1980.

.A.A.Schachmatov. Syntax. Schachmatov's work

.Collins V. «А Book of English Idioms»

.I.V. Arnold, A.I. Smirnitsky the interpretation of these term in the textbooks on lexicology

.The Advanced Learner's Dictionary by A. Hornby, E. Gatenby, H. Wake-field; The Universal English Dictionary by H. Wild and Л General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies by M, West.

.V.V. Vinogradov. Investigation of English phraseology A.V. Kunin (A.B. Кунин).

.V.I. Dal "dictionary of vivid Russian language"

.V.T. Dal "the proverbs of Russian nation"

.Yoo Yushin. "The Legend of Tan-gun." Golden Pond Press, 1987.- 270p.


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