Scotland: History and Modernity

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

Учреждение образования

«Гомельский государственный университет

имени Франциска Скорины»

Факультет иностранных языков

Кафедра теории и практики английского языка


Scotland: History and Modernity

Курсовая работа


Исполнитель

студент группы А-24 В.С. Атрошкина

Научный руководитель

преподаватель О. И. Шеремет


Гомель 2012

Реферат


Курсовая работа 39 страниц, 26 источников

Key words: hunter-gatherers, farmers and monument builders, the Picts, the Scots, the Angles, the Wars of Independence, the foundation of St. Andrew`s University, Mary the Queen of Scots, the Scottish reformation, John Knox, James VI, the Union of the Crowns, the Jacobite Rebellions, modern literature, Scottish tourism

The object of work: to study the history of Scotland, its political, religious and cultural aspects, to retrace the historical change of Scotlandof research: study of special literature including books, magazines, articles. Comparison of the material from different sources. Use of some official Scottish web-sites: increased general knowledge of Scottish culture and historyof application: this work contains brief, but versatile information about Scottish history and culture since AD until present. It can be used to introduce Scotland to tourists and people who want to find out more about this land. This work also includes historical facts and analysis of statistics

Contents


Introduction

. Scotland`s first settlers

.1 Prehistoric Scotland

.1.1 Before modern humans

1.1.2 Hunter-gatherers

1.1.3 Farmers and monument builders

.1.4 Skara Brae: c.2500 BC

1.2 Scotland to the 11th century AD

.2.1 Pre-Roman Scotland to the 1st century AD

1.2.2 The Picts

1.2.3 The Scots

1.2.4 The Angles

1.2.5 The Vikings and the British Isles: 9th - 10th century AD

1.2.6 The MacAlpin dynasty: AD 843-1057

1.2.7 Duncan and Macbeth: AD 1034-1057

2. The kingdom of Scotland in the 11th - 16th century

2.1 The Wars of Independence

2.2 The foundation of St. Andrew`s University

2.3 Mary the Queen of Scots

3. Scotland`s nation

3.1 John Knox - the leader of the Scottish reformation8

3.2 James VI and The Union of the Crowns (1603)0

4. Political and cultural life after merger of Scotland and England. The Jacobite Rebellions

5. Modern life of Scotland

5.1 The main characteristics of Scotland in the modern era

5.2 The modern literature

5.3 Tourism in Scotland

5.3.1 The main features

5.3.2 Tourist destinations in Scotland

Conclusion


Introduction


Scotland has always been a land with its own identity, unique culture and rich history. Since the first settlers it has been shaped by many nations, political and cultural events and now it is an incredible and vibrant land, which we are going to introduce. In the first chapter we want to tell about Scotland`s first settlers (Prehistoric Scotland, Scotland before modern humans, hunter-gatherers, farmers and monument builders, one of the first settlements - Skara Brae and so on). The first settlers occupied Scottish territories and founded settlements in spite of scarce soil, extreme weather conditions and heavy-going mountains. During the neolithic period Scotland shares with the Atlantic coast <#"justify">In the fourth chapter we want to consider political and cultural life after merger of Scotland and England. This period in history can be described as Scotland being British. The cultural differences, historical background, religious controversies - these are conditions which made this union between Scotland and England quite specific and complicated. Although Englang became powerful - colonies, strong economy, cultural revival - it affected Scotland in many ways. Cultural, social, economical interactions had a positive impact for the people of Britain.

The fifth chapter describes the modern life of Scotland, its literature and development of tourism. In the early modern era royal patronage supported poetry, prose and drama. In this time the world-famous names were got abroad: Robert Burns, Sir Walter Scott and Arthur Conan Doyle. One of them - Robert Burns - is the best loved Scottish poet, admired not only for his verse and great love-songs, but also for his character, his high spirits.

1. Scotland`s first settlers


.1 Prehistoric Scotland


.1.1 Before modern humans

During the last interglacial <#"justify">1.1.3 Farmers and monument builders

Neolithic <#"justify">1.1.4 Skara Brae: c.2500 BC

In the extreme north of Scotland, in the Orkneys, a small neolithic community builds a village in about 2500 BC on a site already occupied for many generations. There is no wood on the island, so the walls of the one-room dwellings are of stone. So is the built-in furniture. There are stone beds and shelves and recessed cupboards, with a hearth in each hut. Low covered passages lead from one dwelling to another. Earth is piled up around to give shelter from the wind. There is even a drain from each of the seven or eight houses, leading to a common sewer. A sudden disaster of some kind causes Skara Brae to be abandoned. Rapidly covered by sand, it is preserved intact until unearthed in 1850 [2].


1.2 Scotland to the 11th century AD


.2.1 Pre-Roman Scotland to the 1st century AD

In the neolithic period Scotland shares with the Atlantic coast <#"justify">The Picts were the oldest inhabitants of Caledonia, which derived its name from one of their ancient tribes, the Caledonii, who dominated the area when the Romans first arrived. The Picts were a small, dark people with a reputation for magic and secrecy and for defining inheritance exclusively through the mother's line. They were often associated with the ancient brochs (thick towers), menhirs, and stone circles scattered throughout the British isles, though their own legends claim that these structures were in place even before the Picts arrived. Their names (Latin Picti and Gaelic Cruithni both mean the colored or painted people) refered to their habits of painting themselves with woad and extensive tattooing.

With their small size and mysterious ways, the Picts were often confused by others with the Caledonian faerie folk, with whom they had close ties. Though the Picts were once famous for fighting off both the Romans and the Angles, for much of the last century their culture had been dying out, replaced by that of the Scots. Even before the conquest of Kenneth MacAlpin the Picts were ruled by a mixed Scottish-Pictish aristocracy which came to dominate their lands at the beginning of the century.southern Picts have largely been assimilated into Scottish culture, though there are still some independent Pictish communities in the area of Galloway. Many northern Picts in the Highlands retain their ancient customs and language (Pritennic), but they are rapidly being pushed into the least desirable lands by Scottish immigrants.

scotland england cultural political

1.2.3 The Scots

The Scots were actually recent arrivals, having migrated from northern Ireland during the fourth through sixth centuries. Their name is also reflective of their origins: Scoti is a Gaelic word for raider or predator. The Scots were viking long before the Norse took up the habit, raiding and settling in the islands and peninsulas of south-west Caledonia. Eventually, however, they settled down and founded the kingdom of Dal Riada, centered on the Argyll peninsula with its capital at Dunadd. The Scots fought numerous wars with their Pictish neighbors, instigating the formation of a united Pictish kingdom, after which the two nations took turns conquering and being conquered by each other.

In 834 Kenneth MacAlpin, the son of a Scottish king and Pictish princess, became king of Dal Riada and claimed lordship over both Scots and Picts. Fifteen years later the last Pictish resistance was eliminated when Kenneth invited their leaders to a feast at Scone. In the middle of the feast, the Scots removed the pegs in the Picts' chairs, which had been loosened beforehand, allowing the Scots to slay the Picts in the ensuing confusion. The Stone of Destiny was subsequently moved from Dunadd to Scone, signaling the foundation of the new united kingdom of Alban.for Scottish culture, we should forget everything we think we have ever learned about it, most of which was invented from whole cloth by 19th century romantics. At this point in time there are no kilts or tartans. There are no clans, just tribes and families."Mac" found in Scottish names still has its original meaning: "son of". Music is a national pastime, but bagpipes are played only for the great lords - the common people don't get to hear them. As you might guess from their name, the Scots have a reputation as a wild and aggressive people. Feuds and violence were common; the vast majority of Scottish rulers died in battle or were murdered. Like their Irish brothers, the Scots speak Gaelic, though it's already taking on a distinctive Scottish dialect.


1.2.4 The Angles

The Angles (English) arrived in Caledonia soon after the Scots, migrating from Germany by way of southern Britain. They rapidly conquered the former Pictish and British lands in Lothian and Bernicia, forming new kingdoms which would eventually unite into the English kingdom of Northumbria. They spoke a distinctive dialect of Anglo-Saxon. Originally Northumbria was the dominant English kingdom, but later lost this position to Mercia and, more recently, Wessex. The Angles were ruled by a typical warrior aristocracy. The king was supported by a group of warrior thegns, from whom he selected ealdormen to administer districts of his lands. However, like other German tribes, the Anglo-Saxons were notorious both for their elaborate legal codes, including the practices of weregild and trial by oath or ordeal, and for democratic institutions known as moots, popular assemblies which had judicial and legislative powers. English kings had well-defined rights and powers, a custom which the Celts often laughed at. All kings have to keep their people content lest they rose up in arms (a tradition the Scots were always willing to uphold), but only Anglo-Saxon kings had to suffer commoners quoting "laws" at them [3, p. 13 - 17].


1.2.5 The Vikings and the British Isles: 9th - 10th century AD

The coasts of the British isles are now dotted with monasteries, not yet rich by the standards of medieval monasticism but with sufficient wealth to attract Viking marauders. One of the most famous islands, Iona, was raided three times in a decade (in 795, 802 and 805). Even monasteries which seem secure, pleasantly sited on inland rivers, fell victim to Viking longships <#"justify">2.1 The Wars of Independence


The Scottish kingdom: AD 1058-1286 - the Scottish crown remains in the family of Malcolm III <#"justify">2.2 The foundation of St. Andrew`s University


One of the greatest event of cultural life of Scotland 15th century was the foundation of the oldest University in Scotland - St. Andrew`s. The university was founded in 1410 when a charter <#"justify">3. Scotland`s nation


.1 John Knox - the leader of the Scottish reformation


The most important religious event of 16 c. was The Scottish Reformation. John Knox <#"justify">In 1603, two very different nations were brought together by the curious fact that they only had one monarch between them. On the death of England's Queen Elizabeth I without children, the next in line to the throne was the reigning king of Scotland, King James VI. James won the backing of the English establishment as he was a Protestant, he had sons who could be king after him, and his 36-year rule in Scotland had largely been a success. However, he was also a Scot, who spoke a different language and had a different cultural background. How would he be able to bring the two countries together? These pages explore James's personality and the effects of his arrival in England, and include images of James's own books from the National Library of Scotland 's rich collections. We look at how 1603 changed Britain, with consequences that we are still living with in the devolved Scotland of today.

Before 1603. James Stuart was crowned King of Scotland in 1567 when he was just a year old. Although only a baby, he was an important symbol of the Scottish nation, and of the authority of the reformed Church of Scotland.country - both nation and Kirk faced many threats to their survival. Despite its ancient monarchy, Scotland was a fragile country, ruled in the borders and islands by local chiefs and warlords, and with painful memories of wars with England. The Reformation was still in process, with continuing Roman Catholic opposition, and the Kirk itself was divided over structure and doctrine. As James grew up and took on the responsibilities of ruling Scotland, he gradually managed to bring a greater degree of order to the main areas under his authority. By 1589, he was secure enough to leave Scotland temporarily to sail to Denmark for his bride, Queen Anne.revival - as Scotland settled down, a thriving group of poets, translators and dramatists gathered around the royal court. James, who loved writing poetry, was at the centre of this cultural revival. By 1599, he was able to write a book on how to be a successful king, which he addressed to his son, Prince Henry. It looked as though there were good prospects for Scotland becoming a viable nation with a line of cultured kings.English heir - but to the south, England - larger, richer, and with a longer tradition of strong central government - had a queen with no children. Queen Elizabeth had executed James's mother Mary Queen of Scots, one possible successor, and now had no-one to follow her. A king or queen was seen as an essential guarantee of continuity and authority. If England could not produce a monarch, one would have to be imported.becomes king. On 24 March 1603, Queen Elizabeth of England died. She had always refused to discuss the succession with her court, but most people knew that King James VI of Scotland was the only suitable candidate. Although he was from a country with which England had fought many wars, he was a Protestant, had already been a successful king, and had healthy children to succeed him. Lengthy family trees were compiled to show how James descended from the English houses of York and Lancaster as well as the Scottish Stuarts, and he was proclaimed King James I of England.from London - the news was quick to travel north, and the English aristocracy hurried to acclaim their new master. James, who had always hoped to hold the English throne, packed his bags. London was the only place for the new ruler of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. (Ireland had been under the English crown to varying degrees since the 12th century, and Wales had been politically united with England in 1536.) James told the disconsolate citizens of Edinburgh that he would return frequently, but it must have been obvious that Scotland was going to lose out. The court, including the leading Scottish poets, moved south. James travelled for the first time across the border and down through England, dispensing honours and money along the way to win the admiration of his new subjects.sovereign - the English were nervous about the arrival of Scots seeking positions in London, and about James's plans for their country, but there was relief that they had a king again. James's works were republished in England to advertise him to those who could not see him in person. Here was one of the most learned kings ever, who wrote theology and politics, gave eloquent speeches, and knew many languages. Would it, though, be enough to help him be the first ruler of the whole British Isles? the Crowns. James VI and I started his English reign with all kinds of hopes and ambitions. He saw himself as a scholar-king like Solomon, or at the head of a new civilisation like an early Roman emperor, and leading a united and peaceful British nation.for union - one of his first projects was a full legal and political union of England and Scotland. James told the English Parliament that Scotland would now have to become like an English shire such as Northumberland. However, the English were suspicious of the idea; they were afraid that their Scottish ruler was planning a union that would threaten their identity. To James's dismay, the English Parliament threw the plans out: the only 'union' that they would allow was a union of crowns. One king: two different countries.troubles - James found that his other ideas also ran into trouble. He encouraged England to make peace with its traditional Catholic enemies, such as Spain, leading to accusations that he was giving in to 'popery'. His plan for 'civilising' Ireland by means of settling thousands of Protestant Scots in Ulster also generated conflict. James frequently retreated into his own world, hunting, watching theatrical performances and conducting theological disputes with the Pope. His English subjects seem to have been bemused by their king.in Scotland - and what of Scotland? Managed in James's absence by strong nobles and officials, who received frequent messages from James in London, Scotland remained generally peaceful, and maintained its separate system of law and government. James's attempts to make the Kirk more like the Church of England, however, were unpopular, and stored up trouble for the future. The renaissance of Scots literature had been partly snuffed out when the court moved to London: many court poets changed from writing in Scots to writing in English. James only made one return visit to Scotland, in 1617.VI. The man who lies behind the Union of the Crowns has been seen in different ways. Some historians accuse James of being a self-indulgent character dependent on young male favourites and over-fond of drink. Others point out that he governed Scotland with great success, worked for religious peace in Europe, and supported two great cultural movements - the revival of Scots poetry and the rise of the English theatre at the time of William Shakespeare. His books are now increasingly read again by historians and scholars, following a reappraisal of his works and reputation.of his time - sometimes James's opinions seem shocking to us - his approval of burning heretics; his assertion that the only authority over him was God - and sometimes rather bizarre - for instance, his order that the lower classes should not be allowed to play bowls. In other areas, he seems to have been ahead of his time - warning against passive smoking, cultivating friendships with Spaniards, and calling for the protection of forests. During James's reign the British colonies in North America became well-established: the Jamestown assembly met in 1619, and the Pilgrim Fathers arrived on the Mayflower in 1620, leading to the development of an organised English-speaking community.role - popular stories about James abound: his practice of urinating on horseback has passed into legend. On a more pleasant note, many people think he wrote the Authorised Version of the Bible: in fact he commissioned it. Each year on 5 November, firework displays commemorate James's escape from being blown up in the Gunpowder Plot. Love him or loathe him, James is crucial to the story of Britain.of Union. If James not been available to become King of England, it seems highly likely that England and Scotland would have continued their separate development into modern nation-states. Indeed, after his death in 1625, the union started to fall apart. James never visited Ireland, Wales, the Highlands or islands of Scotland, and the 'British Isles' never became culturally united as he had hoped., rebellion and 1707 - in fact, the removal of the Scottish king from his country was a major cause of the 17th-century civil wars, in which Scotland rebelled against King Charles I. James's union gave England a royal family it distrusted and left Scotland without the key symbol of national independence. At the end of the 17th century, the House of Stuart was expelled from Britain, and despite the various Jacobite attempts, never restored. As a result, the Union of the English and Scottish Parliaments was accomplished in 1707 against the wishes of James's descendants. James certainly did not expect his union to turn out like this [10, p. 83 - 84].today - four hundred years after the Union of the Crowns, devolution has reversed some of the effects of 1707, but Scotland and England still share a monarch and have London as the Government's centre of power. If James were to return to Edinburgh in the 21st century, there is much he would recognise - both parts of the skyline and aspects of the culture and politics of a country that has many of the qualities of nationhood, but which lacks full independence.


4. Political and cultural life after merger of Scotland and England. The Jacobite Rebellions

James VI of Scotland ascended the throne of England in 1603 as James I, King of Great Britain. For the first time the fiery and independent Scotland was united with its southern neighbour via the monarchy, yet they remained independent kingdoms with their own parliaments, legal and religious systems. In 1707 the Union of Scotland and England occurred. Through the terms of the Act of Union the Scottish parliament was abolished and England and Scotland were joined as the one kingdom of Great Britain, yet as before Scotland retained its religious and legal independence. The last Jacobite uprising occurred in 1745 and with the defeat of Bonnie Prince Charlie an end was put to the movement to try to return the Stuarts - the one time kings of Scotland - to the throne. Almost all Scots were now firmly under the Hanoverian banner and they gradually became active citizens of Great Britain [11, p. 161 - 336].Scots of the 17th and 18th Centuries can roughly be divided into two groups - the highlanders and lowlanders. The highlanders of northern Scotland were composed of the clans - powerful aristocratic landowners and their families and peasants such as the Macdonalds and Campbells, who practically ruled their respective territories from large houses and manors and who had great influence in the towns which they oversaw. They were the chief supporters of the Stuarts and had their own (although as we shall see it was later augmented) distinctive culture. The southerly lowlanders were much more like their English neighbours - living relatively freely in towns and cities and on the land with their own lords and earls and knowing little of the highland culture or politics. Prior to 1745 most of the highlanders viewed the Union with contempt, while the lowlanders had mixed feelings. Some of the bourgeoisie supported the increased opportunities for trade and advancement, while others resented the loss of some of their independence, and many who went south found their opportunities limited because of discrimination against the Scots [12, p. 47 - 111].the uprising of 1745 the Highlanders, who had formed the majority of the Princes army, were scattered and lost much of their power and influence. The private jurisdictions of the clan chieftains were abolished and replaced by the power of the king. The wearing of tartans and kilts was banned except in the army and the Highland culture was shunned as being backwards, feudal, rough and unrefined, as indeed many Lowlanders and Sassenachs had always thought. Episcopalian clergymen were required to take new oaths of allegiance to the king. Nonetheless with the demise of Jacobitism and the advent of the Union thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, poured into England and took up numerous positions in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas [13, p. 119].ever increasing British Empire presented many opportunities to enterprising Scots and this people, who appeared to be on the whole more adventurous than the English, took advantage of these. The English picked up most of the best posts at home and generally were on the whole reluctant to travel abroad, meaning that many of the English in the colonies were second rate men. By contrast the Scots, who often came from poorer and less established backgrounds and who were at times as much outsiders in England as anywhere else in the empire, were far more willing to travel and take risks in amassing wealth, promotions and prosperity in the far reaches of the empire. This meant that many more talented Scots were available than their English counterparts and many of them made full use of this advantage. Scots could be found all over the empire, from India to Canada to Australia and New Zealand. A Scot from a prominent Jacobite family named James Murray became the first British governor of Quebec. John Murray was governor of New York in 1770, while in India Scots such as George Bogle had important posts and positions. Indeed British Bengal was flooded with Scots - some 60% of the free merchants were Scotsmen [14, p. 105 - 132].the second half of the 18th Century only the army, a few societies and some proud Highlanders kept the Highland tradition and culture alive. Chief among these was the Highland Society of London, founded in 1777. The Disarming Act which had banned the wearing of any of the traditional Highland garb was repealed in 1782 largely through the efforts of this society [15, p. 150].that time a slow current of revival had begun, and in the1820s the Highland culture exploded back onto the scene and gained unprecedented popularity. The curious thing was that the tradition that found prominence would have been almost unrecognisable to the Highlanders of 150 years before. It all began with James Macpherson. He was a poet and scholar and a member of one of the great Jacobite clans and he took a great interest in ancients Scots Celtic works. In 1760 he published Fragments of Ancient Poetry, collected in the Highlands of Scotland, and translated from the Gaelic or Erse Language. This was followed in 1762 by Fingal and then Temora in 1763, both of which were complete epic poems. Macpherson claimed that they had all been written by a Celtic bard named Ossian in the 3rd Cen. AD. Here were Scottish epics to rival the Iliad which proved that the ancient Celtic culture had been culturally sophisticated and colourful. However their true nature and authenticity has been debated ever since.poems undoubtedly contain information relevant to Macphersons own time. Macpherson retained his Jacobite sympathies throughout his life, but he thought that Jacobitism was lost, confined to a past in which the old Celtic highland spirit lived on. The poems reflect this. They picture a Gaelic world in which the old order of the warriors and heroes, the spirit, romanticism and traditions of the people, of a pre-modern life without corruption, are all falling, never to rise again - a romantic world. Yet they depict that the spirit and tradition of those times will continue as an assertion by the ancient civilisation of the North of the triumph of mind and spirit over the seedy world of Hanoverian commerce and imperialism. The analogies with the current times, less than twenty years after the final fall of the Jacobite cause and the Highlands were subtle yet clear to those who knew their history and politics. Yet it was an assertion of the spirit only - the legacy of the noble savage ancestors, and not one that impacted on the contemporary world or Britishness. Nevertheless it seems likely that Macpherson really did collect a large amount of old Gaelic poems from a wide range of places and times, and that he edited and rewrote them as he saw fit to promote his message of the nobility of the old Caledonians, their loss and the endurance of their tradition. Even though their were early claims of forgery against Macpherson, the Ossianic poems turned out to be a great success across Europe and were one of the first significant works of the Romantic movement. Mighty figures such as Goethe and Napoleon were fascinated by Ossian [16, p. 75].one had a greater influence over the recreation of the Highlands that Sir Walter Scott, the famous Lowland Scottish novelist. Scott fully supported the Union. He believed that it would heal the divides between the Scottish people and offer new horizons to them, and he actively set about seeing that this was achieved. Scot had some sympathy with Jacobitism and indeed he went on to record it as representing Scottish national feeling as a whole. Yet he saw it as a romantic past, in a similar way to Macpherson - a time of primitive emotion, passion, excitement, heroics and old traditions and an allegiance gained by the seductive Stuart charisma. He described it as having been overtaken by the new rationalism and advancement of a United Britain and its government, a process through which it inevitably had to go. Scott largely ignored the radical politics of the Jacobites and the cruel suppression of them and the highlands by the Hanoverians. He confines Jacobite politics, indeed Scotlands history as a whole, to the emotive past, with no place in the rational present or future. Scott thus stripped it of its political elements and any active role in the future, confining it to a common Scottish past which one could be proud of and yet which had no bearing on the present world. Furthermore, as stated above he advanced the Union as being able to overcome the old highland/lowland and other divides in Scotland by replacing its nationalism and its efforts in one common and rational cause. His Scotland was a museum of history and culture, denuded of the political dynamic which must keep such culture alive and developing and thus not relevant to the current political world [17, p. 511 - 523].culmination of Scotts beliefs and ambitions occurred in 1822. In that year King George IV visited Edinburgh, the first ever Hanoverian to set foot in Scotland. Scott made the occasion a gathering of the Gael and the old Celtic world was everywhere to be seen. Hugh Trevor-Roper argues that Scott was imprisoned by his fanatical Celtic friends, carried away by his own romantic Celtic fantasises…determined to forget historic Scotland, his own Lowland Scotland, altogether. While this view may be a bit extreme, it is a good indication of what occurred during that fateful royal visit. Celtic culture, dress, tradition, music (bagpipes as opposed to the older Celtic harp) and poetry were all celebrated during the visit, as Scott amalgamated all Scots into the Highland tradition. This allowed him to further shift Scottish allegiance as one whole from a Jacobite ideology to that of the Hanoverians and the Union which he supported. The Highland Society of London, in conjunction with the cloth manufactures of Edinburgh and surrounds cashed in on the festivities by creating a range of separate clan tartans to be worn by the various clans present. This aided the restoration of the clan system that was abolished after the final Jacobite uprising, although the new form it appeared in was somewhat different to the historical reality. The work of creating clan tartans was carried on by the brothers Allen, who in the 1840s published two books called Vestiarium Scoticum and The Costume of the Clans. These works claimed to trace and identify the different tartans of the various Scottish clans and their long history. The manufacture of clan tartan clothes and goods took off and has remained strong ever since. In fact individual tartans were only a creation of the 18th Century at the earliest. They had most likely begun in the various highland regiments in the army to distinguish them from each other and were then first introduced into the civil world as recently as the instances described above. While tartan in the Highlands does indeed stretch back to at least the 16th Century, its patterns were usually only whatever was available or which were the latest styles of the day [18, p. 30 - 41].Jacobitism gone, the government harnessed the significant military potential of the Highlands and Scotland in general - the Highlanders had long had a reputation as fierce and devoted warriors. Approximately one in four regimental officers in the mid-18th Cen. was a Scot, while they also took an important part in home defence - 50,000 Scottish volunteers were mobilised during the Napoleonic Wars. Abroad 25% of the Scottish male population served in a military capacity between 1792 and 1815. The highlanders in particular were dominant, with more than 48,300 of them recruited between 1756 and 1815, while during the Seven Years War one in four males were in service.with the French continued on and off for over 100 years from 1689 to 1815. The English were also at war at one stage or another with all the European powers and numerous other peoples all over the world. As we have seen in most cases the Scots fought alongside the English, forming a bond with them on the battlefield. The highland soldiers began to understand their identity as being not only Scottish, which was an accomplishment in itself, but as British. The old divides between highland and lowland, Scottish and English, were being wiped away in and via the army. The Scots needed to feel that the risks they took and the blood they shed in the army and navy was for a good cause - a cause that served their interests and advanced and protected something that affected them and which they cared about. This could only be achieved by the belief that they were fighting for a united Britain whose allegiance and nationhood they upheld [19, p. 1, 2, 126, 127].Scots shared with their neighbours a keen belief in Protestantism. Even though their main denominations were different they were both fiercely Protestant and very much anti-Catholic, or at least against the Roman and papal influence they could spread via the Catholic Church. There were great fears in the 1830s-50s about the increasing influence of Catholicism in Britain and what some saw as the increasingly Catholic trends of the Church of England, known as Tractarianism. In 1851 Rome divided Britain into separate dioceses for its churches and this only served to heighten the fear and was seen as an unwanted outside influence. Their great enemies the French were Catholic, and were they not superstitious and unfree as a result? The growth of the empire showed Gods providential destiny for Britain as the new Protestant Israel whos mission was to spread the Gospel across the world. With all this occurring and the rise of the Evangelicals across Britain both Scots and English had great cause to be proud and supportive of their common Protestantism.benefited greatly from the empire and had much influence in it - they were an active and in many ways equal partner in it. Great intellectuals such as the historian William Robertson and the philosopher David Hume were widely known and respected, while Adam Smiths An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations was the first major work on laissez-faire economics and paved the way for modern capitalism. Indeed the Scottish Enlightenment has become well known, far more so than any corresponding achievements in England. Engineers and architects such as James Watt became world famous and there were also prominent authors and poets such as Robert Burns and the aforementioned Walter Scott. Scottish universities were flourishing and produced a wealth of people trained for such professions and also a host of medical doctors. While in the 100 years from 1750-1850 England produced 500 doctors, Scotland produced 10,000. Naturally many of these went south and further abroad in the search for work [20, p. 5 - 9, 11 - 54].all else, Scotland became an industrial and economic powerhouse. After the 1750s its economy expanded at a rapid rate - overseas commerce growing by a significant 300% between 1750 and 1800. Various industries such as coal and other mining, iron, steel, textiles and linen, tobacco, engineering and cotton all flourished. Steel and iron were particularly profitable. By the 1760s over 40% of British imports of tobacco came through Scotland - more entered Glasgow than London, and other imports also grew rapidly. Glasgow was also the biggest builder and exporter of steam locomotives in the world and shipping was immense - shipbuilders along the Clyde alone produced over 70% of all British iron tonnage between 1851-70, with clients including the mighty Cunard who had many of their great ocean liners built by John Browns yards on the Clydebank.towns and cities also flourished. The urban population doubled between 1750 and 1800, Glasgow became an industrial powerhouse and Edinburgh a modern, attractive city with a true blend of the Scottish past and British present. Agriculture too continued to be important, especially the keeping of sheep. As has already been noted, Scots all over the empire ran or worked for profitable businesses, farms or trades. The commercial empire thus opened up a whole new world to the Scots and invited them to become a full part of Britain, an invitation that many accepted with relish. This is not to say that the Scottish working classes and poor were well off - in most cases and times far from it, yet like their English counterparts they were proud of their nations achievements and on the whole seem to have supported British imperialism and culture [21, p. 165 - 199].Scots were also increasingly supportive of the monarchy, particularly during the reign of Queen Victoria. New technologies such as the train had greatly improved and increased the speed of travel and the Queen and her family made numerous trips to Scotland. These were popular and regal events and attracted many people. Victoria and Albert had an increasing interest in the Highlands and they openly supported the Highland history and culture of Scotland as it was described by the likes of Scott and Macpherson. This was much loved by the populace and the monarchy became very popular in Scotland - it became in many ways their monarchy far more than under any previous Hanoverian rulers. By playing up to the Highland tradition, the monarchy managed to largely avoid becoming involved in contemporary political problems in Scotland, they achieved the shift of the old Scottish familiarity with monarchy from the Stuarts to themselves and they helped to uphold Scottish conservatism by recalling the times when the chiefs and aristocrats had supposedly been respected and revered figures. This was aided by the restoring in a renewed form of the old clan system which had been crippled after the 45, as noted above [22, p. 47 - 73].have seen how the Scots were able to integrate themselves into Britain yet retain their sense of being Scots. A combination of a retained semi-independence, a tendency to stick together and a questionable yet highly popular tradition forged from a deep Highland past, gave the Scots a sense of their own national identity that went beyond being a Highlander or Lowlander. Yet this did not interfere with or prevent them from actively joining Britain. The possibilities and activities of Britain and above all the empire gave the Scots access to the world and the English allowed them this access. Their commonality with the English was reinforced through war, trade and conquest as the multitude of other peoples whom they met were othered in one way or another. This strengthened the bonds of law, religion - especially Protestantism, ideology and customs that they shared. Finally the monarchy came to be accepted in Scotland and was a unifying force for both peoples. The Scots could be both Scottish and British at the same time - it was to be one of the most successful partnerships the world has ever seen.

5. Modern life of Scotland


.1 The main characteristics of Scotland in the modern era


Scotland in the modern era, from the end of the Jacobite rebellions <#"justify">Bibliography


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